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Vomer deficiat, ne marræ et sarcula desint.
Felices proavorum atavos, felicia dicas

Sæcula, quæ quondam sub regibus atque tribunis
Viderunt uno contentam carcere Romam!

His alias poteram et plures subnectere causas :
Sed jumenta vocant et sol inclinat: eundum est.
Nam mihi commota jam dudum mulio virga whip
Adnuit. Ergo vale nostri memor et, quoties te
Roma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino,

320 Me quoque ad Helvinam Cererem vestramque Dianam
Convelle a Cumis. Satirarum ego, ni pudet illas,
Adjutor gelidos veniam caligatus in agros."

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311. Mattocks and hoes.' The for" mer word still exists in Italian and Spanish; marre, in French, denotes the hoe used in vineyards: R. and from the latter word comes our English verb SARCLE, 'to weed corn.'

312. Cf. xiii. 34 sqq. R. Pater, avus, proavus, abavus, atavus, tritavus; Plaut. Pers. I. ii. 5. F. the seventh generation would be tritavi pater, and the next proavi atavus. It is here put for forefathers' indefinitely. M.

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313. The military tribunes with consular power were first appointed A. U. 310, sixty-five years after the abolition of the regal government: (Liv. iv. 7.) VS. and tribunes of the commons sixteen years after the same event. (Liv. ii. 33.) LU. Augustus and the other emperors assumed to themselves the latter title. R. On the tribunicia potestas see CAR, L. ix. p. 226 sqq.

314. This prison was built by Ancus Marcius; Liv. i. 33. GR. Servius Tullius added the dungeon, called from him Tullianum; Calp. Decl. 5. Tac. A. iv. 29. LI. Sall. B.C. 58. VS. The next prison was built by Ap. Claudius the decemvir. Liv. iii. 57. Plin. vii. 36. V. Paterc. i. 9. R.

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317. The muleteer gives a hint, by. smacking his whip.' LU. viii. 153. R.

318. Sis licet felix, ubicumque mavis, et memor nostri, Galatea, vivas; Hor. III Od. xxvii. 13 sq. M.

319. Poets were fond of periodical retirement into the quiet and repose of the country: me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus. Aquinum, a town of the Volscians, was the birth-place of Juvenal. VS.

320. Ceres and Diana were especially worshipped at Aquinum: therefore they here stand for the town itself. The origin of the epithet Helvine' is uncertain: (1) from the Helvii, a people of Gaul; Cæs. B. G. vii. 7. 75. B. C. i. 35. Plin. iii. 4. xiv. 3. VS. (2) from a fountain of the name in the vicinity; PR. (3) and the name of this, Eluinus, from washing off contaminations previously to initiation :' LU. or (4) from the yellow (helvus) colour' of the ears of corn. SC. BRO. Helvus is akin to gilvus dun,' in etymology and in signification: both the initials are blended in the Dutch gheleuwe. "A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought First fruits, the green ear and the yellow sheaf;" Milton P. L. xi. flava Ceres; Virg. G. i. 96.

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321. Convelle cf. 223.
Cumis cf. 2. PR.

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Unless they scorn my poor help.' T.
322. Aquinum was 'cool' from its hills,
woods, and streams. PR.

Caligatus in military boots;' LU.
BRI. equipped for our campaign;' PR.
HO. armed at all points.' M. G. Dio
says that Caligula wore the shoe from




which he derived his name, to mark his renunciation of his former town shoes; àVTì Tâv ÅOTI×ãv væodnμárwv. Umbricius may here avow a similar determination. He promises that he will not appear in shoes of a town make; that there shall be nothing about him, even on his feet, to remind Juvenal of the detested city. I. "In country shoes I'll come." BM.

There is something exquisitely beautiful in this conclusion. The little circumstances which accelerate the departure of

Umbricius, the tender farewell he takes of his friend, the compliment he introduces to his abilities, and the affectionate hint he throws out, that, in spite of his attachment to Cuma, Juvenal may command his assistance in the noble task in which he is engaged, all contribute to leave a pleasing impression of melancholy on the mind, and interest the reader deeply in the fate of this neglected, but virtuous and amiable exile. G.



In this Satire, which was probably written under Nerva, Juvenal indulges his honest spleen against two most distinguished culprits; Crispinus, already noticed in his first Satire, 1-27, and Domitian, the constant object of his scorn and abhorrence, 28-149.

The sudden transition from the shocking enormities of Crispinus, 1-10, to his gluttony and extravagance, 11 sqq. is certainly inartificial, but appears necessary in some degree to the completion of the Poet's design, the introduction of Domitian, 28.

