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Cras bibet Albanis aliquid de montibus aut de Setinis, cujus patriam titulumque senectus 35 Delevit multa veteris fuligine testæ ;

Quale coronati Thrasea Helvidiusque bibebant
Brutorum et Cassî natalibus. Ipse capaces
Heliadum crustas et inæquales beryllo

to save the life of the best friend he has.' Id genus, quod nagdianòv a Græcis nominatur, nihil aliud est, quam nimia imbecillitas corporis, quod stomacho languente, immodico sudore digeritur.... Tertium auxilium est, imbecillitati jacentis cibo vinoque succurrere...... Si cibus non manet, sorbere vini cyathum oportet, &c. Cels. Med. iii. 19. M. Plin. xxiii. 1. Sen. Ep. 15. LU. For xagdia, see Schol. on Thuc. ii. 49. For cyuthus, Hor. III Od. viii. 13. R.

33. He had a variety of excellent wines.' The produce of the Alban hills, near the city. Plin. xiv. 2. 6. LU. Mart. XIII. cix. PR. only inferior to Falernian. Dionys. i. 12. Hor. IV Od. xi. 12. Galen in Ath. i. 20. R. Addison tells us in his Italian travels, that Alba still preserves its credit for wine," which would probably be as good now as it was anciently, did they preserve it to so great an age." G.

34. A Campanian wine, which Pliny preferred to the preceding; it was the favourite with Augustus; Plin. xiv. 6. 8. xxii. 1. xxiii. 2. Mart. VI. lxxxvi. IX. iii. X. lxxiv. XIII. cxii. cf. x. 27. Strab. v. p. 229. Ath. i. 48. The modern name of Setia is 'Sezze.' PR. R. This passage also is well imitated by Hall : If Virro list revive his heartless graine With some French grape or pure Canariane; While pleasing Bourdeaux falls unto his lot, Some sowerish Rochelle cuts thy thirsting throat." G.

See note on 30. R. 35.

The mouldiness.' M. 36. On days of particular rejoicing the Romans wore garlands at their carousals in imitation of the Asiatic Greeks. BRI. Their chaplets were at first of ivy, then of parsley, then of myrtle, afterwards of roses. FA. Hor. II Od. vii. 7 sq. 23 sqq. Tib. I. vii. 52. Hor. I Od. xxxvi. 15 sq. IV Od. xi. 3 sqq. R. II Od. vii. 7 sq. 23 sqq. M. 1 Od. xxxviii. Patus Thrasea and his son-in-law Helvidius Priscus, from their hatred of tyranny, used to keep the birthdays of

the great liberators of Rome. The former was put to death and the latter banished by Nero. Galba recalled him from exile; which would be one motive for our author's partiality to that prince. By Vespasian he was prosecuted on a charge of sedition, but acquitted. Thrasea was the son-in-law of that Pætus, whose wife Arria is so justly celebrated for her heroic constancy in the well-known epigram: Castu suo gladium &c. These names are not inserted so much to mark the excellence of the wine as the poet's abhorrence of Domitian; to whom these two patriots were so peculiarly obnoxious, that he put one person to death for calling Thrasea a man of sanctity, and another for writing the life of Helvidius. VS. Tac. A. xvi. Suet. Ner. 37. Dom. 10. PR. This is one of those impassioned bursts into which our poet is so frequently betrayed unpremeditatedly by his enthusiastic love of liberty: i. 16 sq. iv. 150 sqq. viii. 260. xiv. 41 sqq. 254 sq. RI.

37. L. Jun. Brutus, the expeller of the Tarquins, M. Jun. Brutus, the chief conspirator with Cassius against Cæsar, and D. Jun. Brutus, who, in the attempt to uphold the cause of liberty against Antony, perished on the field of battle. PR.

From the practice of keeping the birthdays' of the illustrious dead, may have originated the custom of celebrating the memories of martyrs; but it was the anniversary of their deaths which was observed, as being the date of their being born into a better world. HN. ME. Mart. VIII. xxxviii. 11 sqq. R.

