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250 Centum convivæ sequitur sua quemque culina. Corbulo vix ferret tot vasa ingentia, tot res Impositas capiti, quas recto vertice portat Servulus infelix et cursu ventilat ignem. Scinduntur tunicæ sarta: modo longa coruscat 255 Sarraco veniente abies atque altera pinum

Plaustra vehunt, nutant altæ populoque minantur. Nam si procubuit, qui saxa Ligustica portat, Axis, et eversum fudit super agmina montem, Quid superest de corporibus? quis membra, quis ossa 260 Invenit? Obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaver Domus interea secura patellas

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dark, the streets are filled with twinkling fires glancing about in every direction on the heads of these modern Corbulos, and suddenly disappearing as they enter their houses with their frugal meal. G. cf. i. 95 sq. PR.

250. Focum ferentis suberat amphora cervix; Mart. XII. xxxii. 4. R. Tumultus est coquorum, ipsos cum opsoniis focos transferentium: hoc enim jam luxuria commentu est, ne quis intepescut cibus, ne quid palato jam guloso (calloso?) parum ferveat; cœnam culina prosequitur; Sen. Ep. 79 s 78. PR. fumus 249. and ignis 253. relate to this portable kitchen. 251. Ne (Domitius) Corbulo omnium ora in se verteret, corpore ingens, verbis magnificus, et, super experientiam sapientiamque, etiam specie inanium validus; Tac. A. xiii. 8. A distinguished general in Armenia under Nero. LU. Amm. Marc. xv. PR. Having excited the tyrant's jealousy by his successes, he was decoyed to Cenchreæ, condemned unheard, and fell on his own sword. G.

252. With his head upright, lest the gravy should be spilt.' LU.

Some mss. have quot. R.


253. A poor little slave (as opposed to 'the gigantic Corbulo'), by whose rapid motion through the air the fire is fanned.' M.

254. The patched tunics of the poor get torn in the squeeze.' PR.

Now follows an indirect attack on the mania of the emperors for building. An evil which Juvenal lived to see abated: for Trajan was tam parcus in ædificando, quam diligens in tuendo. Itaque non, ut ante, immanium transvectione saxorum

urbis tecta quatiuntur: stant securæ domus, nec jam templa nutantia; Plin. Pan. 51. G. longo vehiculorum ordine pinus aut abies deferebatur vicis intrementibus; Sen. Ep. 90. LU. Its swaying to and fro made it dangerous. M. cf. Hor. II Ep. 72 sqq. I S. vi. 42 sq. GR. There had been a law to prevent the nuisance of these loaded wagons passing and repassing after sunrise, or before four o'clock in the afternoon, (when the Romans were supposed to be at dinner,) unless it were for the construction or repairs of temples, public works, &c. Either this law had fallen into disuse; HB. or timber-carriages in the emperor's service would fall under the above exception.

255. Sarraca Boota; v. 23. ME. 256. Cf. Virg. Æ. ii. 626 sqq. R. 257. Immense blocks of Ligurian marble' from Luna and the neighbourhood. GR. Strab. v. p. 153. Plin.

xxxvi. 6. 18. Sil. viii. 482. Suet. Ner. 50. R. cf. Mart. V. xxii.

258. Aris; the part for the whole.' LU. 'The troops of foot-passengers.' LU.

Hyperbole. LU. rapido cursu media agmina rumpit: veluti montis saxum, de vertice præceps cum ruit,.... fertur in abruptum magno mons improbus actu exsultatque solo; sylvas, armenta, virosque involvens secum; Virg. E. xii. 683 sqq. Montibus ('immense marble columns') aut alte Graiis effulta nitebant atria; Stat. Th. i. 145 sq. R.

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260. Crushed to atoms.' VS.

