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Plena domus libis venalibus. Accipe et istud
Fermentum tibi habe: præstare tributa clientes
Cogimur et cultis augere peculia servis.

190 Quis timet aut timuit gelida Præneste ruinam
Aut positis nemorosa inter juga Volsiniis aut
Simplicibus Gabiis aut proni Tiburis arce?
Nos urbem colimus tenui tibicine fultam prop.
Magna parte sui. Nam sic labentibus obstat
195 Villicus et, veteris rimæ quum texit hiatum,
Securos pendente jubet dormire ruina.
Vivendum est illic, ubi nulla incendia, nulli
Nocte metus. Jam poscit aquam, jam frivola transfert
Ucalegon; tabulata tibi jam tertia fumant:

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pampered menials.

Tibur, now Tivoli,' on the Anio; a town of Latium, built on a steep'acclivity: hence called supinum; Hor. III Od. iv. 23. VS. PR. M.

Arx denotes (1) 'a height,' (2) 'a citadel,' (3) 'a city' in general. R.

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193. Tibicen a prop or shore.' LU. 195. The steward,' M. or the city surveyor; cf. iv. 77. FE. or 'the landlord,' or 'the ædile;' R. or the village mason.' ACH.

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Having saved his valuables in the first instance, he is now moving his lumber, without ever thinking of giving the alarm to his poor lodgers.' R.

199. The name of Ucalegon is introduced from Virgil's description of Troy in flames: jam Deiphobi dedit ampla ruinam, Vulcano superante, domus; jam proximus ardet Ucalegon; E. ii. 310 sqq. VS.

The third floor which you occupy.' The rich used to let the upper rooms of their houses to poorer people: cœnacula; x. 18. scalis habito tribus, sed altis; Mart. I. cxviii. 7. LU. cf. vii. 118. Hor. I Ep. i.91. Plaut.Amph. III.i.3. Suet. Vit.7. R.



200 Tu nescis. Nam si gradibus trepidatur ab imis,
Ultimus ardebit, quem tegula sola tuetur


A pluvia, molles ubi reddunt ova columbæ.
Lectus erat Codro Procula minor, urceoli sex,
Ornamentum abaci, nec non et parvulus infra
Cantharus et recubans sub eodem marmore Chiron,
Jamque vetus Græcos servabat cista libellos

Et divina opici rodebant carmina mures.


Nil habuit Codrus: quis enim negat? et tamen illud
Perdidit infelix totum nihil: ultimus autem
210 Ærumnæ cumulus, quod nudum et frusta rogantem
Nemo cibo, nemo hospitio tectoque juvabit.

Si magna Asturii cecidit domus: horrida mater,
differt vadimonia Prætor.

Pullati sky in



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202. The roof was used as a dove-cote.
VS. Perhaps there is an allusion to the
etymology of vægãov from væìg and wò
'an egg. R.

203. Cf. i. 2. GR.


had, were now consigned to the custody
of an old chest.' LU.

207. Dia poemata; Pers. i. 31. R.

The Opici or Osci were an Ausonian tribe, on the banks of the Liris, in Latium and Campania; who, on their admission among the Romans, introduced many barbarous innovations into the language and manners of that people. Dionys. H. i. 89. cf.vi. 455. Gell. ü. 21. xi. 16. xiii. 9. Plin. xxix. 1. Apoll. Sidon. ep. vii. 3. Virg. Æ. vii. 730. ^LU. LI. M. ÎNS. R. barbarians, goths.'

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208. Codrus in short had nothing.' G. cf. St Matth. xiii. 12. SL, on xw n. 15. Not large enough for his better R. See note on xouri rr Her. vi. 22. half.'

Lectus minor, urceoli, parvulus cantharus, libelli, all diminutives. G. cf. Arist. Rh. III. ü. 6.


'Little jugs.' Cf. Plin. xxviii. 2.
xxxiii. 11. xxxiv. 3. xxxvii. 2.
I S. vi. 116 sq. R.
204. Of his cupboard';' ' of a marble
shelf or slab.' cf. 205. R.