38. If the poet intended electrum ' an alloy of gold with one-fifth of silver,' the periphrasis is incorrect. BRI. GR. Plin. ix. 40. xxxiii. 4 s 23. Virg. Æ. viii. 402. cf. xiv. 307. It is' amber' that was fabled to be produced by the tears shed (on the banks of Eridanus) for the loss of Phaethon, by his sisters the daughters of Sol ("Haos), who were transformed into poplars or alders. Ov. M. ii, 340 sqq.

Virro tenet phialas: tibi non committitur aurum;
40 Vel, si quando datur, custos affixus ibidem,

Qui numeret gemmas unguesque observet acutos.
Da veniam præclara illic laudatur iaspis.
Nam Virro, ut multi, gemmas ad pocula transfert
A digitis, quas in vagina fronte solebat
45 Ponere zelotypo juvenis prælatus Iarbæ.

sex bhard, Halim

Tu Beneventani sutoris nomen habentem
Siccabis calicem nasorum quatuor ac jam
Quassatum et rupto poscentem sulphura vitro.
Si stomachus domini fervet vinoque ciboque;
50 Frigidior Geticis petitur decocta pruinis.

62 sq.

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x. 263. Plin. xxxvii. 2 sq. Virg. E. vi.
Æ. x. 190. Mart. IX. xiv. 6.
Tac. G. 45. PR. R. Cups rough with
beryls and carved incrustations of amber:'
iv dia dvov. Or the cups set with amber'
stood in shallower vessels studded with
gems.' Each person at table used to
have both a poculum and a phiala, as
we have a cup and a saucer' at break-
fast and tea-time.

On the beryl' see Plin. xxvii. 5.
Turba gemmarum potamus, et smaragdis
terimus calices; Id. iii. pr. PR. x. 27.
Mart. XIV. cix. Virg. G. ii. 506. Æ.
i. 728. R. Green is the colour which
harmonizes best with gold. SA.

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39. By Virro is meant the wealthy host.' PŘ.

40. A servant is set as a guard over you.' Cic. Ver. iv. 15. R.

41. Lest any should be missing; and lest you should try to pick them out.' LU. M.

42. Such precautions are excusable: you must not be offended at them.' VS.

There is a particularly bright jasper,
which is universally admired, set in that
cup.' Plin. xxxvii. 8 sq. PR.

43. The transfer of jewels from arms
to cups
is indicative of a similar transfer
of affections; and intimates that the de-
generate Romans were votaries of Bac-
chus rather than of Mars. PL.

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king of Getulia. LU. Virg. Æ. iv. 36. 196 sqq. R.

46. The name of this Beneventan sot

was Vatinius. On his way to Greece, Nero apud Beneventum consedit: ubi gladiatorium munus a Vatinio celebre edebatur. Vatinius inter fædissima ejus aulæ ostenta fuit, sutrinæ taberna alumnus, corpore detorto, facetiis scurrilibus: primo in contumelias adsumtus; deinde optimi cujusque criminatione eo usque valuit, ut gratia, pecunia, vi nocendi, etiam malos præmineret; Tac. A. xv. 34. Xiph. lxiii. 15. vilia sutoris calicem monimenta Vatini accipe: sed nasus longior ille fuit; Mart. XIV. xcvi. The allusion here is to his keen-nosed sagacity when put upon the scent of blood. LI. Tac. H. i. 37. R.

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47. Wilt drain.' From this it seems that this four-spouted beaker' did not hold much; xiii. 44. Hor. I Od. xxxv. 27. xxxi. 11. II S. vi. 68. R. perhaps for the cause mentioned in the next line.

48. The jug wanted sulphur to cement it; VS. or perhaps it was too far gone to be mended, and therefore should have been exchanged, as broken glass, for brimstone matches: Transtiberinus ambulator, qui pallentia sulphurata fractis permutat vitreis; Mart. I. xlii. 3 sqq. circulatrix que sulphurato nolit emta ramento Vatiniorum proxeneta fractorum ; X. iii. 2 sqq. PR. cf. Plin. xxxvi. 19, 26. xxix. 3. R.