The whole of the latter part is excellent. The mock solemnity with which the anecdote of the enormous Surmullet is introduced, 37 sqq. the procession, or rather the rush, of the affrighted counsellors to the palace, 75 sqq. and the ridiculous debate 119 sqq. (as to whether the fish should be dressed whole or not, 130) which terminates in as ridiculous a decision, 136 sqq. (that a dish should be made for it, 131, according to the sage advice of Montanus)—all show a masterly hand.

We have, indeed, here a vivid picture of the state of the empire under the suspicious and gloomy tyranny of Domitian; of his oppressive system of espionage and rapacity, of his capricious severity and trifling, and of the gross adulation in which all classes sought a precarious security. Many masterly touches are given in the brief allusions to the character and conduct of the chief courtiers as they pass in review: the weak but well-meaning Pegasus, stoic, and bailiff of Rome, 75 sqq. Crispus the complaisant old epicure and wit, 81 sqq. Acilius, and his ill-fated young › companion, 94 sqq. Rubrius the low-born ruffian, 104 sqq. Montanus the unwieldy glutton, 107. Crispinus the perfumed debauchée, 108 sq. Pompeius the merciless sycophant, 109 sq. Fuscus the luxurious and incompetent general, 111 sq. Catullus the blind hypocrite, extravagant in his praises of the finny monster, 113 sqq. and Veiento the timeserving fortune-teller 113. 123 sqq.

And we cannot but admire the indignant and high-spirited apostrophe, with which our Poet concludes, reflecting on the servile tameness of the patricians as contrasted with the indignant vengeance of the lower orders, 150-154. an apostrophe which under some of the emperors would be fatal, and under none of them safe. G. R.

ECCE iterum Crispinus! et est mihi sæpe vocandus
Ad partes, monstrum nulla virtute redemtum

A vitiis, æger solaque libidine fortis :
Delicias viduæ tantum aspernatur adulter.
5 Quid refert igitur, quantis jumenta fatiget
Porticibus? quanta nemorum vectetur in umbra?
Jugera quot vicina foro, quas emerit ædes?
Nemo malus felix; minime corruptor et idem
Incestus, cum quo nuper vittata jacebat

10 Sanguine adhuc vivo terram subitura sacerdos.

1. Ecce denotes surprise. LU. ecce Crispinus minimo me provocat; Hor. I S. iv. 13 sq. R.

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Again'i. 26. LU. understand adest. R. Mihi for a me. VS.

2. A metaphor from the theatre, in which actors were called when it was their turn to appear on the stage. VS. Hernicos ad partes paratos; Liv. iii. 10. R. A slave to vice with no one redeeming virtue.' LU. ef. Pers. v. PR.

3. Feeble both in body and mind.' R. Isti vulsi atque expoliti et nusquam, nisi in libidine, viri; Sen. Cont. i. p. 62. R.

4. To corrupt virgin innocence, to invade the sanctity of the marriage bed, is his delight intrigues with widows, therefore, have too little turpitude in them to gratify his singular depravity.' G.

5. Nam grave quid prodest pondus mihi divitis auri? arvaque si findant pinguia mille boves? quidve domus prodest Phrygiis innixa columnis? et nemora in domibus sacros imitantia lucos? et quæ præterea populus miratur ? Non opibus mentes hominum curæque levantur ; Tib. III. iii. 11 &c. R.

The luxurious Romans built long covered ways in their grounds, that they might not be deprived of their exercise in bad weather: see vii. 178-181. LU. Mart. I. xiii. 5 sqq. V. xx. 8. Plin. Ep. v. 6. 17. R.

Equos fatigat; Virg. Æ. i. 316. GR. 6. Quid illa porticus verna semper ? quid illa mollis gestatio? Plin. Ep. i. 3.


Nemora 'shrubberies and groves.' Plin. Ep. ii. 17. LI. nemus inter pulchra satum tecta; Hor. III Od. x. 5 sq. R.


7. Land in the immediate vicinity of the forum was of course exorbitantly dear. LU. cf. i. 105 sq. M. The forum of Augustus, which is here meant, was the most frequented part of Rome, i. 192: therefore the purchase of property in land or houses near this spot shows the enormous wealth of this odious upstart. There is also, probably, a covert allusion to his presumption in imitating the Cæsars whose palace and gardens of many acres were in this immediate neighbourhood. G.

8. Nemo potest esse felix sine virtute; Cic. "Virtue alone is happiness below;" Pope Ess. on Man, iv. 310. "Virtue must be the happiness, and vice the misery, of every creature;" Bp Butler Intr. to Anal. See also Lord Shaftesbury's Inq. concerning Virtue, pt. II.

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9. Such was the respect for religion, that the seducer of a vestal virgin' was considered guilty of incest,' and placed upon a par, in criminality, with the violator of all natural decorum. G. The guilty vestal was also considered incesta; · Ov. F. vi. 459.

Priests and priestesses wore fillets round the head. LU.

