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ARGUMENT. In this excellent Satire, Juvenal takes occasion, under pretence of advising

one Trebius to abstain from the table of Virro, a man of rank and fortune, to give a spirited detail of the mortifications to which the poor were subjected by the rich, at those entertainments to which, on account of the political connexion subsisting between patrons and clients, it was

sometimes thought necessary to invite them. He represents even a beggar's life as one of independence compared with

that of a parasite, 1-11. The supercilious patron thinks an occasional invitation to be, a payment in full of all his client's services; 12—23. and yet, when at the great man's board, poor Trebius meets with nothing but mortifications and affronts. The host has all the luxuries of the season—a variety of fine old wines, 30–37. iced water, 49 sq. excellent white bread, 70 899. a magnificent lobster, 80 sqq. surmullet, 92–98. lamprey, 99–102. giblets, 114. poultry, 115. wild boar, 116. truffles, 116 sqq. mushrooms, 147 sq. &c. &c. and a delicious dessert; 149–152. not to mention the splendid service of plate, 37–45. and the ostentatious retinue of pampered menials: 40.56 sqq. 67. 72 sqq. 83. 120 sqq. while you are put at the bottom of the table among a vulgar and quarrelsome set of fellows, 25—29. and—one can hardly call it-served by some ill-conditioned underlings, 40 sq. 52–55. 66 sq. 73–75. with vile wine 24 sqq. in a cracked mug, 46–48. bad water, 52. infamous bread, 67 sqq.crab and eggs to correspond, 84 sq. stale cabbage and rancid oil, 86–91. an eel—the sight of which is enough! 103. and a well-fed fish—caught in the common sewer, 104 sq. a dish of toadstools, 146. and two or three half-rotten apples, 153— 155. Besides all this, you must not open your lips, either to make any observation, 125 sqq. or to call for what you want, 60 sqq. or to ask your patron to take wine, 129—131. Money forms his criterion of merit, 132–137. especially where there is any chance of that money being one day his, 137–145. Towards his poor acquaintance he behaves just as if he derived amusement from tantalizing and insulting them, 156 sqq. If they have the

meanness to submit to such treatment, they deserve still worse, 161–173. A strain of manly indignation pervades the whole; and there is scarcely a

single trait of insult and indignity here mentioned, which is not to be found animadverted upon, with more or less severity, in the writers of

that age.

With this Satire may be compared, Pliny II Ep. vi. Athenæus vi. 5—18.

Petronius Sat. 31. Lucian Tepi Tão irrà usobã ouróvtwy: and several passages in the old comedy of The Supposes, by G. Gascoigne. G. R.

Si te propositi nondum pudet atque eadem est mens,
Ut bona summa putes, aliena vivere quadra ;
Si potes illa pati, quæ nec Sarmentus iniquas

Cæsaris ad mensas nec vilis Galba tulisset : 5 Quamvis jurato metuam tibi credere testi.

Ventre nihil novi frugalius. Hoc tamen ipsum
Defecisse puta, quod inani sufficit alvo :
Nulla crepido vacat? nusquam pons et tegetis pars inat
Dimidia brevior? Tantine injuria cænæ ?

D. R.

1. In the person of Trebius the poet 'Pamaño xadovow Plut. Ant. t. i. p. 943 attacks parasites generally. If you can put up with the indignities which the pam- • Uneven ;' where all the guests were pered great think fit to bestow on their not treated alike. BRO. humble companions, you must be so lost 4. Cæsaris vilis; ‘vile as he was'to all sense of honour and gentlemanly even at an emperor's table.' LU. feeling that I should hesitate to believe Apicius Galba was a notorious buffoon you on your oath.' R.

in the days of Tiberius and Augustus. 2. syabòr, supreme happiness.' VS. He is often mentioned by Martial : LU.

