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Ipse Venafrano piscem perfundit: at hic, qui
Pallidus affertur misero tibi, caulis olebit

Laternam. Illud enim vestris datur alveolis, quod
Canna Micipsarum prora subvexit acuta;

90 Propter quod Romæ cum Bocchare nemo lavatur, + Quod tutos etiam facit a serpentibus atris.+ Mullus erit domino, quem misit Corsica vel quem Tauromenitanæ rupes, quando omne peractum est Et jam defecit nostrum mare, dum gula sævit,

were stolen by a set of starving wretches, who frequented the burial-grounds for this purpose. With all their reverence for the dead, the ancients were strangely inattentive to their diet. It was scanty, of the worst quality, and ill-cooked. Plautus says of a bad cook, that he was only fit to dress a supper for the dead : Pseud. III. ii. 7. Aul. ÎI. iv. 45. and those who condescended to help the deceased off with their scurvy meals, were stigmatized as the most necessitous of human beings uxor Meneni, sæpe quam in sepulcretis vidistis ipso rapere de rogo canam; Cat. lix. 2 sq. G. The proper name for this supper was silicernium; it was offered on the ninth day. Tac. A. vi. 5. LI. cf. vi. 518. Luc. D. Mort. i. 1. eund. Κατάπλ. 7. R.

Patella is a diminutive, and yet has the epithet exigua, to show what a very little plate' it was: M. as exigua ofella; xi. 144. et libate dapes; ut grati pignus honoris nutriat incinctos missa patella lares; Ov. F. ii. 633 sq. R.

86. Venafrum in Campania produced the finest oil. LU. Plin. xv. 2. Hoc tibi Campani sudavit bacca Venafri unguentum: quoties sumis, et istud olet; Mart. XIII. ci. PR. Hor. II Od. vi. 16. M. Cf. Hor. II S. ii. 59 sqq. iii. 125. iv. 50. R. They used oil, where we use melted butter.

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87. The greens had turned yellow from keeping, and had been boiled carelessly: ne tibi pallentes moveant fastidia caules, nitrata viridis brassica fiat aqua; Mart. XIII. xvii. PR. Will stink of the lamp' (alluding perhaps to what was said of Demosthenes, aux vou) showing that it was greased with rancid lampoil. Hor. I S. vi. 124. LU. Theoph. Ch. xi. 4. xix. 3. R.

88. Understand oleum. It was made from sesamum; Plin. xv. 2. 7. R.

'Wooden saucers.' T.

89. In India arundines tantæ proceritatis, ut singula internodia alveo navigabili ternos interdum homines ferant; Plin. vii. 2. JD. naves in Nilo ex papyro, et scirpo, et arundine; 56. PR. 'A canoe.' M.

Of the Numidians. Micipsa, king of Numidia, was son of Massinissa, and uncle of Jugurtha. R.

90. Bocchar is another Numidian name: Liv. xxix. 30 sqq. PR. R. No Roman would enter the bath with one of them; no, though it were king Bocchar himself.' M.

91. Cf. Hor. II S. viii. 95. III Od. x. 18. LU. and iv. 17.

The awkward repetition of quod, and the absence of this line from several ancient mss. (PUL.) and its transposition in another, render it not improbable, that this line originates in a note of the Scholiast, assigning a reason why the Africans used such rancid oil. R.

"Such rotten grease, as Africk sends to town: So strong! that when her factors seek the bath, All wind, and all avoid the noisome path; So pestilent! that her own serpents fly The horrid stench, or meet it but to die." G.

92. Mullus; iv. 15. PR. and 141. 93. Tauromenium, now called 'Taormina,' is a town on the eastern coast of Sicily: PR. Diod. xiv. 60. xvi. 7. R.


'Has been gone through.' inops agili per agit freta cærula remo, quasque male amisit, nunc male quærit opes; Ov. Her. xv. 65 sq. V. Flac. i. 283. 566. Cf. Pers. vi. 75 sq. Lucian says of merchants äraσav ånrùv xai πάντα αἰγιαλὸν, ὡς εἰπεῖν, διερευνησάμενοι xa xaorov iros Tox. t. ii. p. 511.