Nullaque dicetur vittas temerasse sacerdos, nec viva defodietur humo; Ov. F. vi. 457 sq. iii. 30. R.

10. This solemnity is thus described、 by Plutarch: At the Colline gate within. the city, there was a subterranean cavern,, in which were placed a bed, a lamp, a, pitcher of water, and a loaf. The offender was then bound alive upon a bier, and carried through the forum with great silence and horror. When they reached the place of interment, the bier was set down, and the poor wretch unbound; a

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Sed nunc de factis levioribus: et tamen alter
Si fecisset idem, caderet sub judice morum.
Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio Seioque, decebat
Crispinum. Quid agas, quum dira et fœdior omni
15 Crimine persona est? Mullum sex millibus emit,
Æquantem sane paribus sestertia libris,

Ut perhibent, qui de magnis majora loquuntur.
Consilium laudo artificis, si munere tanto
Præcipuam in tabulis ceram senis abstulit orbi.

ladder was then brought, by which she de-
scended into the excavation; when, upon
a signal given, the ladder was suddenly
withdrawn, and the mouth of the cavity
completely filled up with stones, earth, &c.
Num. 67. Whether the vestal debauched
by Crispinus actually suffered is doubtful.
But Domitian did put Cornelia and seve-
ral others to death. Suet. 8. Dionys. ii.
65. viii. 90. LU. PR. G. R. see Mar-
mion, cant. ii. note 17.

11. Understand agimus. PR.
12. And yet any other individual
would forfeit his life to our imperial
censor for a like offence.' Plin. Ep. iv.
11. LU. As Celer, who was guilty of
incest with Cornelia, (see above) was
scourged to death. PR. Liv. xxii. 57. R.
On the censorship exercised by Domitian
(Censor maxime principumque princeps;
Mart. VI. iv. PR.) see the notes on ii.

29 sqq.

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Cadere is opposed to stare in judicio. And sub means before,' as vii. 13. R. 13. Ille crucem sceleris pretium tulit, hic diadema; xiii. 105. cf. viii. 182. xi. 1 sqq. 174 sqq. Titius and Seius were fictitious personages, like our John Doe and Richard Roe, and like them inserted in all law-processes: rois de óvóμari Touτοις ἄλλως κέχρηνται κοινοῖς οὖσιν, ὥσπερ οἱ νομικοὶ Γάϊον, Σήϊον, καὶ Τίτιον Plut. Q. R. 30. G. LU, R.

14. "When the actor's person far exceeds, In native loathsomeness, his foulest deeds," G. 'one is at a loss how to treat him.' M.

15. v. 92. Plin. ix. 17. Varr. R. R. iii. 17. Cic. Att. ii. 1. Parad. 5. Ath. i. 5. vii. 21. iv. 13. PR. Surmullet;' cf. vi. 40. Mart. II. xliii. 11. VII. lxxvii. XIII. lxxix. III. xlv. 5. X. xxxi. XI. li. 9. Macr. Sat. ii. 12. Suet. Tib. 34. R. Hor. II S. ii. 34. Sen. Ep. 95. M. ‘A mullet' is mugilis. Surmullets were very

plentiful and cheap, but seldom weighed
above 2lbs. In proportion as they ex-
ceeded this they grew valuable, till at
last they reached the sum mentioned in
the text (about £50), and even went be-
yond it. The fish seems to have grown
larger in the decline of the empire, as if
to humour the caprice of this degenerate
people. Horace thought a surmullet of
3lbs something quite out of the common
way; the next reign furnished one of
44lbs! here we have one of 6lbs!! and
we read elsewhere of others larger still;
one of 80lbs!!! (unless there be an error
in the figures) was caught in the Red
Sea; Plin. ix. 18. They seem afterwards
to have gone out of fashion, for Macro-
bius speaking with indignation of one that
was purchased in the reign of Claudius
by Asinius Celer for 561. 10s. adds
pretia hæc insana nescimus.
mullet of 44lbs. was one that was pre-
sented to Tiberius. The emperor sent it,
to market, observing that he thought
either P. Octavius or Apicius would
buy it. They did bid against each other,
till it was knocked down to the former
for £40. cf. 23. G.

The sur-,

16. Sane forsooth,' ironically. LU. Phæd. III. xv. 12. R. 'Well! and that was only a thousand a pound.

17. Juvenal merely gives the story as he heard it, without vouching for its correctness; since fama vires acquirit eundo ; Virg. Æ. iv. 175. GR.

18. I grant you his artifice was praiseworthy as a masterly stroke.' M. cf. St Luke xvi. 8.

19. Cf. ii. 58. PR. præcipua cera the principal place in the will' and consequently the bulk of the property.' The chief heir was named in the second line of the first table. Hor. II S. v. 53 sq. cf. Suet. Cæs. 83. Ner. 17. R. M.


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