LU. I. xlii. 16. X. ci. PR. Quint. vi. At another's board.' Quadra some- 3. R. times signified “a trencher, sometimes a 5. Jurato is used as the past participle Aat cake or large biscuit; which, when of a deponent verb. LU. "Injuruto plus divided into quarters, was used as a credet mihi, quam jurato tibi; Plaut. trencher.' Hor. I Ep. xvii. 49. Adorea Amph. I. i. jurato mihi crede; Cic. Att. liba subjiciunt epulis : consumptis aliis, ut xiii

. 28. procem. Act. i. in Verr. PR. vertere morsus in Cereale solum penuria 6. I know of nothing sooner satisfied adegit edendi, et violare manu malisque than the belly.' Natura paucis est conaudacibus orbem fatalis crusti, patulis nec tenta : parvo fames constat, mugno fastiparcere quadris : Heus! etiam mensas dium ; Sen. LU. dives opis natura sua, consumimus?inquit Iulus ; Virg. Æ. si tu modo recte dispensare velis ; Hor. vii. 109 &c. ïï. 257. PR. cf. i. 137. I S. ï. 73 sq. PR. Sen. Ep. 17. 114. Virg. Mor. 48 sq. sectæ quadra placentæ ; 119 &c. R. discite quam parvo liceat proMart. III. lxxvii. 3. VI. lxxv. 1. IX. ducere vitam, et quantum natura petat; xci. 18. XII. xxxi. 18. R.

Luc. iv. 377. “ But would men think 3. Si potes istu pati, si nil perferre with how small allowance Untroubled recusas ; Mart. XI. xxiii. 15. uupia lotiy nature doth herself suffice, Such superαφόρησα ελευθέρω ανδρί εν αυταίς ήδη ταϊς Huity they would despise As with sat συνουσίαις γιγνόμενα: Luc. 13. πολλά πονείν care impeach their native joys;" Spenκαι υπομένειν υπέρ της τοσαύτης ευδαιμονίας: ser. G. 16. R.

7. ' But even supposing a man to Sarmentus was a Tuscan slave who want this little that is absolutely needed.' had run away from his mistress ; he fell LU. in the way of Mæcenas, and, happening 8. Crepido is 'a raised foot-way,' or to please him by his coarse humour, was a niche,' LU. iii. 296. PR. or ' a quay.' taken into his train, and afterwards ad- Curt. iv. 5. GR.

m mitted into the household of Augustus, Pons, see iv. 116. PR. xiv. 134. R. with whom he became a favourite. In Teges, ' a rug' or mat.' LU. VS. vi. the decline of life he was reduced by 117. vii. 221. ix. 140. Mart. VI. xxxix. his dissipation and extravagance to a 4. IX. xciii. 3. XI. xxxiii. 2. lvii. 5. Plin. state of destitution. Hor. I S. v. 51 xxi. 18. Varr. R. R. i. 22. R. sqq. VS. G. Đà tvos Kate- 9. 'Do you set such a value on a ρος παιγνίων παιδάριον, ε δηλικίας supper so insulting ?? LU.


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10 Tam jejuna fames, quum pol sit honestius, illic
Et tremere et sordes farris mordere canini?

Primo fige loco, quod tu discumbere jussus
Mercedem solidam veterum capis officiorum.

Fructus amicitiæ magnæ cibus. Imputat hunc rex 15 Et, quamvis rarum, tamen imputat. Ergo duos post

Si libuit menses neglectum adhibere clientem,
Tertia ne vacuo cessaret culcita lecto;
“ Una simus" ait. Votorum summa! Quid ultra

Quæris? Habet Trebius, propter quod rumpere somnum 20 Debeat et ligulas dimittere, sollicitus, ne

Tota salutatrix jam turba peregerit orbem
Sideribus dubiis aut illo tempore, quo se


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10. Jejuna fames ; Ον. Μ. viii. 791. αλλ' ήν τις άλλος επεισέλθη νεαλέστερος, ές R.

τουπίσω συ, και ούτως ές την άτιμοτάτην Polôi' faith ;'as edepol, ecastor, mecastor, ywvíay iźwobeis xatársıras págtus móvos hercle, mehercle ; R. which were oaths by Tūv raga@sgquivw». Luc. 26. R. the heroes Pollux, Castor, and Hercules. 18. An unceremonious mode of invita

Illic • in the niche or on the bridge.' tion: hodie apud me sis volo; Ter. Heaut. GRÆ.