261. Because not a particle of it is visible.' VS.

Interea 'while the master (followed by his slave with the supper) has come to

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Jam lavat et bucca foculum excitat et sonat unctis

Striglibus et pleno componit lintea gutto, oil-flark,

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Hæc inter pueros varie properantur: at ille
265 Jam sedet in ripa tetrumque novicius horret
Porthmea nec sperat cœnosi gurgitis alnum
Infelix nec habet, quem porrigat, ore trientem.
Respice nunc alia ac diversa pericula noctis:
Quod spatium tectis sublimibus, unde cerebrum
270 Testa ferit; quoties rimosa et curta fenestris
Vasa cadant; quanto percussum pondere signent
Et lædant silicem. Possis ignavus haberi
Et subiti casus improvidus, ad cœnam si

this untimely end, his unconscious do-
mestics are making preparations for his
meal and his previous bath.' LU.
262. Ipse genu posito flammas exsuscitat
aura; Ov. F. v. 507. R.

I Makes a clatter.' The scrapers'
were of metal and were 'oiled' to prevent
their hurting the skin. GR.

263. For strigilibus. GR. 126. PR.

Pers. v.

Guttus was an oil flask' made of horn, with a narrow neck, which dropped the oil over the body after bathing. PR. LU.

264. Pueros'the servants.' pari dio παλαιοὶ, παρθένων ἔργον εἶναι τὸ οἰνοχοεῖν, καὶ ἀνδρῶν δὲ νέων, ὧν καὶ ὑπηρετεῖν· ὅθεν καὶ παῖδες οἱ δοῦλοι, καὶ παιδίσκαι, διὰ τὸ τῆς παιδικῆς ἡλικίας ὑπηρετητικόν Eustath. on Hom. II. A p. 438. St Luke xii.45. SL. vi. 151. Hor. I Od. xxxviii. 1. Garçon, in French, serviteur dans un lieu public. Our own word KNAVE originally signified a boy,' and afterwards a servant;' both which senses are now obsolete.

Ille i.e. servulus infelix according to most Commentators: but see note on i. 62.

265. Cf. ii. 149 sqq. Virg. Æ. vi. 313 sqq. Prop. II. xxvii. 13 sq. R. 'He takes a seat, (because he has a hundred years to wait, PR.) on the banks of the Styx or Acheron.' PI.

Novicius by the end of the century he will become used to the grim ferryman:' but omne ignotum pro magnifico: Tac. στυγνὸν ἀεὶ πορθμῆα καμόντων· Theoc. xvii. 49. Sen. H. F. 764 sqq. R.

266. Portitor horrendus terribili squalore Charon; turbidus cœno gurges; Virg. He has no hopes,' because he is unburied. R.

Tunc alnos primum fluvii sensere cavatas; Virg. G. i. 136. torrentem undam levis innatat alnus missa Pado; Id. ii. 450 sq. R.

267. Triens is here put for obolus.
Luc. Dial. Mort. 9. cf. Diod. ii. 5. PR.
Prop. IV. xi. 7. It was the fare for the
passage, naulum; viii. 97. ovdè Tòv óßoλòv
ἔχων τὰ πορθμία καταβαλεῖν. Luc. Cat.

18. R. This idle notion the Romans
had adopted from the Greeks; though
not a general custom, the vulgar adhered
to it most scrupulously, and dreaded
nothing more than being consigned to
the grave without their farthing. G.

268. Now follows an animated and
faithful picture of the evils of night:
these are nearly the same in every over-
grown capital, which is not protected by
a night-watch or a vigilant police. G.

269. The higher the house the greater
the danger. LU. quum ureæ complanatæ
recipere non possent tantam multitudinem
ad habitandum in Urbe, ad auxilium
coacti sunt Romani ad altitudinem ædium
devenire; Vitr. ACH.

Curta 645. R.

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The potsherd. M.
mutilated, broken ;' Ov. F. ü.

271. From the force with which
they come upon the flint pavement, you
may judge a fortiori of the little chance
your head would have.' PR.
272. Remiss.'

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273. Going out in the evening is a service of such danger.'


