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In this excellent Satire, Juvenal takes occasion, under pretence of advising one Trebius to abstain from the table of Virro, a man of rank and fortune, to give a spirited detail of the mortifications to which the poor were subjected by the rich, at those entertainments to which, on account of the political connexion subsisting between patrons and clients, it was sometimes thought necessary to invite them.

He represents even a beggar's life as one of independence compared with that of a parasite, 1-11. The supercilious patron thinks an occasional invitation to be, a payment in full of all his client's services; 12-23. and yet, when at the great man's board, poor Trebius meets with nothing but mortifications and affronts. The host has all the luxuries of the season-a variety of fine old wines, 30-37. iced water, 49 sq. excellent white bread, 70 sqq. a magnificent lobster, 80 sqq. surmullet, 92–98. lamprey, 99-102. giblets, 114. poultry, 115. wild boar, 116. truffles, 116 sqq. mushrooms, 147 sq. &c. &c. and a delicious dessert; 149–152. not to mention the splendid service of plate, 37-45. and the ostentatious retinue of pampered menials: 40.56 sqq. 67. 72 sqq. 83. 120 sqq. while you are put at the bottom of the table among a vulgar and quarrelsome set of fellows, 25-29. and-one can hardly call it-served by some ill-conditioned underlings, 40 sq. 52–55. 66 sq. 73–75. with vile wine 24 sqq. in a cracked mug, 46-48. bad water, 52. infamous bread, 67 sqq.-crab and eggs to correspond, 84 sq. stale cabbage and rancid oil, 86-91. an eel—the sight of which is enough! 103. and a well-fed fish-caught in the common sewer, 104 sq. a dish of toadstools, 146. and two or three half-rotten apples, 153–155. Besides all this, you must not open your lips, either to make any observation, 125 sqq. or to call for what you want, 60 sqq. or to ask your patron to take wine, 129-131. Money forms his criterion of merit, 132–137. especially where there is any chance of that money being one day his, 137-145. Towards his poor acquaintance he behaves just as if he derived amusement from tantalizing and insulting them, 156 sqq. If they have the meanness to submit to such treatment, they deserve still worse, 161–173. A strain of manly indignation pervades the whole; and there is scarcely a single trait of insult and indignity here mentioned, which is not to be found animadverted upon, with more or less severity, in the writers of that age.

With this Satire may be compared, Pliny II Ep. vi. Athenæus vi. 5—18. Petronius Sat. 31. Lucian περὶ τῶν ἐπὶ μισθῷ συνόντων: and several passages in the old comedy of The Supposes, by G. Gascoigne. G. R.


Si te propositi nondum pudet atque eadem est mens,
Ut bona summa putes, aliena vivere quadra ;
Si potes illa pati, quæ nec Sarmentus iniquas
Cæsaris ad mensas nec vilis Galba tulisset :
5 Quamvis jurato metuam tibi credere testi.
Ventre nihil novi frugalius. Hoc tamen ipsum
Defecisse puta, quod inani sufficit alvo :
Nulla crepido vacat? nusquam pons et tegetis pars
Dimidia brevior? Tantine injuria cœnæ ?


1. In the person of Trebius the poet attacks parasites generally. If you can put up with the indignities which the pered great think fit to bestow on their humble companions, you must be so lost to all sense of honour and gentlemanly feeling that I should hesitate to believe you on your oath.' R.

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4. Cæsaris-vilis; vile as he was'even at an emperor's table.' LU. Apicius Galba was a notorious buffoon in the days of Tiberius and Augustus.

2. To ayatov, supreme happiness.' VS. He is often mentioned by Martial : LU. LU. I. xlii. 16. X. ci. PR. Quint. vi. 3. R.

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At another's board.' Quadra sometimes signified a trencher,' sometimes a flat cake or large biscuit; which, when divided into quarters, was used as a trencher.' Hor. Ep. xvii. 49. Adorea liba subjiciunt epulis: consumptis aliis, ut vertere morsus in Cereale solum penuria adegit edendi, et violare manu malisque audacibus orbem fatalis crusti, patulis nec parcere quadris: "Heus! etiam mensas consumimus?" inquit Iulus; Virg. Æ. vii. 109 &c. iii. 257. PR. cf. i. 137. Virg. Mor. 48 sq. secta quadra placentæ ; Mart. III. lxxvii. 3. VI. lxxv. 1. IX. xci. 18. XII. xxxii. 18. R.

3. Si potes ista pati, si nil perferre recusas; Mart. XI. xxiii. 15. uugía or ἀφόρητα ἐλευθέρῳ ἀνδρὶ ἐν αὐταῖς ἤδη ταῖς συνουσίαις γιγνόμενα· Luc. 13. πολλὰ πονεῖν καὶ ὑπομένειν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοσαύτης εὐδαιμονίας·

16. R.

Sarmentus was a Tuscan slave who had run away from his mistress; he fell in the way of Mæcenas, and, happening to please him by his coarse humour, was taken into his train, and afterwards admitted into the household of Augustus, with whom he became a favourite. In the decline of life he was reduced by his dissipation and extravagance to a state of destitution. Hor. I S. v. 51 sqq. VS. G. ὁ δὲ Ζάρμεντος τῶν Καίσαρος παιγνίων παιδάριον, ἃ δηλικίας


5. Jurato is used as the past participle of a deponent verb. LU. Injurato plus credet mihi, quam jurato tibi; Plaut. Amph. I. i. jurato mihi crede; Cic. Att. xiii. 28. prooem. Act. i. in Verr. PR.

6. I know of nothing sooner satisfied than the belly.' Natura paucis est contenta: parvo fames constat, magno fastidium; Sen. LU. dives opis natura suæ, si tu modo recte dispensare velis; Hor. I S. ii. 73 sq. PR. Sen. Ep. 17. 114. 119 &c. R. discite quam parvo liceat producere vitam, et quantum natura petat; Luc. iv. 377. "But would men think with how small allowance Untroubled nature doth herself suffice, Such superfuity they would despise As with sad care impeach their native joys;" Spenser. G.

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7. But even supposing a man to want this little that is absolutely needed.' LU.

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8. Crepido is a raised foot-way,' or a niche,' LU. iii. 296. PR. or a quay.' Curt. iv. 5. GR.

Pons, see iv. 116. PR. xiv. 134. R.

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Teges, a rug' or 'mat.' LU. VS. vi. 117. vii. 221. ix. 140. Mart. VI. xxxix. 4. IX. xciii. 3. XI. xxxiii. 2. lvii. 5. Plin. xxi. 18. Varr. R. R. i. 22. R.

9. Do you set such a value on a supper so insulting? LU.


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10 Tam jejuna fames, quum pol sit honestius, illic
Et tremere et sordes farris mordere canini?

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Primo fige loco, quod tu discumbere jussus
Mercedem solidam veterum capis officiorum.

Fructus amicitiæ magnæ cibus. Imputat hunc rex
15 Et, quamvis rarum, tamen imputat. Ergo duos post
Si libuit menses neglectum adhibere clientem,
Tertia ne vacuo cessaret culcita lecto;

"Una simus" ait. Votorum summa! Quid ultra Quæris? Habet Trebius, propter quod rumpere somnum 20 Debeat et ligulas dimittere, sollicitus, ne

Tota salutatrix jam turba peregerit orbem
Sideribus dubiis aut illo tempore, quo se

10. Jejuna fames; Ov. M. viii. 791.

Pol 'i' faith ;' as edepol, ecastor, mecastor, hercle, mehercle; R. which were oaths by the heroes Pollux, Castor, and Hercules. Illic in the niche or on the bridge.' GRÆ.

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11. Shiver and shake;' not altogether with the cold, but as a trick to excite compassion. Hence perhaps tremens Judæa; vi. 543. GR.

A filthy piece of brown barley bread, which was chucked out for the dogs.' cf. ix. 122. PR. Mart. X. v. 5. R.

12. Bear it in mind:' nostras intra te fige querelas; ix. 94. animis hæc mea figite dicta; Virg. Æ. iii. 250. R.

'When invited to take a place at table.' Convenere toris jussi discumbere pictis; Virg. Æ. i. 708. M.