I. i. 110. PR. 11. “Shiver and shake ;' not altogether Votorum summa; cf. 2. with the cold, but as a trick to excite 19. Trebius is the parasite with whom compassion. Hence perhaps tremens Juvenal is remonstrating. PR. 39. 43. Judæa; vi. 543. GR.

99. 129. 134. 156. ix. 35. R. *A filthy piece of brown barley bread, A

compensation for broken slumbers.' which was chucked out for the dogs.' cf. This is of course said ironically. cf. 76 ix. 122. PR. Mart. X. v. 5. R.

sqq. Mart. III. xxxvi. FA. ii. 127 sqq. M. 12. · Bear it in mind :' nostras intra te 20. Ligula means not only a latchet fige querelas; ix. 94. animis hæc mea figite or shoestring, but any tie used to fasten dicta ; Virg. Æ. iii. 250. R.

any part of the dress, laces, points, * When invited to take a place at table.' garters, braces, &c.' M. It may be Convenere toris jussi discumbere pictis; either derived from ligare; VS. or a dimiVirg. Æ. i. 708. M.

nutive of lingua ; Festus. PR. 'To go 13. ` Entire:' GRÆ. partem solido loose and slip-shod.' G. demere de die; Hor. I Od. i. 20.

21. Cf. i. 96. 117. 127. 132. PR. iv. Veterum of long standing :' for ser- 62.

Shall have gone its rounds to vices of so many days and months and salute its various patrons.' xonan diadgous.

Luc. 10. Nigr. 22. discursus ? i. 86. R. 14. “ All you get by friendship with • Shall have completed its circle at the great.' M. i. 33. iv. 20. 74. R. the levee, so as to leave no room for

Hunc i. e. cibum. LU.

* Takes into the account.' LU. vi. 179. 22.“ Macb. What is the night? LADY Mart. X. xxx. 26. XII. xlviii. 13. lxxxiv. M. Almost at odds with morning, which 4. Suet. Tib. 53. Phæd. I. xxii. 8. R. is which ;" Shakspeare Macb. III. iv. Rex

a noble patron.' LU. 130. M.i. M. Jamque sub Eoc dubios Atlantidis 136. PR.

ignes albet ager; V. Flacc. ii. 72 sq. et 16. Te mensis adhibet ; Hor. IV Od. jum curriculo nigram Nor roscida metam v. 32, R.

stringebat, nec se thalamis Tithonia conjux 17. ^ He invites you merely as a stop- protulerat stabatque nitens in limine primo; gap, being disappointed of one that was cum minus abnuerit noctem desisse viator, originally to have been of the party.' LU. quam cæpisse dien ; Sil. v. 24 sqq. R.

years.' GRÆ.



Frigida circumagant pigri sarraca Bootæ.
Qualis cæna tamen? Vinum, quod sucida nolit

to mean

23. * At the latter part of the night, and slow' either from the effects of cold, immediately preceding the break of day; pigra hibernæ frigora noctis; Tib. I. u. 29. BRI. GR. when only the most northern or from the ordinary pace of herdsmen, constellations are seen revolving.' Boötes tardi venere bubulci; Virg. E. x. 19. or and the two Bears never sink below our as nearer the centre of motion. R. VS. horizon, and therefore were fabled to be LU. PR. M. the only stars that never dipped in the "Εωθέν σε υπό κώδωνι εξαναστας, αποocean. μεσονυκτίοις ποθ' ώραις, στρέ- σεισάμενος του ύπνου το ήδιστον, συμπεριφεται ότ' άρκτος ήδη κατά χείρα την Θείς άνω και κάτω, έτι τον χειζον πηλό, Βοώτου Anac. iii. 1 sqq. άμος δε στρέφεται έχων επί τοϊν σκελούν luc. 24. συ δ' μεσονύκτιον ές δύσιν άρκτος 'Ωρίωνα κατάθλιος, τα μεν παραδραμών, τα δε βάδην αυτόν. Τheoc. xxiv. 11 sq. which pas- άναντα πολλά και κάτι αντα (τοιαύτη γαρ, sages favour those who interpret this line ως οίσθα, η Πόλις) περιελθών ιδρωκάς τε και