95 Retibus adsiduis penitus scrutante macello
Proxima, nec patimur Tyrrhenum crescere piscem.
Instruit ergo focum provincia: sumitur illine
Quod captator emat Lenas, Aurelia vendat.
Virroni muræna datur, quæ maxima venit
100 Gurgite de Siculo: nam, dum se continet Auster,
Dum sedet et siccat madidas in carcere pennas,
Contemnunt mediam temeraria lina Charybdim.
Vos anguilla manet longæ cognata colubræ,
Aut glacie adspersus maculis Tiberinus et ipse

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97. Has to supply with fish our kitchen.' iv. 66. M.

98. Aurelia was a rich and childless old lady, whose good graces Lenas, one of those legacy-hunters (VS.) who swarmed in Rome, tried to secure by handsome presents. She either preferred money to surmullets, or else had so many dainties of the kind sent to her, that they would only have been spoiled if she had not disposed of them. G. LU. iv. 18 sq. PR. xii. 93 sqq. R. An amusing anecdote is told of this old lady by Pliny; Ep. ii. 20. G.

99. This is a species of eel found in the Mediterranean, and still in high estimation there: FE. it differs from the fish we call a lamprey,' chiefly in the conformation of its head. Our lamprey is principally confined to the Severn; when brought to market, which is very rarely, it fetches an extravagant price. G. Accersebantur murane ad piscinas nostræ urbis abusque freto Siculo quod Rhegium a Messana despicit. illic enim optima a prodigis esse creduntur; Macr. iii. 15. ii. 11. Plin. ix. 23. 54 sq. xxxii. 2. Ath. vii. 18. i. 4. Varr. R. R. ÎI. vi. 2. III. iii. 10. xvii. 3. Poll. vi. 63. Mart. XIII. lxxx. Col. VIII. xvi. 5. PR. R.

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100. Now the Faro di Messina.'


Our poet, in accounting for the fish being caught in such a dangerous sea, sneers at the poetical fables concerning the winds. VS. FE.

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Keeps within the cave of Æolus.' PR. cf. i. 8.

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101. Sits' see note on zárnoar Her. iii. 134. dum se cohibet, terimurque sedendo; Sil. vii. 151. R.

His wet pinions.' madidis Notus evolat alis, terribilem picea tectus caligine vultum: barba gravis nimbis; canis fluit unda capillis; fronte sedent nebulæ ; rorant pennae que sinusque; Ov. Met. i. 264 sqq. tellus nubibus adsiduis pluvioque madescit ab Austro; 65 sq. Gell. ii. 22. PR. humidus Auster; Claud. L. Stil. ii. 95. R. udus Notus.

'In prison.' vasto rex Æolus antro luctantes ventos tempestatesque sonoras imperio premit, ac vinclis et carcere frenat; Virg. Æ. i. 52 sqq. PR. et clauso ventorum carcere regnet; 141. LU. clauserat Hippotades æterno carcere ventos; Ov. M. iv. 662.

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105 Vernula riparum pinguis torrente cloaca

Et solitus mediæ cryptam penetrare Suburæ.

Ipsi pauca velim, facilem si præbeat aurem.
Nemo petit, modicis quæ mittebantur amicis
A Seneca, quæ Piso bonus, quæ Cotta solebat
110 Largiri; namque et titulis et fascibus olim
Major habebatur donandi gloria: solum
Poscimus, ut cones civiliter. Hoc face et esto,
Esto, ut nunc multi, dives tibi, pauper amicis.
Anseris ante ipsum magni jecur, anseribus par

Plin. ix. 54. Hor. II S. ii. 31. Ath. vii. 17. PR.