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275 Nocte patent vigiles, te prætereunte, fenestræ. Ergo optes votumque feras miserabile tecum,

Ut sint contentæ patulas defundere pelves. foot. pans, Ebrius ac petulans, qui nullum forte cecidit, Dat pœnas, noctem patitur lugentis amicum 280 Pelidæ, cubat in faciem, mox deinde supinus." Ergo non aliter poterit dormire? "Quibusdam Somnum rixa facit: sed quamvis improbus annis



Atque mero fervens, cavet hunc, quem coccina læna cloak,
Vitari jubet et comitum longissimus ordo,

274. So clear it is that' adeo quanto rerum minus, tanto minus cupiditatis erat; Liv. pr. F. Quot sunt corpore pluma, tot vigiles oculi subter; Virg. Æ. iv.

181 sq.

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275. Vigilis where the inmates are awake:' LU. as pervigiles popinæ; viii. 158._vigiles lucernæ; Hor. III Od. viii. 14. R.

276. Tu prece poscis emaci; Pers. ii. 3. because in a vow' there is a sort of bargain made with the deity or party to whom it is addressed. GR.

Feras tecum; Quint. Decl. iii. p. 38. R. 277. You are willing to compound for the contents of the pots and sloppails, so that the utensils themselves are not launched on your head.' Understand fenestra. GR.

Pelves foot-pans' rodavarñges, VS. which were not applied to that purpose exclusively : M. but ἐνεμεῖν τε καὶ ἐνουρέειν καὶ πόδας ἐναπονίζεσθαι· Her. ii. 172.

278. A vivid picture is now presented of the wanton insults to which the poor were exposed from the midnight frolics of drunken rakes. Nero was one of the first of these disturbers of the public peace. Tac. xiii. 25. Suet. Ner. 26. Under shelter of his example private persons took the opportunity to annoy the public: every quarter was filled with tumult and disorder, and Rome, at night, resembled a city taken by storm: cf. Dio. Otho, Commodus, Heliogabalus, Verus, &c. were also addicted to the same brutal joke. Suet. Oth. 2. Plin. xiii. 22 s 43. Xiph. G. R. PR.

'He looks upon it as a very bad night's sport unless he has thrashed somebody; so that he cannot sleep for vexation.”




279. He passes as restless a night as Achilles mourning the loss of Patroclus.' LU.

280. ̓́Αλλοτ ̓ ἐπὶ πλευρὰς κατακείμενος, ἄλλοτε δ ̓ αὖτε ὕπτιος, ἄλλοτε δὲ πρηνής· τότε δ ̓ ὀρθὸς ἀναστὰς κ. τ.λ. Ηom. ii. Ω 10 sqq. PR. Sen. de Tr. An. 2. R.

281. Ergo &c. This seems to be a question on the part of Juvenal. LU. cf. Plaut. Amph. I. i. PR. The verse is probably spurious; it might be omitted without prejudice to the sense. HK.

282. This is very similar to a passage in the Proverbs: "Enter not into the path of the wicked, and go not in the way of evil men; for they sleep not except they have done mischief; and their sleep is taken away unless they cause some to fall;" iv. 14. 16. PR.

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Improbus daring;' Virg. Æ. xi. 512. R. οι νέοι τὰ ἤθη εἰσὶ φιλόνικοι· ὑπεροχῆς γὰρ ἐπιθυμεῖ ἡ νεότης· ἡ δὲ νίκη ὑπεροχή τις. καὶ εὐέλπιδες· ὥσπερ γὰρ οἱ οἰνώμενοι, οὕτω διάθερμοί εἰσιν οἱ νέοι ὑπὸ τῆς φύσεως. καὶ ἀνδρειότεροι· θυμώδεις γὰρ καὶ εὐέλπιδες· ὧν τὸ μὲν μὴ φοβεῖσθαι, τὸ δὲ θαῤῥεῖν, ποιεῖ· οὔτε γὰρ ὀργιζόμενος οὐδεὶς φοβεῖται· τό τε ἐλπίζειν ἀγαθόν τι, θαῤῥαλέον ἐστί. καὶ τὰ dinnμara adıxovσn sis üße Arist. Rh. II. xiv. 2.