even at midnight.' VS. LU. πνευστιάς: 26. πολύ δε τούτων οι προσcum jam fectant Icarii sidera tardu boues ; ιόντες αυτοί και θεραπεύοντες γελοιότεροι Prop. II. Xxxiii. 23 sq. serus versare boxes νυκτός μεν εξανιστάμενοι μέσης, περιθέοντες et plaustra Boites ; ΙΙΙ. iv. 35. sive est δε εν κύκλω την πόλιν και προς των οικετών Arclophylar sive est piger ille Boites και αποκλειόμενοι, κύνες και κόλακες και τα Ον. F. iii. 405. M. ii. 172. Χ. 446 sqq. τοιαύτα ακούειν υπομένοντες· γέρας δε της Τr. Ι. iii. 47 sq. Mart. VΙΙΙ. xxi. 3 sq. jam πικράς ταύτης αυτοϊς περιόδου το φορτικών Phabum urgere momebat non dem coι εκείνο δείπνον και πολλών αίτιον συμφορών color ætheris, albaque nondum lux rubet et ld. Nigr. 22. R. flammas propioribus eripit astris, et jam 24. Tonsure tempus inter æquinoctium Pleias hebet, fessi jam plaustra Bootæ in vernum et solstitium, quum sudare infaciem puri redeunt languentia cæli, ma- ceperunt oves; a quo su dore recens lana joresque latent stella, calidumque refugit tonsa sucida appellata est. T'onsas Lucifer ipse diem; Luc. ii. 719 sqq. 236 recentes eodem die perungunt vino et oleo: sq. iv. 521 sqq. V. Flacc. vii. 456

sq. non nemo admixta cera albu et adipe Sen. Med. 314 sqq. Tro. 440 sqq. H. F. suillo; Varr. R. R. II. xi. 6. This wine 125 sqq. Jam nocte suprema ante novos was not even good enough for such a ortus, ubi sola superstite plaustro Arctos purpose : GR. or it was too thick for the ad Oceanum fugientibus invidet astris ; wool to imbibe it. LU. cf. Plin. xxix. 2. Stat. Th. ii. 683 sqq. Virg. G. iii. 381. των άλλων ήδιστόν τε και παλαιότατον Α. 1. 744. The fourteen stars near the οίνον πινόντων, μόνος σου πονηρόν τινα και north pole were at first called triomes παχύν πίνεις Luc. 26. Mart. I. xxi. i.e. teriones ‘oxen' (from terere), and II. xliii. III. Ix. IV. lxxxvi. VI. xi. R. ävaržao 'wains' (ii. 255. Quint. viii. 3.) That these are not merely poetical exfrom some fancied resemblance; after- aggerations is evident from the following wards 'Enixn and xuvorougac the greater passage : “ I supped lately with a person and lesser Bear' gxtos pegáan and with whom I am by no means intimate, peixgà, names probably invented by the who, in his own opinion, treated us with Arcadians from ágxtos meaning both a much splendid frugality; but according bear' and 'the north.' And hence, as to mine, in a sordid yet expensive manner. well as from the similarity of the words Some very elegant dishes were served up Arcas and Arcios, arose the fable of Arcas to himself and a few more of us; while and his mother Callisto being changed those which were placed before the rest into bears and translated to heaven. of the company were extremely cheap The constellation which seemed to follow and mean. There were in small bottles, and guide these was at first called Boarns three different sorts of wine ; not that the 'the ox-driver,' and afterwards ’Agx- guests might take their choice, but that Topúraš the bearward.' Arctophylur, they might not have an option in their vulgo qui dicitur esse Brötes, quod quasi power. The best was for himself and temone adjunctum præ se quatit Arctum; his friends of the first rank ; the next for Cic. N. Ď. ï. 42. Cold' either from those of a lower order; and the third for the chilliness of the air before day-break, his own and his guests' freedmen. One or from being in the northern heavens : who sat near me took notice of this cir

25 Lana pati : de conviva Corybanta videbis.

Jurgia proludunt; sed mox et pocula torques
Saucius et rubra deterges vulnera mappa,
Inter vos quoties libertorumque cohortem

Pugna Saguntina fervet commissa lagena. 30 Ipse capillato diffusum consule potat

Calcatamque tenet bellis socialibus uvam,
Cardiaco numquam cyathum missurus amico.