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105. Indigenous slave of the bankside, fattened on the filth of the rushing sewers.' VS. PR. Cloacae operum omnium maximum, subfossis montibus atque urbe pensili subterque navigata. Fecit id Agrippa in Edilitate, per meatus corrivatis septem amnibus, cursuque præcipiti, torrentium modo, rapere omnia atque auferre coactis. Qui insuper mole imbrium concitati vada ac latera quatiunt, aliquando Tiberis retro infusi recipiunt fluctus, pugnantque diversi aquarum impetus intus; et tamen obnoxia firmitas resistit; Plin. xxxvi. 15. R.

106. Kerr (whence our word CRYPT) 'the dark arched drain.' R.

'To explore in search of its loathsome food.' GR.

Subura; iii. 5. Pers. v. 32. PR.

107. Understand Virroni and verba dicere. LU. paucis te volo; Ter. And. I. i. 2. M.

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Attentive,' opposed to deaf;' iii. 122. Di faciles; x. 8. neque se fore posthac tam facilem dicat, votis ut præbeat aurem; Hor. I S. i. 21 sq. nimium faciles aurem præbere; Prop. II. xxi. 15. R.

108. These words are addressed to Virro. No one expects from you such presents as used to be sent to their humble friends by patrons of known liberality.' LU. vilibus amicis; 146. modicis pecuniæ et originis; Tac. A. iii. 72. vi. 39. R.

109. L. Annæus Seneca, born at Cordova in Spain, a Stoic philosopher and preceptor of Nero, being impeached as a party in Piso's conspiracy, was ordered by the emperor to destroy himself; which he did by opening his veins in a warm bath. viii. 212. x. 16. Tac. An. XIV. XV. PR. M. Pisones Senecasque

Martial cites as examples of liberality; XII. xxxvi. 8. R. C. Calpurnius Piso, who lived in the reign of Claudius, was very wealthy, and made a point of raising every year a certain number of plebeians to the equestrian rank. VS. Tac. An. xiv. 14. xv. 48. The Pisones claimed descent from Numa; vos, o Pompilius sanguis; Hor. A. P. 291 sq. PR. Bonus bountiful;' R. unless it alludes to the ignomen, Frugi. RI.

Aurelius Cotta lived in Nero's reign. LU. vii. 95. Tac. An. xiii. 34. R.

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110. Inscriptions on the images of their ancestors, which constituted nobility; and the fasces, which were the badges of dictatorial, consular, or prætorian power.' LU. The latter was a bundle of rods, in the centre of which was an axe, securis. Plin. xvi. 18. PR. cf. iii. 128. M.

111. Ἡ χάρις τῷ διδόντι οὐ τῷ μὴ λaußávovti, xaì ô éwaivos dè μãλλov· Arist. Eth. iv. 1. LU.

112. All we ask is, that you treat us as one citizen should another. R. Mart. III. lix. PR.

113. In all other respects you may indulge your sordid luxury; (luxuriæ sordes, i. 140.) feasting sumptuously when alone, and dining economically when you have a party.' PR.

Face for fac, after the manner of the comic writers.

114. A goose's giblets were looked upon as a great delicacy: the liver in particular, for which there was a rich stuffing. Aspice, quam tumeat magno jecur ansere majus; miratus dices "Hoc, rogo, crevit ubi?" Mart. XIII. lviii. LU. Fartilibus in magnam amplitudinem crescit; exemptum quoque lacte mulso augetur. nec sine causa in quæstione est, quis primus

115 Altilis, et flavi dignus ferro Meleagri

Capon, Fumat aper: post hunc tradentur tubera, si ver


Tunc erit et facient optata tonitrua cœnas

Majores. “Tibi habe frumentum," Alledius inquit,
"O Libye; disjunge boves, dum tubera mittas!"
Structorem interea, ne qua indignatio desit,
Saltantem spectes et chironomonta_yolanti

tantum bonum invenerit, Scipio Metellus vir consularis, an M. Sestius eudem ætate eques Romanus; Plin. x. 22. 27. satur anseris extis; Pers. vi. 71. PR. pinguibus et ficis pastum jecur anseris albi; Hor. II S. viii. 88. M. xnvsíwv drάrwy (περισπούδαστα δὲ ταῦτα κατὰ τὴν Ῥώμην) μνημονεύει Εὔπολις [Εὔβουλος ?] ἐν Στεφανοπώλισι λέγων οὕτως· si un où xnvòs ἧπαρ ἢ ψυχὴν ἔχεις...” Ath. ix. 8. cf. йxara σvxwrá Poll. vi. 49. Plin. viii. 51 s 77. R. The modern Sicilians, according to Brydone, have a mode of treatment by which they increase the livers of their fowls. G.