283. He has just sense enough left, to steer clear of the scarlet cloak which marks the rich nobleman.' LU. vii. 135 sq. vi. 246. xλaïva, hyacinthina læna; Pers. i. 32. Tyrioque ardebat murice lana; Virg. Æ. iv. 262. VS. R. From the cloak being worn, we may infer that these outrages were more common in the long winter nights. HK.

284. Comitum; i. 46, note. photos ἕπεσθαι, μᾶλλον δὲ ἡγεῖσθαι, ὑπὸ τῶν οἰκετῶν προωθούμενον καὶ ὥσπερ τινὰ πομπὴν


285 Multum præterea flammarum et ænea lampas.
Me, quem luna solet deducere vel breve lumen
Candelæ, cujus dispenso et tempero filum,
Contemnit. Miseræ cognosce prooemia rixa,
Si rixa est, ubi tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum.
290 Stat contra starique jubet; parere necesse est.
Nam quid agas, quum te furiosus cogat et idem
Fortior?" Unde venis?" exclamat: "6 Cujus aceto,

Cujus conche tumes? Quis tecum sectile porrum chopped leak,

Sutor et elixi vervecis labra comedit?

borled multon,

295 Nil mihi respondes? Aut dic, aut accipe calcem!
Ede, ubi consistas: in qua te quæro proseucha?"
Dicere si tentes aliquid tacitusve recedas,

Tantumdem est; feriunt pariter: vadimonia deinde

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285. Flambeaux and a bronze can-
delabrum.' LU. These were the ex-
clusive insignia of the rich the latter
was carried before tribunes; Plin. xxxiv.
2. PR. Cic. Ver. IV. 26. R. In Guern-
sey, persons of the first class in society
are distinguished at night by having two
candles carried in their lanterns; whereas
others have but one.

286. To escort on my way.'
287. His trimming and parting the
wick, to prevent his rushlight's going out
or burning too fast, VS. would probably
hasten the catastrophe he was so anxious
to avoid: BRI. as frangere dum metuis,
frangis crystallina; peccant securæ nimium
sollicitaque manus; Mart. XIV. cxi.

288. * The prelude of the fray.' LU.
cf. v. 26 sqq. xv. 51 sqq. τοῦ κακῶς λέγειν
γὰς ἀρχὴ γίνετ ̓. ἂν δ ̓ εἴπῃς ἅπαξ, εὐθὺς
ἀντήκουσας. ἤδη λοιδορεῖσθαι λείπεται. εἶτα
τύπτεσθαι δέδεικται καὶ παροινεῖν. ταῦτα
γὰρ κατὰ φύσιν πέφυκεν οὕτως, καὶ τί
pávτews de; Alex. in Ath. x. 5. R.

289. 'Where the beating is all on one side.' M. Ego vapulando, ille verberando, usque ambo defessi sumus; Ter. Ad. II. ii. 5. VS.

291. Αφρων δ ̓ ὅσγ ̓ ἐθέλοι πρὸς κρείσσονας ἀντιφερίζειν· νίκης τε στέρεται, πρός τ αἴσχεσιν ἄλγεα πάσχει Hes. Ο. D. 210 sq. ACH.

292. These insolent questions are put, in hopes to pick a quarrel. PR. jurgii causam intulit; Phæd. I. i. 4.


Acetum 'sour wine.' PR. see SL, on os.

293. Beans boiled in the shell:' a common dish among the poorer people, which was very filling. Mart. V. xxxix. 10. VII. lxxviii. 2. XIII. vii. PR. xiv. 131. inflantes corpora fabæ ; Ov. F. Med. 70. R.

