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Exclusi spectant admissa opsonia Patres.

65 Itur ad Atridem. Tum Picens "Accipe" dixit "Privatis majora focis: genialis agatur

Iste dies, propera stomachum laxare saginis Et tua servatum consume in sæcula rhombum. Ipse capi voluit." Quid apertius? Et tamen Illi 70 Surgebant crista: nihil est, quod credere de se Non possit, quum laudatur Dîs æqua potestas.

whence the expressions junge ostia; ix. 105. and junctae fenestra; Hor. I Od. xxv. 1. R.

64. "The senators, shut out, behold The envied dainty enter." G. JA. This intimates the haughty arrogance of Do

mitian. HK.

'Ono was applied to 'fish' in particular; see Ath. vii. 1. R.

65. Itur used impersonally as surgitur; 144. M. iii. 235, note. vii. 82. Hor. I S. i. 7.

The emperor is called Atrides from his resemblance in imperiousness to the generalissimo of the Greeks. Hom. II. A Suet. Dom. 13. R. cf. x. 84. DO. i.

61 sq.

The fisher of Picenum,' VS. might have found a precedent for his conduct in Herodotus (iii. 42.), who gives an account of a very fine fish which was taken and brought to Polycrates the tyrant of Samos. The presentation speech is preserved by the historian; it is very civil, as might be expected, but far short of this before us. Herodotus adds that Polycrates invited the fisherman to sup with him: a trait of politeness which, we may be pretty confident, Domitian did not think it necessary to imitate. G.

66. Greater than (i.e. too great for) private kitchens;' M. cf. vi. 114. not to mention the delicacy of the fish itself; 39. Hor. I S. ii. 115 sq. Pers. vi. 23. R.

Genialis; Pers. ii. 1-3. PR. Hor. III Od. xvii. 13 sqq. M.

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67. Lose no time in expanding your stomach for the reception of these delicacies;' LU. or 'in releasing it from the dainties with which it is now loaded.' This relief was usually obtained by emetics. M. Gluttons sometimes adopted this expedient after a first or second course to prepare themselves for the


or fut

next. ACH. Suet. Vit. 13. I am credibly informed that a celebrated gourmand in London practised the very same means, after an early civic feast, to prepare himself for a fashionable dinner at the west end.'

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68. Sæculum is repeatedly used by the writers about this time, especially the younger Pliny, to signify the reign.' HK.

69. It is surprising that any man of sense should have introduced such an

absurd idea into serious poetry; and yet Claudian has something not unlike it in some high-flown Alcaics on the marriage of Honorius and Maria: 13-15. Jonson too, whose learning often got the better of his judgement and betrayed him into absurdities, has expanded the thought thus: "Fat aged carps, that run into thy net, And pikes, now weary their own kind to eat, As loth the second draught or cast to stay, Officiously at first themselves betray;" Forest, ii. 2. G.

'What flattery was ever more grossly palpable?' LU. Illi see 73. iii. 264.

70. The metaphor is taken from a bird, which, when proud and pleased, 'cocks and struts and plumes itself:' M. as the contrary is expressed by the word

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71. Such was the impious vanity of many heathen princes; Caligula (Suet. 22.), Aurelian, Carus, Diocletian, Antiochus, and many eastern sovereigns (Curt. viii. 5.), Alexander of Macedon (Just. xi. xii. "With ravished ears The monarch hears; Assumes the God, Affects to nod, And seems to shake the spheres;" D, Alex. Feast. M.). Domitian styled himself Dominus et Deus; Suet. 13. Mart. V. viii. 1. cf. Eutr. ix. 16. Aurel. Vict. de Cæs. 39. Sen. Ep. 59, m. PR. R. Daniel vi. 12.

Sed deerat pisci patinæ mensura.


Ergo in consilium proceres, quos oderat Ille; In quorum facie miseræ magnæque sedebat 75 Pallor amicitiæ. Primus, clamante Liburno "Currite! jam sedit!" rapta properabat abolla Pegasus, adtonitæ positus modo villicus Urbi. Anne aliud tunc Præfecti? quorum optimus atque

Acts xii. 21-23. "O what is it proud slime will not believe Of his own worth, to hear it equal praised Thus with the gods?" Jonson, Sejanus. G.

72. Quamvis lata gerat patella rhombum, rhombus latior est tamen patella; Mart. XIII. lxxxi. PR.

73. There cannot be a stronger instance of the capricious insolence with which the tyrants of Rome treated the servile and degenerate senate, than their being summoned on this paltry occasion. LU. cf. Sil. i. 609. Liv. ix. 17. R. There is an anecdote of Nero, worthy, in every respect, to be placed by the side of that in the text. One day, while the empire was in a state of revolt, he convened the senators in haste. And, when they were breathless with apprehension of some alarming communication, his speech from the throne was this, " 'Eğúζηκα πῶς ἡ ὑδραυλὶς καὶ μεῖζον καὶ ἐμμελέστερον φθέγξεται.” G.