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115. Poultry' were called altiles from alo. PR. Perhaps a fatted capon' is here meant. M. cf. 168. ours i ögvis duoia ταῖς ἄλλαις, ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν πλουσίῳ παχεία καὶ πιμελὴς, σοὶ δὲ νεοττὸς ἡμίτομος ή φάττα τις ὑπόσκληρος, ὕβρις ἄντικρυς καὶ ἀτιμία· Luc. μισθ. συν. 26. Plin. x. 50 571. Mart. XIII. lxii. R.

Earlos Mexiαygos Hom. 11. B 642. PR. golden-haired.' HO. Hor. IV Od. iv. 4. III Od. ix. 19. M. II Od. iv. 14. vi. 354. Sil. i. 438. Hom. Il. A 197. r 284. R. "The yellow hunter;" Thomson. G.

See the story of the Calydonian boarhunt. VS. Ov. M. viii. 272 sqq. LU. Qui Diomedeis metuendus setiger agris Etola cecidit cuspide, talis erat; (rórros ny, Hom.) Mart. XIII. xciii. R. Hom. Il. 1 525 sqq. G. Martial, on the other hand, describes a small boar thus: aper hic minimus qualisque necari a non armato pumilione potest; I. xliv. 9 sq. 116. After the boar.' non tota quidem cœna, sed in ipso ejus principio, bini teruique pariter manduntur apri; Plin. viii. 51 s 78. R. cf. i. 140 sq. M.

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Will be served up;' understand domino. R.

Rumpimus altricem tenero quæ vertice terram tubera, boletis poma secunda sumus; Mart. XIII. 1. tubera dicuntur nasci, si

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117. Devoutly wished for' by the epicure. BRO. Plut. Q. Conv. iv. 2. Ath. ii. 21. PR.

118. There is much genuine humour in this rapturous apostrophe of the gluttonous Alledius to Libya. Africa was one of the principal granaries of Rome. G. si proprio condidit horreo quidquid de Libycis verritur areis; Hor. I Od. i. 9 sq. R. frumenti quantum metit Africa; II S. iii. 87. GE.

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119. Tubera Africæ laudatissima; Plin. xix. 3. To prove that the African truffles' were the finest, R also refers to Mart. XIII. xlii sq. but the tuberes (not tubera), there mentioned, grow on boughs, and are the fruit of the tuber. tree.

120. The seneschal.' Qui fercula docte componit; vii. 184 sq. R.

121. "Lo! the spruce carver, (carptor, ix. 110. PR.) to his task addrest, Skips, like a harlequin, from place to place, And waves his knife with pantomimick grace.” G.

Chironomōn, from the Greek participle govoμv: chironomŏn, vi. 63. the accusative of xugovóμos. Processit statim scissor, et ad symphoniam ita gesticulatus laceravit opsonium, ut putes Darium hydraule cantante pugnare; Petr. 36. ac si inter Apicios epulones et Byzantinos chironomuntas huc usque ructaverit; Sidon. Ep. IV. 7. fin. F. alius pretiosas aves scindit et per pectus ac clunes certis ductibus circumferens eruditam manum, in frusta excutit: infelix, qui huic uni rei vivit, ut altilia decenter secet; nisi quod miserior est, qui huic voluptatis causa docet, quam qui necessitatis discit; Sen. Ep. 47. de Br. V. 12. de V. B. 17. Plin. x. 50 s 71. PR. Ιπποκλείδης, τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐρείσας ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν, τοