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20 Est ratio ulterior, magnæ si misit amicæ,
Quæ vehitur clauso latis specularibus antro.
Nil tale exspectes: emit sibi. Multa videmus,
Quæ miser et frugi non fecit Apicius. Hoc tu
Succinctus patria quondam, Crispine, papyro?
25 Hoc pretio squama? Potuit fortasse minoris
Piscator, quam piscis, emi. Provincia tanti
Vendit agros; sed majores Appulia vendit.
Quales tunc epulas ipsum glutisse putemus
Endoperatorem, quum tot sestertia, partem

20 A still better reason: for then he may obtain her favours as well as her fortune.' cf. ii. 58 sqq. PR. iii. 129 sqq. M.

21. Instead of glass, they used for the panes of their windows thin plates of mica or Muscovy talc, which was called lapis specularis; SA. the larger these panes, the more expensive would the windows be. M. i. 65. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 22. 26. Sen. Ep. 86. 90. de Prov. 4. N. Q. iv. 13. hibernis objecta Notis specularia puros admittunt soles et sine face diem: at mihi cella datur, non tota clausa fenestra; Mart. VIII. xiv. 3-5. Plin. Ep. ii. 17. PR. R. The satire perhaps is aimed at the affectation of the lady, who pretended to conceal herself, in a vehicle, which, from its splendour, must have attracted universal notice. G.

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22. If you expect any such thing, you will be mistaken.' M.

After videmus understand Crispinum fecisse. R.

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23. Compared with him, Apicius was mean and thrifty.' See note on 15. Among several epicures of this name, one wrote a book on cookery. VS. Plin. ii. 5. viii. 51. ix. 17. x. 48. Sen. Ep. 95. LU. Id. Helv. 10. Dio Cass. 57. The Apicius who is above mentioned, after spending a fortune in gluttony, destroyed himself. PR. cf. xi. 3. Tac. A. iv. 1. Mart. II. lxix. III. xxii. R.

"Hoc; understand fecisti. LU.

24. Erst girt round the loins with the papyrus matted or stitched together.'i. 26. Plin. xiii. 11. PR. cf. viii. 162. The papyrus is called patria, as the siluri are called municipes, 33. id "Eews, Xiva δήσας ὑπὲρ αὐχένος παπύρῳ, μέθυ μοι διαxovira Anacr. iv. 4. Hor. II S. viii. 10. Phæd. II. v. 11 sqq. BO, p. 283 sqq.


R. The savages of the newly-discovered islands, and the countrymen of Crispinus at the present day, are said to wear this sort of dress. Rear-Admiral Perrée says, "La férocité des habitans est pireque les sauvages; majeure partie habillés en paille;" Intercepted Letters. G.

25. Understand emuntur. LU. squama, contemptuously, for the fish.' VS.

26. Asinius Celer e consularibus, hoc pisce prodigus, Caio principe unum mercatus octo millibus numum: quæ reputatio aufert transversum animum ad contemplationem eorum, qui in conquestione luxus, coquos emi singulos pluris quam equos quiritabant: at nunc coci triumphorum pretiis parantur et coquorum pisces; Plin. ix. 17. R.

27. You can purchase still larger estates in Apulia for the money: landed property being at a discount in Italy, especially in the wilder parts of it.' but cf. ix. 55. HN. agri suburbani tantum possidet, quantum invidiose in desertis Apuliae possideret; Sen. Ep. 87. N. Q. v. 17. Plin. xvii. 24. Gell. ii. 22. incipit montes Appulia notos ostentare, quos torret Atabulus; Hor. I S. v. 77 sq. PR. nec tantus umquam siderum insedit vapor siticulose Apuliæ; E. iii. 15 sq.

28 To have gorged.' Hence our word GLUTTON. He now attacks Domitian.

29. Endoperator x. 138. the obsolete poetical form of Imperator (which is inadmissible in epic verse) used by Ennius and Lucretius; with dor, the Greek for in, prefixed. R. Imperator (1) in its simplest sense denotes the general of an army,' administrator rei gerenda; Cic. de Or. I. xlviii. 210. (2) More emphatically it is a commander in chief, who, upon a signal and important service, had this title conferred upon him by the acclamation of the soldiers or a decree of the


30 Exiguam et modicæ sumtam de margine cœnæ, Purpureus magni ructarit scurra Palatî,


Jam princeps Equitum, magna qui voce solebat Vendere municipes fricta de merce siluros? Incipe, Calliope, licet et considere: non est 35 Cantandum, res vera agitur. Narrate, puellæ Pierides: prosit mihi, vos dixisse puellas!