He hated them, from a consciousness of those feelings with which they could not but regard him.' M. rò piros zal πρὸς τὰ γένη, μισεῖ γὰρ τὸν συκοφάντην ἕκαστος καὶ τοῦ κακῶσαι ἑφίεται· καὶ μὴ sivas Boúλerai, öv pos Arist. Rh. II.

v. 3.

74. 'Paleness betraying fear.' LU. cf. Suet. 11. and i. 33. PŘ. Ov. M. ii. 776. Tr. III. ix. 18. R. Poßegú ir gyn δυναμένων ποιεῖν τι· καὶ ἀδικία δύναμιν ἔχουσα· καὶ τὸ ἐπ' ἄλλῳ εἶναι· καὶ οἱ πρᾷοι xai sigwas nai wavougyo, ädno yag Arist. Rh. II. vi. 2 sq.

75. The crier of the court making proclamation.' BR. cf. iii. 240. M. Liv. iii. 38. iv. 32. xxxvi. 3. Tac. An. ii. 28. R.

76. He has taken his seat.' LU. Snatching up his cloak.' iii. 115. GR. palmata insignis abolla; Prud. c. Sym. I Ep. xx. PR. Juvenal ridicules this Stoic (most of the lawyers were of this sect) for being the first to run, in such trepidation, at the earliest summons, to

wait on his lord and master; whereas the disciples of Zeno boasted themselves to be free, and kings, and professed to be imperturbable. cf. Hor. III Od. iii. 1 sqq. HN.

77. Pegasus was a man of such great learning that he was called a Book;' a most profound lawyer, and an upright and worthy magistrate; he had filled the office of consul, had presided over many of the provinces with honour to himself and satisfaction to the people; and was appointed prefect of the city by Vespasian. He is said to have been named after the ship of his father, who was trierarch of a Liburnian galley. VS.

Besides the Dacians, who now kept the city in a constant state of alarm,' the Catti, the Sygambri, and other barbarous nations, were on the eve of commencing hostilities. 147. G. Or 'stupified as one thunderstruck.’ PR.

Positus for propositus. R.

Modo cf. nuper; ii. 160. MNS. !

By the term bailiff' we are given to understand that the emperors regarded Rome as nothing but a large farm, and the citizens as no better than so many menials and labourers. MNS. cf.iii. 195. R. Villicus ærari quondam, nunc cultor agelli; Tib. SA. does not prove that villicus was synonymous with profectus, as it is evidently used metaphorically and by way of antithesis.

78. Tunc in those days' i. e. under the Flavian family. MNS. cf. Suet. Ves.

16. R.

'Prefects of the city' were appointed by Romulus, and existed both under the regal and the consular government. But their authority was so enlarged by Augustus, that he may be almost considered as having instituted them. In this he is said to have acted by the advice of Mæcenas, on whom he first conferred the office: and the choice of those whom he afterwards appointed to it shows his opinion of its importance. The juris

Interpres legum sanctissimus, omnia quamquam
80 Temporibus diris tractanda putabat inermi
Justitia. Venit et Crispi jucunda senectus,
Cujus erant mores, qualis facundia, mite
Ingenium. Maria ac terras populosque regenti
Quis comes utilior, si clade et peste sub illa
85 Sævitiam damnare et honestum afferre liceret

Consilium? Sed quid violentius aure tyranni,
Cum quo de pluviis aut æstibus aut nimboso
Vere loquuturi fatum pendebat amici?
Ille igitur numquam direxit brachia contra
90 Torrentem, nec civis erat, qui libera posset
Verba animi proferre et vitam impendere vero.
Sic multas hyemes atque octogesima vidit
Solstitia, his armis illa quoque tutus in aula.

diction of the prefect was now extended a hundred miles beyond the walls. He decided in all causes between masters and slaves, patrons and clients, guardians and wards, &c.: he had the inspection of the mints, the regulation of the markets, and the superintendence of the public amusements. G.

80. He was a time-server, not daring to wield the sword of Justice with vigour; for since it was impossible to punish the greater criminals, he thought it but fair to connive at petty offenders.' FA.

Justice is frequently represented on Roman coinsunarmed,' with a goblet (patera) in one hand and a sceptre in the other. R.