49. iii. 233 8q. M.

50. The country of the Gete, who bordered on Scythia, is now called Moldavia.' PR.

Neronis principis inventum est deco

Non eadem vobis poni modo vina querebar: Vos aliam potatis aquam. Tibi pocula cursor Gætulus dabit aut nigri manus ossea Mauri Et cui per mediam nolis occurrere noctem, 55 Clivosæ veheris dum per monimenta Latinæ. Flos Asiæ ante ipsum, pretio majore paratus, Quam fuit et Tulli census pugnacis et Anci Et, ne te teneam, Romanorum omnia regum Frivola. Quod quum ita sit, tu Gætulum Ganymedem 60 Respice, quum sities. Nescit tot millibus emtus Pauperibus miscere puer: sed forma, sed ætas

quere aquam, vitroque demissam in nives refrigerare: ita voluptas frigoris contingit sine vitiis nivis. omnem utique decoctam utiliorem esse convenit; item calefactam magis refrigerari; Plin. xxxi. 3. Suet. 48. Mart. II. lxxxv. 1. XIV. cxvi. Ath. iii. 34. Sen. N. Q. iv. 13. PR. R. The snow was preserved in caverns, and places like our ice-houses. M. 51. The wine was not circulated round the table, but placed before each guest. LU.

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52. A running footman.' M. omnes sic jam peregrinantur ut illos Numidarum præcurrat equitatus, ut agmen cursorum antecedat; Sen. Ep. 123. 88. Tac. H. ii. 40. Suet. Ner. 30. Mart. III. xlvii. X. vi. xiii. XII. xxiv. These Negro couriers were celebrated for their speed: Luc. iv. 681. Nemes. Cyn. 261. Not but what they were also employed as in-door servants: Hor. S. viii. 14. Theoph. Ch. xxi. Ath. iv. 29. Cic. ad Her. iv. 50. R. A lackey;' LU. which word may come from the Ethiopic layky a servant; from the root laaca he sent.' 53. Of a blackamoor.' 54. Because you might take him for a spectre out of the tombs:' or 'because it was considered ominous to meet a Black.' BRO. T. cf. vi. 572. 601. 655. Mart. VII. lxxxvi. 2. Both M. Brutus and Hadrian are said to have foreboded death from having each of them met with an Ethiopian. Plut. and Spart. PR.

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55. i. 171. PR.

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56. Such as was Ganymede.' LU. Cic. Phil. ii. 15. iii. 5. Virg. Æ. viii. 500. flos juvenum and juventutis; Liv. viii. 8. 28. xxvii. 35. xxxvii. 12. avdos Tay *Αθηναίων Thuc. iv. 133. ἡρώων ἄωτοι·

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Pind. N. viii. 15. vaurav äwTos P. iv. 335. There is also an allusion to the bloom of youth' avi flore virens; Sil. i. 60 sq. iii. 84. vii. 691. The most fashionable and, of course, the most expensive slaves were those imported from Asia Minor; xi. 147. For the importance attached to this part of the establishment, (μsigánia wguła diaxovoúμsvα Luc. 16.) see ix. 46 sqq. xiii. 44. Cic. Fin. ii. 23. and on the other hand, xi. 145 sqq. Mart. VIII. xxxix. 4. IX. xxiii. 9 sqq. lxxiv. 6. XIII. cviii. R.

Understand stat, 65. cf. SL, on ornus, 13. R.

Enormous prices were given for handsome slaves at Rome, especially if they were Greeks: Plin. vii. 12. Suet. Cæs. 47. Liv. xxxix. 44. Mart. III. lxii. R.