205. A can: gravis attrita pendebat
cantharus ansa; Virg. E. vi. 17. PR.

A reclining figure of the centaur Chiron, made of the same marble, supported the slab.' The rich used more costly materials than marble: xi. 122 sqq. FE. R. Codrus is the more to be pitied, as he was evidently an antiquarian, and no doubt attached a great value to every article in this catalogue. G.

206. The few Greek books which he

210. Cumulus, that which is over and above measure, being piled on when a measure is already brim-full, so as to rise in a heap above the rim of the vessel. In French comble; M. "ce qui reste enfaité au-dessus des bords d'une mesure, apres que le mesureur l'a remplie :" Nodier et Verger.

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Frusta broken victuals.' M.

212. Each matron puts on weeds.' In a public mourning for any signal calamity, 'the ladies laid aside their ornaments, the senate put on black, and the courts of justice postponed all business.' The rapid degeneracy of manners under the emperors renders it probable that there is no very great exaggeration in this description. G. PR.

213. This postponement was called justitium. LU.

Tunc gemimus casus Urbis, tunc odimus ignem.

215 Ardet adhuc, et jam occurrit, qui marmora donet,

Conferat impensas. Hic nuda et candida signa, Itatus.
Hic aliquid præclarum Euphranoris et Polycleti,

Hæc Asianorum vetera ornamenta Deorum,

Hic libros dabit et forulos mediamque Minervam, book shells, 220 Hic modium argenti. Meliora ac plura reponit Persicus orborum lautissimus et merito jam Suspectus, tamquam ipse suas incenderit ædes. Si potes avelli Circensibus, optima Soræ Aut Fabrateriæ domus aut Frusinone paratur, 225 Quanti nunc tenebras unum conducis in annum. Hortulus hic puteusque brevis nec reste movendus

214. We lament it as a national calamity: we exsecrate the very name of fire. LU. It was customary with mourners to extinguish their fires. VS.

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215. The fire is yet raging.' LU. Occurrit comes forward.' R. 216. Understand pecunias; begs to contribute towards the rebuilding.' LU. Of Parian_marble.' PR. cf. Plin. xxxiv. 5 s 10. R.

217. Some master-piece of Euphranor the sculptor and painter, or Polycletus the statuary.' LU. Quint. xii. 10. Plin. xxxiv. 8. PR. xxxv. 11. cf. viii. 103. R. 218. Nor will the fair sex be less attentive.' T.

Asianorum 'taken long since in some of the victories gained in Asia.' R.

219. Books and book-cases and a bust of Minerva.' LU. R.

220. A bushel' used indefinitely. M. "The worthies of antiquity bought the rarest pictures with bushels of gold, without counting the weight or the number of pieces;" D, Dufresnoy.

'He replaces in the room of what he has lost by the fire.' R.

221. Asturius we may suppose to be called Persicus in consequence of his oriental origin: cf. 72. M. or from his luxurious style of living; Hor. I Od. xxxviii. 1. VS. Hence the presents in 218. MNS. He receives so much both 'because he is childless and because he is very rich.' ACH. Observe the contrast between his fate and that of Codrus. M.

222. Empta domus fuerat tibi, Tongiliane, ducenis: abstulit hanc nimium casus

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in Urbe frequens. Collatum est decies.
Rogo, non potes ipse videri incendisse tuam,
Tongiliane, domum? Mart. III. lii. LU.
The court paid to the rich was so notori-


that Asturius might have set his own house on fire, with the certainty of being amply indemnified. M.

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223. If you can tear yourself away.'
The Romans were quite mad after the
sports of the Circus: (populus) nunc
duas tantum res anxius optat, panem et
Circenses; x. 79 sqq. BRI. vi. 87.
viii. 118. xi. 53. 193 sqq. xiv. 262 sqq.
Plin. Ep. ix. 6. R. They spent the
whole day there. Augustus (for even in
his time the phrensy had begun to mani-.
fest itself) said with some spleen to a
knight who was taking his meal on the
benches," If I wanted to dine, I would

go home." "And so you might," re-
plied the man, "for you would not be
afraid of losing your place!" Succeeding
emperors were more indulgent: some of
them had regular distributions of bread
and wine made to the different orders. G.
See 65. Dionys. A. R. vii. fin. Liv. vii. 2.
Ov. F. iv. 389 sqq. A. PR.

224. These towns are now called 'Sora,
Falvaterra, and Frusilone.' PR. Silius
mentions these three towns together; viii.
396. 398. 400. R.

225. You can buy a house there, for one year's rent of a dark hole (Mart. II. xiv. 12. R.) in the city.' LU. PR. nunc ' in these dear times.' M.

226. Hic in these country towns (LU.) there is a small garden attached to each house.' R.

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In tenues plantas facili diffunditur haustu.
Vive bidentis amans et culti villicus horti,
Unde epulum possis centum dare Pythagoreis.
230 Est aliquid, quocumque loco, quocumque recessu,
Unius sese dominum fecisse lacertæ.

Plurimus hic æger moritur vigilando: sed illum
Languorem peperit cibus imperfectus et hærens

Ardenti stomacho. Nam quæ meritoria somnum for hired

235 Admittunt? Magnis opibus dormitur in Urbe :
Inde caput morbi. Redarum transitus arcto
Vicorum in flexu et stantis convicia mandræ
Eripient somnum Druso vitulisque marinis.

and rope is required:' a great acquisition in a country where so much watering was wanted as in Italy. M.

228. Devote your life to your field and your garden.'

Of the pitch-fork' i. e. ' of husbandry.' LU. bidente vides oneratos arva colentes; Ov. Am. I. xiii. 15. R.

229. From the produce of which garden.' LU.

The Pythagoreans abstained from meat (owing to their belief in the metempsychosis, R.) and observed a vegetable diet. LU. xv. 171 sqq. PR.

230. Cf. i. 74. est aliquid fatove suo ferrove cadentem in solida moriens ponere corpus humo; et mandare suis aliquid, sperare sepulcra, et non aquoreis piscibus esse cibum; Ov. Tr. I. ii. 53 sqq. R.

231. "We asked Dr. Johnson," says Boswell, "the_meaning of that expression in Juvenal, unius dominum lacerta. Johnson-I think it clear enough; it means as much ground as one may have a chance of finding a lizard upon." And so it does! and this, the Doctor might have added, is very little in Italy. G. VS. LU. The green lizard is very plentiful in the gardens of Italy. Hor. I Od. xxiii. 7 sq. M. Plin. H. N. viii. 39. PR. cf. Mart. XI. xviii. R.

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cante pens.

as workshops' VS. or as temporary lodgings.' M. If the former, the meaning will be that the incessant din of the artizans at work (Mart. XII. lvii. R.) effectually precludes sleep. LU. PR. In the latter case, it implies that as no one would take permanent lodgings in the noisiest parts of the city, the spare rooms in those quarters were let out by the night; where you might get a bed, but as for sleep, that was quite out of the question. 235. Dormitur impersonally, as trepidatur, 200. M.

A person of large property may be able to obtain a mansion sufficiently spacious to have bed-chambers remote from the noise and bustle of the streets, or at any rate to overawe the neighbourhood into silence.' VS. LU. PR. M.

236. The rumbling of carts and carriages interrupted only by the vociferations and mutual abuse of the drivers blocked up by stoppages.' LU. PR. M. cf. Mart. V. xxii.

237. The narrow crooked streets' were owing to the great fire at Rome; Nero endeavoured to remedy the evil by another fire. Liv. v. 55. Suet. Ner. 38. PR. Tac. A. xv. 38. 43. Flor. i. 13. Diod. xiv. 116. R.

a pen

Mandra for cattle' the cattle themselves' a team of horses or mules.' PR. The genitive case of the object: as παῦσαι βουλόμενος τὸν ̓Αχιλλέα τῆς igyns relyeros Arist. Rh. II. iii. 3. see note on iwvrov, Her. i. 129.