81. Vibius Crispus Placentinus was another worthy but cautious man. One of his good sayings is preserved by Suetonius: Domitianus inter initia principatus, quotidie secretum sibi horarium sumere solebat, nec quidquam amplius, quam muscas captare, ac stilo præacuto configere; ut cuidam interroganti Essetne quis intus cum Casare?' non absurde responsum sit a Vibio Crispo Ne musca quidem; 3. FA. Vibius Crispus, compositus et jucundus, atque delectatione natus, privatis tamen causis quam publicis melior; Quint. x. 1. PR. Id. v. 13. vi. 2. xii. 11. Tac. de Or. 8. 13. An. xiv. 28. H. ii. 10. iv. 41. 43. R. Lumina Nestorei mitis prudentia Crispi et Fabius Veiento: potentem signat utrumque pur

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pura; ter memores implerunt nomine
fastos, et prope Cæsarei confinis Acilius
aule; Statius: V. For the periphrasis
see v. 39. vii. 35. x. 75. R. sòv μévos
'Aλxivóoio Hom. Od. H 167. FÅ.
83. To the emperor.' LU.
84. Understand fuisset.
Scipiada, clades Libya; Virg. Æ.
vi. 844.

85. Cf. Suet. Dom. 10-12. R.

86. It is dangerous teneras mordaci radere vero auriculas; Pers. i. 107. PR. "Tyrants' ears, alas, are ticklish things."G. 88. Was at stake.' R.

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Proximus ejusdem properabat Acilius ævi

95 Cum juvene, indigno, quem mors tam sæva maneret
Et domini gladiis tam festinata: sed olim
Prodigio par est in nobilitate senectus ;
Unde fit, ut malim fraterculus esse gigantis.
Profuit ergo nihil misero, quod cominus ursos
100 Figebat Numidas, Albana nudus arena

Venator. Quis enim jam non intelligat artes
Patricias? Quis priscum illud miretur acumen,
Brute, tuum? Facile est barbato imponere regi.
Nec melior vultu, quamvis ignobilis, ibat

Even in that court: the court of a Nero and a Domitian!' LU.

94. Acilius Glabrio, the father, was of consular dignity and a man singulari prudentia et fide; Plin. Ep. i. 14. LU. He was banished subsequently to this, and then put to death for high treason. Suet. 10. PR. Unless these words refer rather to Domitius the son. R.

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95. Who this young man was, is doubtful. Dio gives an account of one Acilius Glabrio, who was put to death by Domitian for impiety (attachment to Jewish customs,' perhaps Christianity), and because he had fought in the arena : for when he was consul (Trajan was his colleague, and they were both young at the time,) Domitian sent for him to Alba and compelled him to engage a lion at the celebration of the Juvenilia: he killed the beast; and, some time after, the tyrant put him to death, through envy of the applause he had then obtained; lxvii. 13. G. R.

96. Domini see 71. Olim long since.' M.

97. Prædictiones vero et pra sensiones rerum futurarum quid aliud declarant, nisi hominibus ea quæ sint, ostendi, monstrari, portendi, prædici? ex quo illa ostenta, monstra, portenta, prodigia dicuntur? Cic. N. D. ii. 3. Div. i. 42. PR.

See note on giornor Her. iii. 80. that chapter gives a very exact portraiture of the Roman tyrant.

98. The giants (ynyevus) were fabled to be the sons of Titan and Terra; their younger brother' therefore would be Terra filius; an obscure man whose parents were unknown, and who might seem (like a mushroom) to owe his



origin to the Earth. LU. Pers. vi. 57 841• PR. Their little brother,' otherwise I might still chance to incur notice. R. jure perhorrui late conspicuum tollere verticem; Hor. III Od. xvi. 18 sq.

99. Suet. Dom. 4. 19. PR. Understand juveni. LU. Men of rank, and even women, entered the arena, either voluntarily or by compulsion, (see 95, note) for the emperor's amusement. ii. 143 sqq. viii. 192 sqq. i. 22 sqq. R.

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100. Numidian bears;' (see note on Tuscan boars ;' i. 22 sq.) horridas pelle Libystidis ursa; Virg. Æ. v. 37. Herod. iv. 191. (WS.) Mart. I. cv. 5. Solin. 29. Strab. Pliny denies that there are bears in Africa; viii. 36. 58. LI. But there are weighty authorities against him. SA. Dr. Shaw mentions the bear, as one of the animals indigenous to Africa: Travels, p. 177. LA.

Nudus cf. i. 23. and ii. 71. where it is mentioned as an indication of insanity.

101. Who is not now alive to the arts of patricians?' LU.

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102. Primitive; which would not pass current in the present day.' LU.