Prolusio is pro

sian war.

cumstance, and asked me how I approved which was many ages back. BRO. cf. of it? Not at all, I replied. Pray then, iv. 103. PR. vi. 105. at least as long said he, what is your method on such ago as 454 A.U. R. occasions ? When I make an invitation, Racked off from the wood' into wine. I replied, all are served alike : 1 invite jars, which were stopped down with wax, them with a design to entertain, not to plaster, or pitch, and marked with the affront them; and those I think worthy name of its country, and the consul's of a place at my table, I certainly think name by way of date : vina bibes, iterum worthy of every thing it affords:" Plin. Tauro diffusa ; Hor. I Ep. v. 4. T. Fs. Ep. ii. 6. G. PR.

Cf. Cic. Brut. 83. Ov. F. v. 517. 25. “The bad wine will presently dis- Plin. xiv. 14. 21. Colum. xii. 18. Hor. order you :' VS. ‘and you will become as I Od. xxi. 1 sqq. II. ü. 8. III. vii. 10 frantic as one of the priests of Cybele.' $99. xxi. 1 sqq. xxviñ. 8. Pers. v. 148. PR.

R. PR. 26. iii. 288. xv. 51 sq. Wranglings 31. This is sometimes called the Marform the prelude.' R.

App. B. C. i. Eutr. v. Plut. perly the flourishing of their weapons by Sull. Oros. v. 18. PR. 660—662 A.U. fencers before they engage.' M.

cudum Marsi memorem duelli ; Hor. III Cf. Prop. III. viii. 1 sqq. V. Flacc. Od. xiv. 18. We need not take the v. 581. R. nutis in usum lætitiæ scy- expression too literally; all that we are phis pugnare, Thracum est : tollite bar- to understand is, very fine old wine.' barum morem, verecundumque Bacchum Not but what the ancients did keep their sanguineis prohibete rixis; Hor. I Od. wine to an immense age. Pliny for xxvü. 1 sqq. PR.

instance mentions a wine 200 years old ! 27. Saucius; therefore ‘in retaliation adhuc vina ducentis fere annis jam in and self-defence.'

speciem redacta mellis asperi; atque hæc • Red with the blood of your broken natura vini in vetustate est; Plin. xiv. 4. head.' VS.

He thought it never better than when it 28. · The freedmen' were sometimes

was twenty years old : xiv. 14. Hor. admitted to the lower end of great men's I Od. ix. 7. IV. xi. 1. Vell. Pat. ii. 7. tables. PR. Pers. vi. 23. R. " Corps' R. G. Others refer this wine to an denotes not only the numbers, M. but earlier date 633 A.U. in the consulthe pugnacious spirit of these insolent ship of Lucilius Opimius ; (see Flor. iii. knaves.

17 sq.) when the vintage was peculiarly 29. ` A cheap earthen pitcher,' made excellent. LU. at Suguntum (now 'Murviedro' i.e. ‘the Keeps to himself.' R. Old Walls”) in Spain. LU. BRI. AN. Hall has imitated this passage with cf. xiv. 271. Saguntino pocula ficta luto; much humour : “ What though he quaff Mart. IV. xlvi. 15. VIII. vi. 2. XIV. pure amber in his bowl Of March-brew'd cyiii. Plin. xxxv. 12 s 46. The town wheat; he slakes thy thirsting soul With is celebrated in history for its obstinate palish oat frothing in Boston clay, Or in and desperate resistance when besieged a shallow cruize; nor must that stay by Hannibal. Liv. xxi. 6 sqq. PR. R. Within thy reach, for fear of thy craz'd From this place a common sort of wine brain, But call and crave, and have thy was also imported. VS.

cruize again!" G. When consuls wore long hair,' 32. • He would not spare a glass of it


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