Senate.' This, both during the Republic,
[castella munitissima, nocturno Pomptinii
adventu, nostro matutino, cepimus, incen-
dimus: Imperatores appellati sumus;
Cic. Att. v. 20.] and after. [Tiberius id
quoque Blerso tribuit, ut Imperator a
legionibus salutaretur, prisco erga duces
honore, qui bene gesta republica et impetu
victoris exercitus conclamabantur; Tac.
An. iii. 74. Cic. Phil. xiv. 4 sq. Plin.
Pan. 12. 56.] Thus from the name of
an office, it became a title of dignity,
which was not regularly applied unless
a certain number of the enemy were
slain: [D. Cass. xxxvii. 40.] Appian
says 10,000. [B. C. ii. p. m. 455.] And
it was conferred but once in one war:
Claudius, in his war against Britain,
Iwas repeatedly saluted Imperator,
though contrary to established rules."
[D. Cass. lx. 21.] This title was com-
monly expressed on their coins both under
the Republic and after. [SP, diss. x.
t. ii. p. 180 sqq.] (3) Under J. Cæsar
the word took a third signification, and
implied the chief civil authority, or what
we understand by 'Emperor.' [D. Cass.
xliii. 44.] Imperator in this sense is
prefixed to a name; in the two other
senses it is put after it: as Imperator
Cæsar Augustus; [Liv. i. 19.] and on the
other hand M. Tullius Imperator as in
the address of many of his letters. [Recepit
Julius praenomen Imperatoris, cog-
nomen Patris Patria; Suet. 76.] The
second sense was not destroyed by the
third; for many Emperors were saluted
as Imperatores long after their ac-
cession. Octavian, for instance, had
that compliment paid him upwards of.
twenty times. [Tac. A. i. 9.] TA, Civil
Law, p. 30. See CAR, L. ix. p. 214 sq.
So many sestertia,' i. e.
a dish
costing so many.' cf. 16. PR.

30. If Crispinus devoured such an expensive dish, and that not a principal one, but merely a side-dish, and not at any great banquet, but at a quiet supper.' M.


31. Purple.' cf. i. 27. PR. as contrasted with v. 24. M.

The indigestions and crudities, generated in the stomachs of those who feed on rich and high-seasoned dishes, occasion indigestion, flatulence, and nauseous eructations. iii. 233. M.

The buffoon' used contemptuously for courtier.' cf. Mart. VIII. xcix. PR. See the characters of the goxos, the xóλağ, and the ßwμoλóxos Arist. Eth. iv. 6 and 8.

The words magni palati look very like a pun. HN.

32. Not Master of the Horse,' but 'first of the Equestrian order,' 'one of the illustrious knights:' (cf. Tac. A. xi. 4. ii. 59. also vii. 89. x. 95. R. Liv. xlii. 61. and AD.) who by their fortune were eligible to the senatorial rank. LI. ER. cf. Hor. Ep. iv. 15 sq. iii. 159. M.

Magna voce vendere to hawk about the streets.' M. Sen. Ep. 56. R.

33. Municipes of the same borough town.' xiv. 271. SA. viz. Alexandria. Gell. xxvi. 13. PR. cf. 24. R.

'Shads.' M. pisces fricti, ut diu durent, eodem momento, quo friguntur et levantur, aceto calido perfunduntur; Apic. i. 11. The cured fish, which were imported from Egypt, were much esteemed. Diod. i. 36. Luc. t. iii. p. 249. this sort (Scheilan Niloticus) was so common and cheap, that it was never bought or sold but by the lower orders. MNS.


34. He here ridicules the practice of invoking the Muses. RI. Calliope presided over heroic verse: PR. she was also #gopsgiorárn árariwy Hes. Th. 79. Sil. iii. 222. xii. 390. Virg. Æ. ix. 525. Thus Homer Batr. 1 sqq. Hor. I S. v. 51 sqq. R.

We may be seated; for the matter on the tapis will not be despatched in an instant.' M. See iii. 265, note.

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35. We have no poetical fiction to deal with.' M. x. 178. R.

36. The Muses were called Pierides

Quum jam semianimum laceraret Flavius orbem Ultimus et calvo serviret Roma Neroni;

Incidit Adriaci spatium admirabile rhombi

40 Ante domum Veneris, quam Dorica sustinet Ancon, Implevitque sinus: neque enim minor hæserat illis, Quos operit glacies Mæotica ruptaque tandem

from Pieria, a district on the confines of Macedonia and Thessaly; in which Jupiter visited their mother Mnemosyne. Ov. M. vi. 114. M. Cic. de N. D. iii. 54. PR. cf. vii. 8. 60. R.

Prosit nostris in montibus ortas; Virg. E. ix. 92. VS. 'Let me experience, in your patronage, the benefit of having paid this compliment to your innocence and youth.' FA.

37. The date of this event is given with much precision in majestic verse. LU. vi. 82. R. Virg. Æ. iv. 686. · The world lies at its last gasp, bleeding under the fangs and talons of a ferocious tyrant.' The Flavian family was one of no distinction before Vespasian's time; Suet. 1. PR.

38. Domitian was the last of the Cæsars also. LU. Flavia gens, quantum tibi tertius abstulit heres! pæne fuit tanti, non habuisse duos; Mart. Spect. ult. VS. Ausonius has imitated this: hactenus edideras dominos, gens Flavia, justos: cur, duo quæ dederant, tertius eripuit ? vix tanti est habuisse illos: quia dona bonorum sunt brevia; æternum, quæ nocuere, dolent; Tetr. 12. Dom.

Et Titus imperii felix brevitate: sequutus frater, quem calvum dixit sua Roma Neronem; Aus. de x11 Cæs. T. Baldness was a very sore subject with the emperor; Suet. 18. and was considered a great dissight among the Romans. Suet. Cæs. 45. On the stage, it was one of the distinguishing characteristics of parasites and other ridiculous personages; R. and is still retained by the heroes of modern pantomime.

'Was enslaved.' Domitian was the first to accept the title of dominus, to which servus is the relative term, as miles is to imperator, and civis to princeps.

LU. Suet. 13.

He is called a second Nero' from his excessive cruelty. T. Suet. Dom. 10 sq. 15. PR. Thus Eneas was taunted as another Paris: Virg. Æ. iv. 215. R.

39. Parturiunt montes: nascetur ridiculus mus; Hor. A. P. 139. PR. This

is another instance of periphrasis. spatium rhombi (& dià dvor) for rhombus spatiosus (i.e. ingens, as spatiosus taurus; Ov. R. À. 421. SA.); so also Crispi senectus; 81. Montani venter; 107. vini senectus; xiii. 214. Thaletis ingenium; ib. 184. Herculeus labor; Hor. I Od. iii. 36. virtus Catonis; III Od. xxi. 11. virtus Scipiadæ et mitis sapientia Læli; II S. i. 72. nodosa pondera clave; Sil. ii. 246. vis elephantorum; Id. iv. 601. in imitation of the Homeric expressions βίη Ελένοιο or Ηρακληείη, ἱερὸν μένος ̓Ατρείδαο, ἱερὴ ἴς Τηλεμάχοιο, σθένος Ωρίωνος, &c. R. In English we say "The King's most excellent Majesty" for the King himself. The expression in the text may also be compared with συὸς χρῆμα μέγα, see Her. i. 36. iii. 130. vi. 43. vii. 188. and notes.

Adriaco mirandus litore rhombus; Ov. Hal. 125. Ravenna in the Adriatic was famous for its turbots, as Tarentum and the Lucrine lake for oysters, (cf. 140 sqq.) the Tiber for pikes, Sicily for the murana, and Rhodes for the elops; Plin. ix. 54. R. Ib. 20. PR.

40. The poet by being thus minute (as though every particular was of the utmost importance) enhances the irony. M.

Domus the temple;' LU. Virg. Æ. vi. 81. Prop. III. ii. 18. cf. Cat. xxxvi. 13. R.