238. Ti. Claudius Drusus Cæsar was very lethargic: Suet. Claud. 5. 8. but in all likelihood some well-known character of the day is here intended. 'Seals' are

Si vocat officium, turba cedente vehetur 240 Dives et ingenti curret super ora Liburno


Atque obiter leget aut scribet vel dormiet intus; Namque facit somnum clausa lectica fenestra. Ante tamen veniet: nobis properantibus obstat Unda prior: magno populus premit agmine lumbos, 245 Qui sequitur. Ferit hic cubito, ferit assere duro Alter; at hic tignum capiti incutit, ille metretam. Pinguia crura luto; planta mox undique magna fool, Calcor et in digito clavus mihi militis hæret. Nonne vides, quanto celebretur sportula fumo?

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also very drowsy animals. Plin. H. N. ix. 13. PR. LU. R. The humour in coupling Drusus with these sleepy creatures and placing the latter within ear-shot of the muleteers and coachmen in the heart of the city, is quite overlooked by the majority of Commentators; G. who, by introducing the alteration (1) somnos urso, cf. Plin. H. N. viii. 36. (BRI.) or (2) vetulisque maritis, (GRÆ.) entirely destroy the σχῆμα παρὰ προσδοκίαν so common in Aristophanes and other comic writers: neither is the correction vitulisve (JA.) necessary, notwithstanding the absurdity of que.

239. Officium; ii. 132. • The rich will move rapidly without impediment to the levees of the old and childless; while the poor, whose sole support probably depended upon their early appearance there, have to struggle at every step through dangers and difficulties.' G.

240 The crowd, as they make way, will look up at the great man in his litter; so that he will be carried above their faces.' M. Illos humeri cervicesque servorum super ora nostra vehunt; Plin. Pan. 24. PR. quos supra capita hominum supraque turbam delicatos lectica suspendit; Sen. R.

The tall and sturdy natives of Liburnia, bordering on the north-eastern shore of. the Adriatic, were much employed at Rome as chairmen, &c. LU. PR. vi. 477. iv. 75. longorum cervice Syrorum; vi. 351. R. horridus Liburnus; Mart. I. 1. 33. BO.

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242. i. 65. R. The windows of litters had curtains. LU.

243. He will arrive before us, without interruption to either his rest, his business, or his studies.' LU.

'Make what haste we can.' M.

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244. The tide of people.' PR. Virg. G. ii. 462. Sil. iv. 159. R. xuμa x&grałov cf. BL, on Æsch. Theb. 64.

Premit; præcedentibus instans; Hor. I Ep. ii. 71.

245. With the hard pole of the litter.' vii. 132. Martial uses asser for the litter itself.' LU.

246. 'A ten-gallon cask' μergnrns. GR. 247. Understand mea fiunt. R. cf. iii. 68, note.

He now gets jostled among a party of soldiers. PŘ. Magna (cf. xvi. 14. R.) ' of a grenadier.'

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248. In my toe.' LU.

The soldiers' boots were stuck full of large hobnails. xvi. 24 sq. LU. cf. Plin. ix. 18. xxii. 22. xxxiv. 19. R.

249. Is frequented.' LU. Here the scene shifts. The difficulties of the morning are overpast, and the streets cleared of the shoals of leveehunters. New perils now arise, and the poor are obstructed in the prosecution of their evening business by the crowds of rich clients returning with their slaves from the dole of suppers at their patrons' houses. The 'kitchen' was a larger kind of chafing-dish, divided into two cells, in the uppermost of which, they put the meat, and in the lower, fire, to keep it warm. How often have I been re

minded of the sportula (durvov iv oxvξίδιο Τ.) by the firepans and suppers of the Neapolitans! As soon as it grows

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