103. Liv. i. 56. PR. It is no such hard matter to gull a king with far more beard than brains.' G. It was 444 years before barbers were introduced into the city. They first came from Sicily. Varr. R. R. ii. ult. Plin. vii. 59. Gell. iii. 4. Pers. iv. 1. PR. Long before the days of Brutus, we have an instance of a like device, by which David saved himself at the court of Achish king of Gath; 1 Sam. xxi. 10-15. M. vi. 105. xvi. 29. R. Men were in those days sundus.

104. Equally pale.' LU. cf. 75. M.

105 Rubrius, offensæ veteris reus atque tacendæ
Et tamen improbior satiram scribente cinado.
Montani quoque venter adest abdomine tardus,
Et matutino sudans Crispinus amomo,
Quantum vix redolent duo funera; sævior illo
110 Pompeius tenui jugulos aperire susurro,

Et, qui vulturibus servabat viscera Dacis,
Fuscus, marmorea meditatus prœlia villa,
Et cum mortifero prudens Veiento Catullo,

Though ignoble :' for it must be remembered that this lord of the world did not consider it derogatory to his dignity to impale flies on a bodkin.

105. Of Rubrius and his nameless offence' nothing certain is known.

106. More lost to shame than the pathic satirist, had become proverbial. GE. cf. xiv. 30. Mart. VI. xxxix. 12. Plaut. Aul. III. ii. 8. MNS. ii. 27. Rom.

ii. 21 sqq.

For improbus see iii. 282.

107. Curtius Montanus, (whose unwieldy paunch prepares us for the prominent part which he is to bear in the debate, G.) is mentioned xi. 34. Tac. A. xvi. 28 sq. 33. H. iv. 40. PR. But the name of Montanus was a very common one. R.

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108. Cf. 1 sqq. LU. i. 26 sqq. R. Morning' has a twofold sense oriental' and early in the day.' HO. VS. It showed the height of voluptuousness to have bathed and anointed at such an untimely hour instead of in the afternoon. PR. Authority is wanting for the word's being used to signify 'eastern.' M. Eurus ad Auroram Nabateaque regna recessit Persidaque et radiis juga subdita matutinis: Vesper et occiduo que litora sole tepescunt, proxima sunt Zephyro; Ov. M. i. 61 sqq. is not conclusive. The corresponding Greek word hotos or os, however, has the double meaning. pallidus eoo thure quod ignis olet; Mart. III. lxv. 8.

The amomum (Plin. xiii. 1.) is an Assyrian shrub with a white flower, of which a very costly perfume was made. LU. Virg. E. iii. 89. iv. 25. R. The precise plant is not ascertained: amomum is the Linnæan name for the ginger.'

109. This perfume was one of the ingredients used in embalming. LU. It was also the practice to place a large quantity of aromatics with the body on a

funeral pile. FA. Pers. vi. 35 sqq. PR. St Matt. xxvi. 12. It was originally an eastern custom. M. See KI, de Fun. Rom. iii. 5. R. vii. 208, note.

110. Of Pompeius nothing further is known. R.

Savior aperire is a Grecism; FA. as quælibet in quemvis opprobria fingere savus; Hor. I Ep. xv. 30. R.

Jugulos aperire to cut men's throats.' (see note on iii. 36.) The noun has both a neuter and a masculine form. FA.

Hence Pliny has insidiantes susurri; Pan. 62. R. cf. iii. 122 sqq.

111. Corn. Fuscus was slain with a great part of his army in an expedition against the Dacians, VS. or Catti, which Domitian had entrusted him with. Suet. 6. Tac. H. ii. 86. iii. 4. 12. 42. 66. iv. 4. Eutr. vii. fin. PR. Dio lxviii. 9. R.

'Vultures' are said to resort to a spot, where slaughter is to take place, two or three days beforehand! Plin. x. 6. Plut. Q. Rom. 93. PR. The entrails' are the part which these birds most eagerly devour. FA. see Job xxxix. 27 sqq. St Matt. xxiv. 28. St Luke xvii. 37.

The obsequiousness by which he contrived to prolong his days, served but to fatten him for vulture's food.' R.

Dacia comprehended the modern provinces of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. PR.

112. Studied the art of war (vii. 128.) in a marble villa, and not in a tent of skins.' PR.

113. Fabricius Veiento: see iii. 185. vi. 113. His wife Hippia eloped with Sergius a gladiator. vi. 82. Both he and Catullus were of consular dignity. His shrewdness was shown by accommodating himself to the tyrannical caprices of Domitian. FA. In the reign of Nero he was banished for publishing a jeu d'esprit, which he called Codicils of persons de

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