Ancona, in the Picenian territory, was founded by a colony of Syracusans (who were of Doric race) flying from the tyranny of Dionysius. FA. It was named from a bend of the mountain whose promontory formed its harbour, resembling an elbow dyxwv. Mel. ii. 4. PR. Plin. iii. 13. R.

41. Incidit (in retia) implevitque sinus; a quotation from Virgil, implevitque sinum sanguis; Æ. x. 819. VS. "Fill'd the wide bosom of the bursting seine." G. sinus is used in a similar sense, Mart. XIII. c. 2. Grat. Cyn. 29. R. cf. i. 88. PR. 150. note on 45.

42. Palus Maotis now the Sea of Azof,' communicating with the Black

Solibus effundit torpentis ad ostia Ponti
Desidia tardos et longo frigore pingues.
45 Destinat hoc monstrum cymba linique magister
Pontifici summo.
Quis enim proponere talem

Aut emere auderet, quum plena et litora multo

Delatore forent? Dispersi protenus algaemmeviality
Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo,

50 Non dubitaturi fugitivum dicere piscem
Depastumque diu vivaria Cæsaris, inde
Elapsum, veterem ad dominum debere reverti.
Si quid Palfurio, si credimus Armillato,
Quidquid conspicuum pulcrumque est æquore toto,

Sea by the Straits of Caffa. R. To
Πόντον, ἔνθα ἔστιν ἡ Μαιῶτις λίμνη, ἐν ᾗ
πᾶς ἰχθὺς ἀπομαιοῦται, ὅθεν καὶ αὕτη
Xion Maitis óvoμágeras Hipparch. .
T. B' Zwd. HN.


By the solar beams.' G. Ponti Euxini, note on Her. i. 6.

44. Immense shoals of fish are caught in the neighbourhood of Byzantium. Tac. A. xii. 63. R. Strab. vii. p. 320. Arist. H. A. viii. 13. 16. xv. 10. Plin. ix. 15 20. Ambr. Hex. v. 10. LI. Itaque tempestate piscium vis Ponto erupit; Sall. VS.

45. Monstrum see ii. 143. Linum (1) ' flax' (2) 'string' (3) ‘a net;' v. 102. sinuatum linum a landing net;' Sil. vii. 503. F.

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The master of the bark and net:' another periphrasis. See Eur. Cyc. 86. Esch. P. 384 sq. 389. R.

46. All the emperors bore the title of 'Chief Pontiff.' LU. There may be an allusion here to the good living of the priests: pontificum potiore cœnis; Hor. II Od. xiv. 28. GR. or to the discrepancy between the sanctity of the office and the viciousness of the person. G.

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Proponere understand venum. LU. 47. Et, not only the city, but even.' PR.

48. Delator, ovxoQávrns.

'So dispersed that no place is secure from their officiousness.'

'Inspectors of sea-weed,' (a thing proverbially worthless, projecta vilior alga; Virg. E. vii. 42. PR. Hor. II S. v. 8. R.) put contemptuously for litoris maritimi inquisitores. They somewhat resem

bled those revenue officers called 'tide-

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49. Would argue the matter;' or, understanding lege, Would contest the point at law." AD.

Nudus may be taken metaphorically, and auxilio understood: cf. vii. 35. R.

50. Fellows who would not scruple to swear the fish was a stray.' Such were the oppressive measures used to fleece the people, on the most groundless pretences, and yet under colour of legal claim. M. cf. Suet. Dom. 9. 12. R.

51. Vivaria; iii. 308. Macr. iii. 13. PR.

53. Palfurius Sura had been a buffoon and a parasite at the court of Nero; for which Vespasian expelled him from the senate; when he commenced Stoic, and talked (which Suetonius says he could do very eloquently, Dom. 13.) of abstinence and virtue; till Domitian, who wanted little other recommendation of a man, than the having justly incurred the contempt and anger of his father, made him his own attorney general, in which office, he acquitted himself most egregiously. G. VS. PR. See vii. 80, note on Saleius.

Armillatus was another sycophant of
much the same stamp. VS.