13. Entire' GRÆ. partem solido demere de die; Hor. I Od. i. 20.

Veterum of long standing:' for ser-
vices of so many days and months and
years.' GRE.

14. All you get by friendship with
the great.' M. i. 33. iv. 20. 74. R.
Hunc i. e. cibum. LU.

'Takes into the account.' LU. vi. 179.
Mart. X. xxx. 26. XII. xlviii. 13. lxxxiv.
4. Suet. Tib. 53. Phæd. I. xxii. 8. R.
Rex' a noble patron.' LU. 130. M. i.

136. PR.

16. Te mensis adhibet; Hor. IV Od. v. 32. R.

17. He invites you merely as a stopgap, being disappointed of one that was originally to have been of the party.' LU.

ἀλλ ̓ ἤν τις ἄλλος ἐπεισέλθῃ νεαλέστερος, ἐς τοὐπίσω σὺ, καὶ οὕτως ἐς τὴν ἀτιμοτάτην ywviav wobris natánssoas págτus μóvos Tv Tagasgoμivwv Luc. 26. R.

18. An unceremonious mode of invitation: hodie apud me sis volo; Ter. Heaut. I. i. 110. PR.

Votorum summa; cf. 2.

19. Trebius is the parasite with whom Juvenal is remonstrating. PR. 39. 43. 99. 128. 134. 156. ix. 35. R.

A compensation for broken slumbers." This is of course said ironically. cf. 76 sqq. Mart. III. xxxvi. FA. iii. 127 sqq. M.

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20. Ligula means not only a latchet or shoestring,' but any tie used to fasten any part of the dress, laces, points, garters, braces, &c.' M. It may be either derived from ligare; VS. or a diminutive of lingua; Festus. PR. To go loose and slip-shod.' G.

21. Cf. i. 96. 117. 127. 132. PR. iv. 62. Shall have gone its rounds to salute its various patrons.' roλan dadgouń. Luc. 10. Nigr. 22. discursus? i. 86. R. 'Shall have completed its circle at the levee, so as to leave no room for you.' LÚ.


22." MACB. What is the night? LADY M. Almost at odds with morning, which is which;" Shakspeare Macb. III. iv. M. Jamque sub Eoœ dubios Atlantidis ignes albet ager; V. Flacc. ii. 72 sq. et jum curriculo nigram Nox roscida metam stringebat, nec se thalamis Tithonia conjux protulerat stabatque nitens in limine primo; cum minus abnuerit noctem desisse viator, quam cœpisse diem; Sil. V. 24 sqq. R.

Frigida circumagant pigri sarraca Bootæ. Qualis cœna tamen? Vinum, quod sucida nolit

to mean •

23. At the latter part of the night, immediately preceding the break of day;' BRI. GR. when only the most northern constellations are seen revolving.' Boötes and the two Bears never sink below our horizon, and therefore were fabled to be the only stars that never dipped in the ocean. μεσονυκτίοις ποθ ὥραις, στρέφεται ὅτ ̓ ἄρκτος ἤδη κατὰ χεῖρα τὴν Βοώτου· Anac. iii. 1 sqq. ὦμος δὲ στρέφεται μεσονύκτιον ἐς δύσιν ἄρκτος Ωρίωνα κατ ̓ αὐτόν· Theoc. xxiv. 11 sq. which passages favour those who interpret this line even at midnight. VS. LU. cum jam fectant Icarii sidera tardu loves; Prop. II. xxxii. 23 sq. serus versare boves et plaustra Boötes; III. iv. 35. sive est Arctophylax sive est piger ille Boötes; Ov. F. iii. 405. M. ii. 172. x. 446 sqq. Tr. I. iii. 47 sq. Mart. VIII. xxi. 3 sq.jam Phæbum urgere monebat non idem eoi color etheris, albaque nondum lux rubet et flammas propioribus eripit astris, et jam Pleias hebet, fessi jam plaustra Bootæ in faciem puri redeunt languentia cœli, majoresque latent stella, calidumque refugit Lucifer ipse diem; Luc. ii. 719 sqq. 236 sq. iv. 521 sqq. V. Flacc. vii. 456 sq. Sen. Med. 314 sqq. Tro. 440 sqq. H. F. 125 sqq. Jam nocte suprema ante novos ortus, ubi sola superstite plaustro Arctos ad Oceanum fugientibus invidet astris; Stat. Th. ii. 683 sqq. Virg. G. iii. 381. E. i. 744. The fourteen stars near the north pole were at first called triones i. e. teriones 'oxen' (from terere), and äpažas 'wains' (iii. 255. Quint. viii. 3.) from some fancied resemblance; afterwards 'Exíxn and zuvorovgàthe greater and lesser Bear' exros psyάan and ngà, names probably invented by the Arcadians from guros meaning both 'a bear' and 'the north.' And hence, as well as from the similarity of the words Arcas and Arctos, arose the fable of Arcas and his mother Callisto being changed into bears and translated to heaven. The constellation which seemed to follow and guide these was at first called Bourns 'the ox-driver,' and afterwards 'AgxTopúλağ the bearward.' Arctophylax, vulgo qui dicitur esse Bootes, quod quasi temone adjunctum præ se quatit Arctum; Cic. N. D. ii. 42. 'Cold' either from the chilliness of the air before day-break, or from being in the northern heavens

