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Viderunt uno contentam carcere Romam!
Sed jumenta vocant et sol inclinat : eundum est.
Roma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino, 320 Me quoque
ad Helvinam Cererem vestramque Dianam Convelle a Cumis. Satirarum ego, ni pudet illas, Adjutor gelidos veniam caligatus in agros."
equipped with calipo 311. Mattocks and hoes.' The fór- 317. - The muleteer gives a hint, by. mer word still exists in Italian and smacking his whip.' LU. viii. 153. R. Spanish ; marre, in French, denotes the 318. Sis licet felir, ubicumque mavis, et hoe used in vineyards : R. and from the memor nostri, Galatea, vivas; Hor. III latter word comes our English verb Od. xxvii. 13 sq. M. SAI?CLE,' to weed corn.'
319. Poets were fond of periodical 312. Cf. xiii. 34 sqq. R. Pater, avus, retirement into the quiet and repose of the prouvus, abavus, atavus, tritavus ; Plaut. country: me quoties reficit gelidus Pers. I. q. 5. F. the seventh generation Digentia rivus. Aquinum, a town of the would be tritavi pater, and the next Volscians, was the birth-place of Juvenal. proavi utavus. It is here put for our
VS. forefathers’ indefinitely. M.
320. Ceres and Diana were especially 313. The military tribunes with con- worshipped at Aquinum : therefore they sular power were first appointed A. U. here stand for the town itself. The origin 310, sixty-five years after the abolition of of the epithet ‘ Helvine' is uncertain : (1) the regal government : (Liv. iv. 7.) VS. from the Helvii
, a people of Gaul; Cæs. and tribunes of the commons sixteen B. G. vi. 7. 75. B. C. i. 35. Plin. iii. 4. years after the same event. (Liv. ii. 33.) xiv. 3. VS. (2) from a fountain of the LU. Augustus and the other emperors name in the vicinity; PR. (3) and the assumed to themselves the latter title. R. name of this, Eluinus, from · washing off On the tribunicia potestas see CAR, L. contaminations previously to initiation: ix. P. 226 $99.
LU. or (4) from the yellow (helvus) 314. This prison was built by Ancus colour' of the ears of corn. SC. BRO. Marcius ; Liv. i. 33. GR. Servius Tul. Helvus is akin to gilvus • dun,' in etylius added the dungeon, called from him mology and in signification : both the iniTullianum ; Calp. Decl. 5. Tac. A. iv. tials are blended in the Dutch gheleuwe. . 29. LI. Sall. B.C. 58. VS. The next “A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought prison was built by Ap. Claudius the First fruits, the green ear and the yela, decemvir. Liv. iii. 57. Plin. vii. 36. V. low sheaf;”. Milton P. L. xi. flava Paterc. i. 9. R.
Ceres ; Virg. G. i. 96. 315. • Causes for leaving Rome.' LU. 321. Convelle cf. 223.
316. “They summon me to be mov- Cumis cf. 2. PR. ing.' LU. v. 10. PR.
Unless they scorn my poor help.' T.: The carriage, as soon as it was loaded, 322. Aquinum was 'cool' from its hills, set out and overtook Umbricius; and woods, and streams. PR. now it either was waiting, M. or had Caligatus “in military boots ;' LU. got some distance on the road. R. BRI. . equipped for our campaign ;' PR.
Inclinare meridiem sentis ; Hor. III. HO. armed at all points. M. G. Dio' Od, xxviii. 5 M.
says that Caligula wore the shoe from
which he derived his name, to mark his Umbricius, the tender farewell he takes renunciation of his former town shoes; of his friend, the compliment he intro&TÈ Tās å orixãy Úrodnpétw. Umbri- duces to his abilities, and the affectionate cius may here avow a similar determi- hint he throws out, that, in spite of his nation. He promises that he will not attachment to Cumæ, Juvenal may comappear in shoes of a town make; that mand his assistance in the noble task in there shall be nothing about him, even which he is engaged, all contribute to on his feet, to remind Juvenal of the leave a pleasing impression of melandetested city. I. “ In country shoes I'll choly on the mind, and interest the come.” BM.