There were two kinds of leek, sectile and capitatum: Plin. xx. 6. GR. BRI. of which the former was the coarser sort. PR. cf. xiv. 133. M.

294. Sutor is used for any low fellow; as cerdo, iv. 153. viii. 182. R. Mart. III. lix.

Sheep's heads were among the parts given away to the poor, LU. at the Saturnalia and other festivals. F. Mart. XIV. cexi. PR.

295.Speak, or be kicked.' G. LOTI ὕβρις τὸ βλάπτειν καὶ λυπεῖν ἐφ ̓ οἷς αἰσχύνη ἐστὶ τῷ πάσχοντι, μὴ ἵνα τι γένηται αὑτῷ ἄλλο ἢ ὅ τι ἐγένετο, ἀλλ ̓ ὅπως ἡσθῇ· Arist. Rh. II. ii. 3.

296. Tell me where you take up your stand:’ implying that he was one of the fraternity of regular beggars. M. consistere; Plaut. Curc. IV. i. R. goσsuxai were Jewish oratories or houses of prayer; VS. which were usually built without the walls of a town by the river or sea side. SL. See notes on 13 sqq. iv. 117. This is an insinuation that the poor man was not only a beggar, but (what was worse) a vagabond Jew. MNS.

297. Si for sive. LU.

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Irati faciunt. Libertas pauperis hæc est: 300 Pulsatus rogat et pugnis concisus adorat,

Ut liceat paucis cum dentibus inde reverti.

Nec tamen hæc tantum metuas: nam, qui spoliet te, Non deerit, clausis domibus postquam omnis ubique Fixa catenatæ siluit compago tabernæ.

"a fost - pad

305 Interdum et ferro subitus grassator agit rem,
Armato quoties tutæ custode tenentur
Et Pomtina palus et Gallinaria pinus.

Sic inde huc omnes, tamquam ad vivaria, currunt.
Qua fornace graves, qua non incude catena?
310 Maximus in vinclis ferri modus, ut timeas, ne

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304. The shutters were fastened by a strong iron chain running through each of them. VS. Burglary was one of Nero's scandalous practices: tabernulas etiam effringere et expilare: quintana domi constituta, ubi parta et ad licitationem dividendæ prædæ pretium assumeretur; Suet. 26. LU. Tac. A. xiii. 25. R.

305. A bandit or bravo' LU. does your business.' M. cf. Suet. Aug. 32. 43. R.

306. When the banditti became so numerous in any spot, as to render travelling dangerous, it was usual to detach a party of military from the capital to scour their retreats: the inevitable con

sequence of which was, that they escaped in vast numbers to Rome, where they

continued to exercise their old trade of plunder and blood, and, probably, with more security and effect than before. G. VS.

307. The Pomptine marsh' in Campania (pestifera Pomtini uligine campi; Sil. viii. 381. Mart. X. lxxiv. 10. XIII. cxii.) was first drained, partially, by Ap. Claudius, A. U. 441. then more completely by Corn. Cethegus, A. U. 590. (Liv. Ep. xlvi.): Julius Cæsar intended to execute this among other public works (Suet. 44.); and Augustus partly carried his intention into effect. (Hor. A. P. 65.) The work was resumed by Trajan (Dio), by Theodoric (Cassiod. V. E. ii. 32 sq.), and in later times by Sixtus V and Pius VI. But after all that has been done, its vapours are too deleterious to admit of any persons now harbouring there. PR. GE. AN. R. G.

The Gallinarian forest' was in the same neighbourhood: ὕλη ἄνυδρος͵ καὶ ἀμμώδης, ἣν Γαλλιναρίαν ὕλην καλοῦσι Strab. v. p. 168. Cic. Div. ix. 23. R.

308. Vivaria; iv. 51. 'preserves, stews, or vivaries:' M. Hor. I Ep. i. 79. R.

Where they will have abundance of sport;' GR. or where they will fatten.' LU.

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