and 'slow' either from the effects of cold, pigra hibernæ frigora noctis; Tib. I. ii. 29. or from the ordinary pace of herdsmen, tardi venere bubulci; Virg. E. x. 19. or as nearer the centre of motion. R. VS. LU. PR. M.

*Εωθέν τε ὑπὸ κώδωνι ἐξαναστὰς, ἀποσεισάμενος τοῦ ὕπνου τὸ ἥδιστον, συμπεριθεὶς ἄνω καὶ κάτω, ἔτι τὸν χθιζὸν πηλὸν ἔχων ἐπὶ τοῖν σκελοῖν· Luc. 24. σύ δε ἄθλιος, τὰ μὲν παραδραμὼν, τὰ δὲ βάδην ἄναντα πολλὰ καὶ κάταντα (τοιαύτη γὰρ, ὡς οἶσθα, ἡ Πόλις) περιελθὼν δρωκάς τε καὶ πνευστιᾷς· 26. πολὺ δὲ τούτων οἱ προσιόντες αὐτοὶ καὶ θεραπεύοντες γελοιότεροι νυκτὸς μὲν ἐξανιστάμενοι μέσης, περιθέοντες δὲ ἐν κύκλῳ τὴν πόλιν καὶ πρὸς τῶν οἰκετῶν ἀποκλειόμενοι, κύνες καὶ κόλακες καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα ἀκούειν ὑπομένοντες· γέρας δὲ τῆς πικρᾶς ταύτης αὐτοῖς περιόδου τὸ φορτικὸν ἐκεῖνο δεῖπνον καὶ πολλῶν αἴτιον συμφορῶν· ld. Nigr. 22. R.

24. Tonsura tempus inter æquinoctium vernum et solstitium, quum sudare inceperunt oves; a quo sudore recens lana tonsa sucida appellata est. Tonsas recentes eodem die perungunt vino et oleo: non nemo admixta cera alba et adipe suillo; Varr. R. R. II. xi. 6. This wine was not even good enough for such a purpose: GR. or it was too thick for the wool to imbibe it. LU. cf. Plin. xxix. 2. τῶν ἄλλων ἥδιστόν τε καὶ παλαιότατον οἶνον πινόντων, μόνος σὺ πονηρόν τινα καὶ παχὺν πίνεις· Luc. 26. Mart. I. xxi. II. xliii. III. lx. IV. lxxxvi. VI. xi. R. That these are not merely poetical exaggerations is evident from the following passage: "I supped lately with a person with whom I am by no means intimate, who, in his own opinion, treated us with much splendid frugality; but according to mine, in a sordid yet expensive manner. Some very elegant dishes were served up to himself and a few more of us; while those which were placed before the rest of the company were extremely cheap and mean. There were in small bottles, three different sorts of wine; not that the guests might take their choice, but that they might not have an option in their power. The best was for himself and his friends of the first rank; the next for those of a lower order; and the third for his own and his guests' freedmen. One who sat near me took notice of this cir