reader deeply in the fate of this negThere is something exquisitely beauti- lected, but virtuous and amiable exile. ful in this conclusion. The little circum- G. stances which accelerate the departure of
ARGUMENT. In this Satire, which was probably written under Nerva, Juvenal indulges
his honest spleen against two most distinguished culprits ; Crispinus, already noticed in his first Satire, 1-27, and Domitian, the constant
object of his scorn and abhorrence, 28—149. The sudden transition from the shocking enormities of Crispinus, 1-10,
to his gluttony and extravagance, 11 sqq. is certainly inartificial, but appears necessary in some degree to the completion of the Poet's design,
the introduction of Domitian, 28. The whole of the latter part is excellent. The mock solemnity with which
the anecdote of the enormous Surmullet is introduced, 37 sqq. the procession, or rather the rush, of the affrighted counsellors to the palace, 75 sqq. and the ridiculous debate 119 sqq. (as to whether the fish should be dressed whole or not, 130) which terminates in as ridiculous a decision, 136 sqq. (that a dish should be made for it, 131, according to the
sage advice of Montanus)—all show a masterly hand. We have, indeed, here a vivid picture of the state of the empire under the
suspicious and gloomy tyranny of Domitian ; of his oppressive system of espionage and rapacity, of his capricious severity and trifling, and of
the gross adulation in which all classes sought a precarious security. Many masterly touches are given in the brief allusions to the character
and conduct of the chief courtiers as they pass in review : the weak but well-meaning Pegasus, stoic, and bailiff of Rome, 75 sqq. Crispus the complaisant old epicure and wit, 81 sqq. Acilius, and his ill-fated young) companion, 94 sqq. Rubrius the low-born ruffian, 104 sqq. Montanus the unwieldy glutton, 107. Crispinus the perfumed debauchée, 108 sq. Pompeius the merciless sycophant, 109 sq. Fuscus the luxurious and incompetent general, 111 sq. Catullus the blind hypocrite, extravagant in his praises of the finny monster, 113 sqq. and Veiento the timeserving
fortune-teller 113. 123 sqq. And we cannot but admire the indignant and high-spirited apostrophe,
with which our Poet concludes, reflecting on the servile tameness of the patricians as contrasted with the indignant vengeance of the lower orders, 150—154. an apostrophe which under some of the emperors would be fatal, and under none of them safe. G. R.
Ecce iterum Crispinus ! et est mihi sæpe vocandus asme Ad partes, monstrum nulla virtute redemtum
A vitiis, æger solaque libidine fortis :
Delicias viduæ tantum aspernatur adulter.
Porticibus ? quanta nemorum vectetur in umbra ?
Incestus, cum quo nuper vittata jacebat
p. 62. R.
1. Ecce denotes surprise. LU.
7. Land in the immediate vicinity of Crispinus minimo me provocat ; Hor. I S. the forum was of course exorbitantly dear. iv. 13 sq. R.
LU. cf. i. 105
M. The forum of ' Again’i. 26. LU. understand adest. R. Augustus, which is here meant, was the Mihi for a me. VS.
most frequented part of Rome, i. 192 : 2. A metaphor from the theatre, in therefore the purchase of property in land which actors were called when it was or houses near this spot shows the enortheir turn to appear on the stage. VS. mous wealth of this odious upstart. There Hernicos ad partes paratos ; Liv. iii. 10. is also, probably, a covert allusion to his R. 'A slave to vice with no one re- presumption in imitating the Cæsars deeming virtue.' LU. cf. Pers. v. PR. whose palace and gardens of many acres
3. • Feeble both in body and mind.' R. were in this immediate neighbourhood. G.
Isti vulsi atque expoliti et nusquam, 8. Nemo potest esse felix sine virtute; nisi in libidine, viri; Sen. Cont. i. Cic. “ Virtue alone is happiness below;"
Pope Ess. on Man, iv. 310.
“ Virtue 4. To corrupt virgin innocence, to in- must be the happiness, and vice the misery, vade the sanctity of the marriage bed, of every creature ;” Bp Butler Intr. to is his delight : intrigues with widows, Anal. See also Lord Shaftesbury's Inq. therefore, have too little turpitude in them concerning Virtue, pt. II. to gratify his singular depravity.' G. 9. Such was the respect for religion,
5. Nam grave quid prodest pondus that the seducer of ' a vestal virgin' was mihi divitis auri ? arvaque si findunt considered guilty of incest,' and placed • pinguia mille boves? quidve domus prodest upon a par, in criminality, with the vioPhrygiis innixa columnis ? et nemora in lator of all natural decorum. G. The domibus sacros imitantia lucos? et quæ guilty vestal was also considered incesta ; præterea populus miratur ? Non opibus Ov. F. vi. 459. mentes hominum curæque levantur; Tib. Priests and priestesses wore fillets round III. ü. 11 &c. R.
the head. LU. The luxurious Romans built long Nullaque dicetur vittas temerasse sacovered ways in their grounds, that they cerdos, nec viva defndietur humo; might not be deprived of their exercise in Ov. F. vi. 457 sq. iii. 30. R. bad weather : see vii. 1784-181. LU. 10. This solemnity is thus described Mart. I. xii. 5 sqq. V. xx. 8. Plin. Ep. by Plutarch : At the Colline gate within . v. 6. 17. R.