57. The third and fourth kings of Rome. Tullus Hostilius was a very warlike prince; Virg. Æ. vi. 813 sqq. Liv. i. 22 sqq. Macr. S. i. 6. He was the conqueror of Alba. Flor. 3. PR. For kings they were rich, as times went, dives Tullus et Ancus; Hor. IV Od. vii. 15. but, compared with the wealth of later ages, they were poor; utinam remeare liceret ad veteres fines et mania pauperis Anci; Claud. B. G. 108 sq. R. 58. iii. 183. M.

59. Mere trifles in comparison.' M. iii. 198. R.

Ganymede was a beautiful boy, son of Tros and Callirhoë, who was carried off by the eagle to be Jove's cup-bearer. (See this explained, Cic. T. Q. i. 65. iv. 71 sqq.) PR. ix. 47. xiii. 43. Mart. IX. xxiii. 11 sq. lxxiv. 6. V. lvi. VIII. xlvi. 5. GR. R.

61. On the practice of mixing wine,

Digna supercilio. Quando ad te pervenit ille?
Quando vocatus adest calidæ gelidæque minister?
Quippe indignatur veteri parere clienti,

65 Quodque aliquid poscas et quod se stante recumbas.
Maxima quæque domus servis est plena superbis.
Ecce alius quanto porrexit murmure panem
Vix fractum, solidæ jam mucida frusta farinæ,
Quæ genuinum agitent, non admittentia morsum!
70 Sed tener et niveus mollique siligine factus

Servatur domino. Dextram cohibere memento.
Salva sit artocopi reverentia. Finge tamen te
Improbulum, superest illic, qui ponere cogat.
"Vis tu consuetis audax conviva canistris


see Ath. ii. 2. PR. It was the cupbearer's office to pour the wine into the cup in such proportion or quantity, as each chose misceri debet hoc a Ganymede merum; Mart. XIII. cviii. IX. xxxvii. 12. M. The chief reason why the ancients mixed their wine with water was, that their wine coagulated by the great age to which it was kept, and required the admixture of warm water to dissolve it so as to be fit for drinking. ACH.

62. His disdain becomes his youth and beauty.' ii. 15. vi. 169. Supercilia homini et pariter et alterne mobilia, et in iis pars animi. Negamus, annuimus. Hæc maxime indicant fastum. Superbia aliubi conceptaculum, sed hic sedem habet. In corde nascitur, huc subit, hic pendet. Nihil altius simul abruptiusque invenit in corpore, ubi solitaria esset; Plin. xi. 37. PR. R.

63. Ath. ii. 2. LU. Id. 6. iii. 34 sq. Pollux ix. 6. Plin. vii. 53. Tac. A. xiii. 16. Frigida non desit, non deerit calda petenti; Mart. XIV. cv. 1. From which it appears that the ancients drank hot as well as cold water with their wine: PR. R. Among us it is customary, after supper, to put both hot and cold water on table for the same purpose. 64. i. 132. The very circumstance, which ought to command respect, excites. contempt. R.

65. Thinking himself the better of the two.' G.

66. Servants take their cue from their masters: R. according to the English proverb "Like master, like man."

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68. 66 Impenetrable crusts, Black, mouldy fragments, which no teeth can chaw, The mere despair of every aching jaw." G. So hard that cutting it was quite out of the question, and that it was broken with the greatest difficulty.' cf. Plin. xix. 4. R.

69. Which would tire out and loosen the grinders.' Pers. i. 115. PR. Plin. xi. 37 s 63. R.

70. Of the whitest and finest wheat


flour.' Plin. xviii. 7 sqq. PR. Sen. Ep. 119. Colum. 11. vi. 1. ix. 13. R. What though he chires on purer manchet's crown While his kind client grinds on black and brown, A jolly rounding of a whole foot broad, From off the mongcorn heap shall Trebius load;" Hall. V. ii. Manners were strangely altered since the days of Cæsar, who is said to have punished his pantler' severely, for serving his guests with inferior bread to what was placed before himself. Suet. 48. G.

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71. Mind you restrain:' M. péμvnoo : more forcible than the simple imperative; vi. 572. ix. 93.