25 Lana pati de conviva Corybanta videbis.
Jurgia proludunt; sed mox et pocula torques
Saucius et rubra deterges vulnera mappa,
Inter vos quoties libertorumque cohortem
Pugna Saguntina fervet commissa lagena.
30 Ipse capillato diffusum consule potat

Calcatamque tenet bellis socialibus uvam,
Cardiaco numquam cyathum missurus amico.

cumstance, and asked me how I approved of it? Not at all, I replied. Pray then, said he, what is your method on such occasions? When I make an invitation, I replied, all are served alike: I invite them with a design to entertain, not to affront them; and those I think worthy of a place at my table, I certainly think worthy of every thing it affords:" Plin. Ep. ii. 6. G. PR.

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25. The bad wine will presently disorder you:' VS. and you will become as frantic as one of the priests of Cybele.' PR.

26. iii. 288. xv. 51 sq. 'Wranglings form the prelude.' R. Prolusio is properly the flourishing of their weapons by fencers before they engage.' M.

Cf. Prop. III. viii. 1 sqq. V. Flacc. v. 581. R. natis in usum lætitiæ scyphis pugnare, Thracum est: tollite barbarum morem, verecundumque Bacchum sanguineis prohibete rixis; Hor. I Od. xxvii. 1 sqq. PR.

27. Saucius; therefore in retaliation and self-defence.'

'Red with the blood of your broken head.' VS.

28. The freedmen' were sometimes admitted to the lower end of great men's tables. PR. Pers. vi. 23. R. Corps' denotes not only the numbers, M. but the pugnacious spirit of these insolent knaves.

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29. A cheap earthen pitcher,' made at Saguntum (now Murviedro' i.e. the Old Walls') in Spain. LU. BRI. AN. ef. xiv. 271. Saguntino pocula ficta luto; Mart. IV. xlvi. 15. VIII. vi. 2. XIV. cviii. Plin. xxxv. 12 s 46. The town is celebrated in history for its obstinate and desperate resistance when besieged by Hannibal. Liv. xxi. 6 sqq. PR. R. From this place a common sort of wine was also imported. VS.

30. When consuls wore long hair,'

which was many ages back. BRO. cf. iv. 103. PR. vi. 105. at least as long ago as 454 A.U. R.

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Racked off from the wood' into winejars, which were stopped down with wax, plaster, or pitch, and marked with the name of its country, and the consul's name by way of date: vina bibes, iterum Tauro diffusa; Hor. I Ep. v. 4. T. FÅ. Cf. Cic. Brut. 83. Öv. F. v. 517. Plin. xiv. 14. 21. Colum. xii. 18. Hor. I Od. xxi. 1 sqq. II. iii. 8. III. viii. 10 sqq. xxi. 1 sqq. xxviii. 8. Pers. v. 148. R. PR.

31. This is sometimes called the Marsian war. App. B. C. i. Eutr. v. Plut. Sull. Oros. v. 18. PR. 660–662 A.U. cadum Marsi memorem duelli; Hor. III Od. xiv. 18. We need not take the expression too literally; all that we are to understand is, very fine old wine.' Not but what the ancients did keep their wine to an immense age. Pliny for instance mentions a wine 200 years old! adhuc vina ducentis fere annis jam in speciem redacta mellis asperi; atque hæc natura vini in vetustate est; Plin. xiv. 4. He thought it never better than when it was twenty years old: xiv. 14. Hor. I Od. ix. 7. ÏV. xi. 1. Vell. Pat. ii. 7. R. G. Others refer this wine to an earlier date 633 A.U. in the consulship of Lucilius Opimius; (see Flor. iii. 17 sq.) when the vintage was peculiarly excellent. LU.

'Keeps to himself.' R.

Hall has imitated this passage with much humour: "What though he quaff pure amber in his bowl Of March-brew'd wheat; he slakes thy thirsting soul With palish oat frothing in Boston clay, Or in a shallow cruize; nor must that stay Within thy reach, for fear of thy craz'd brain, But call and crave, and have thy cruize again!" G.

32. He would not spare a glass of it

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