the city, there was a subterranean cavern, Equos fatigat; Virg. Æ. i. 316. GR. in which were placed a bed, a lamp, a,
6. Quid illa porticus verna semper 2 pitcher of water, and a loaf. The offenquid illa mollis gestatio ? Plin. Ep. i. 3. der was then bound alive upon a bier, PR.
and carried through the forum with great Nemora ‘shrubberies and groves.' Plin. silence and horror. When they reached Ep. ï. 17. LI. nemus inter pulchra the place of interment, the bier was set satum tecta ; Hor. III Od. x. 5 sq. R. down, and the poor wretch unbound; a
Sed nunc de factis levioribus : et tamen alter
Crispinum. Quid agas, quum dira et fædior omni
Æquantem sane paribus sestertia libris,
ladder was then brought, by which she de- plentiful and cheap, but seldom weighed scended into the excavation ; when, upon above 2lbs. In proportion as they exa signal given, the ladder was suddenly ceeded this they grew valuable, till at withdrawn, and the mouth of the cavity last they reached the sum mentioned in completely filled up with stones, earth, &c. the text (about £50), and even went beNum. 67. Whether the vestal debauched yond it. The fish seems to have grown by Crispinus actually suffered is doubtful. larger in the decline of the empire, as if But Domitian did put Cornelia and seve- to humour the caprice of this degenerate ral others to death. Suet. 8. Dionys. i. people. Horace thought a surmullet of 65. viii. 90. LU. PR. G. R. see Mar- 3lbs something quite out of the common mion, cant. ii. note 17.
way; the next reign furnished one of 11. Understand aginus. PR.
4ļlbs! here we have one of 6lbs !! and 12. ' And yet any other individual we read elsewhere of others larger still ; would forfeit his life to our imperial one of 80lbs !!! (unless there be an error censor for a like offence.' Plin. Ep. iv. in the figures) was caught in the Red 11. LU. As Celer, who was guilty of Sea; Plin. ix. 18. They seem afterwards incest with Cornelia, (see above) was to have gone out of fashion, for Macroscourged to death. PR. Liv. xxii. 57. R. bius speaking with indignation of one that On the censorship exercised by Domitian was purchased in the reign of Claudius (Censor marime principumque princeps; by Asinius Celer for 561. 10s. adds Mart. VI. iv. PR.) see the notes on ii. pretia hac insana nescimus.
mullet of 44lbs. was one that was preCadere is opposed to stare in judicio. sented to Tiberius. The emperor sent it, And sub means before,' as vii. 13, R. to market, observing that he thought
13. Ille crucem sceleris pretium tulit, either P. Octavius or Apicius would hic diadema; xiii. 105. cf. viii. 182. xi. 1 buy it. They did bid against each other, sqq. 174 sqq. Titius and Seius were fic- till it was knocked down to the former
( titious personages, like our John Doe for £40. cf. 23. G. and Richard Roe, and like them inserted 16. Sane · forsooth, ironically. LU. in all law-processes : toñs dè óvómari toú- Phæd. III. xv. 12. R. 'Well ! and τις άλλως κέχρηνται κοινοίς ουσιν, ώσπερ that was only a thousand a pound.' οι νομικοί Γάιον, Σήίον, και Τίτιον: Ρlut. Q. 17. Juvenal merely gives the story as R. 30. G. LU, R.
he heard it, without vouching for its cor14. “When the actor's person far ex- rectness ; since fama vires acquirit eundo ; ceeds, In native loathsomeness, his foul. Virg. Æ. iv. 175. GR. est deeds,” G. one is at a loss how to treat 18. ' I grant you his artifice was praisehim.' M.
worthy as a masterly stroke. M. cf. 15. v. 92. Plin. ix. 17. Varr. R. R. St Luke xvi. 8. üï, 17. Cic. Att. i. 1. Parad. 5. Ath. i. 19. Cf. ii. 58. PR. præcipua cera 5. vii. 21. iv. 13. PR. "Surmullet ;' of 'the principal place in the will' and vi. 40. Mart. II. xliü. 11. VII. lxxvii. consequently the bulk of the property XIII. lxxix. III. xlv. 5. X. xxxi. XI. li. The chief heir was named in the second 9. Macr. Sat. ii. 12. Suet. Tib. 34. R. line of the first table. Hor. II S. Hor. II S. ii. 34. Sen. Ep. 95. M. “A v. 53 sq. cf. Suet. Cæs. 83. Ner. 17. mullet' is mugilis. Surmullets were very R. M.