72. Let all due respect be paid to the servant who cuts the bread.' R.

But even supposing.' LU. 73. A little impudent.' PR.

74. Vis tu is not only interrogative, but imperative. Sen. Ir. iii. 38. GRO. Hor. II S. vi. 92. BY. HK. Be so good as.'

'Bread-baskets.' M.

75 Impleri panisque tui novisse colorem ?"

"Scilicet hoc fuerat, propter quod, sæpe relicta
Conjuge, per montem adversum gelidasque cucurri
Esquilias, fremeret sæva quum grandine vernus
Jupiter et multo stillaret pænula nimbo!"

80 Adspice, quam longo distendat pectore lancem,
Quæ fertur domino, squilla et quibus undique septa
Asparagis, qua despiciat convivia cauda,

Quum venit excelsi manibus sublata ministri.
Sed tibi dimidio constrictus cammarus ovo
85 Ponitur, exigua feralis cœna patella.

76. This is the client's indignant remonstrance, PR. or soliloquy. R. So! this is all I am to expect for getting out of my warm bed, and fagging up-hill and down-hill at all hours of the night, even though it rained cats and dogs.' M. Martial frequently complains of this grievance: he expostulates with his patron in the following sensible and affecting language: Si quid nostra tuis adicit vexatio rebus, mane, vel a media nocte togatus ero: stridentesque feram flatus Aquilonis iniqui, et patiar nimbos, excipiamque nives. Sed si non fias quadrante beatior uno per gemitus nostros ingenuasque cruces: parce precor lasso, vanosque remitte labores, qui tibi non prosunt, et mihi, Galle, nocent; X. lxxxii. G. Scilicet; ii. 104. R.

77. Steep and bleak.' PR. Montem Esquiliasque, v dia dvory. R. διαιρούμενα τὰ αὐτὰ μείζω φαίνεται· Arist. Rh. I. vii. 2.

78. The Esquiline was the part chiefly inhabited by the wealthier nobles. iii. 71. PR.

Storms in Italy are very frequent at the beginning of autumn and the end of spring. iv. 87. Virg. G. i. 311 sqq. Hor. IV Od. iv. 7. Calp. E. v. 45. R.

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79. Jupiter is used for the sky.' PR. Hor. I Od. i, 25. M.

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tendet spicis horrea plenu Ceres; Tib. II. v. 84. R.

81. Domino. cf. i. 135 sq. R.

There were two kinds of fish known by this name, one of which formed a dish of itself, 'lobster,' as here; the other served as sauce to other fish; affertur squillas inter muræna natantes in patina porrecta; Hor. II S. viii. 412 sq. shrimps or prawns.' Apicius the epicure went on a voyage to Africa, because he heard these fish were finer there, than any where else. Suid. Cic. de N. D. ii. 123. Plin. IX. 31 s 51., 42 s 66. Mart. XIII. lxxxiii. Ath. iii. 23. PR. M.

'Garnished' M. or hedged around.' 82. On the virtues of asparagus see Plin. xix. 8. xx. 10. PR. R.

'How he seems to look down upon (i. 159. R.) the company (so cœna; ii. 120. R.), as though proud of his noble tail;' which is the choicest part. LU.

83. The tall sewer or serving-man' was as necessary an appendage of state as the tall chairman; iii. 240. R.

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84. A common crab,' (cf. Plin. xxvii. 3. xxxii. 11. Mart. II. xliii. Ath. vii. 75. 110. PR. R.) shrunk from having been long out of the sea,' HO. (or scantily hemmed round by way of garnish') with half an egg cut in slices.' cf. Ath. ii. 16. divisis cybium latebit ovis; Mart. V. lxxviii. 5. secta coronabunt rutatos ova lacertos; X. xlviii. 11. R. "Ill-garnished and ill-fed." G.

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85. See Pers. vi. 33. PR. The Romans placed in the sepulchres of the dead, to appease their shades, a little milk, honey, water, wine, and olives. HO. These were afterwards burnt, unless (as was generally the case) they

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