54. By the laws of England, whale
and sturgeon are called royal fish, be-
cause they belong to the king, on account
of their excellence, as part of his ordinary
revenue, in consideration of his protect-
ing the seas from pirates and robbers.
Blackst. Com. 4to. p. 290. M.
not strong reason moved the legist's
minde, To say, the fayrest of all nature's


55 Res fisci est, ubicumque natat. Donabitur ergo,
Ne pereat. Jam letifero cedente pruinis
Auctumno, jam quartanam sperantibus ægris,
Stridebat deformis hyems prædamque recentem

Servabat tamen hic properat, velut urgeat Auster.
60 Utque lacus suberant, ubi, quamquam diruta, servat
Ignem Trojanum et Vestam colit Alba minorem,
Obstitit intranti miratrix turba parumper.
Ut cessit, facili patuerunt cardine valvæ.

kinde The prince, by his prerogative, may clayme?" Marston. G.

55. Is the property of the exchequer.' GRE.

'If such be the law, we will make a merit of necessity, and present every choice fish to the emperor, lest we lose both that and our labour.' HK.

56. Acute and fatal' diseases are frequent in autumn,' especially in Italy and during the prevalence of southerly winds. Hipp. Aph. iii. 9. Galen. PR. vi. 517. Plin. ii. 48. Virg. G. iii. 478 sqq. Hor. II Od. xiv. 15 sq. III Od. xxiii. 8. II S. vi. 18 sq. Pers. vi. 13. R.

Giving place to.' viportifers xeiμaves ixxwgovciv sixágra ligu Soph. Aj. 675.


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'Hoar-frosts,' for winter;' Virg. G. i. 230. R.

57. Sperantibus may be either (1) taken by the figure catachresis for timentibus. LU. Or (2) sperare may be considered as a generic term including optare and timere. M. cf. Virg. Æ. i. 543. iv. 419. xi. 275. V. Flac. iii. 295. Herodian, I. iii. 11. R. See notes on arloas Her. i. 77. iii. 62. and on roμar vi. 109. Or (3) we may translate it hoping (Hor. II Od. x. 13.) that the fever will become intermittent.' nam quartana neminem jugulat; sed si ex ea facta quotidiana est, in malis æger est; Cels. Med. iii. 15. In accordance with which is the Italian proverb" Febre quartana No fa sonare campana.” FL. RÌ. GR. cf. Cic. ad Div. xvi. 11 pr. R.

58. Stridere is properly applied to a stormy wind. Cic. T. Q. i. 68. PR. stridens aquilone procella; Virg. Æ. i.


Informes hyemes; Hor. II Od. x. 15. LU. Recentem: another reason why it would keep.

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The south-wind is very unfavourable for the keeping of either meat or fish. Gal. Aph. iii. 5. PR. xiv. 130. Hor. II S. ii. 41 sq. R.

60. Suberant were near at hand.' Horace also uses the plural; Albanos prope te lacus; IV Od. i. 19 sq. M. Now Lago di Castel Gandolfo.' Liv. v. 15 sqq. Cic. Div. i. 44. pro Mil. 31. Virg. . ix. 387. R.

'Demolished,' with the exception of the temples, by Tullus Hostilius. Liv. i. 29. PR.

61. Alba Longa, the favourite residence of Domitian, stood on the declivity of a hill near a lake which was famous in Roman story. It was built by Ascanius (xii. 70 sqq. Virg. Æ. iii. 390 sqq. viii. 43 sqq.), and there the Trojans deposited the sacred fire brought from Ilium. When the city was destroyed, and Rome became the capital of the nation, a remnant of the Vestal fire was still left there, from some superstitious motive, and piously preserved through all the vicissitudes of the commonwealth. Liv. i. 3. 25. 29 sqq. Here Domitian usually kept the Quinquatria in honour of Minerva his tutelary deity; and here he often convened the senate. G. PR. M. 145. Plin. Ep. IV. xi. 6. Tac. Ag. 45. Suet. Dom. 4. 19. Stat. IV S. ii, 18 sqq. 62 sqq. Virg. Æ. ii. 293. R.

The lesser Vesta, in comparison with the splendour of her temple and worship in Rome. VS.

62. Thus turba salutatrix; v. 21. R. 63. As the crowd made way.' M.

Janua quæ facilis movebat cardines; Hor. I Od. xxv. sqq. M. Opposed to this is Janitor, difficilem moto cardine pande forem; Ov. Am. I. vi. 1 sq. Valva are the same as dupliees fores; ib. viii. 22.

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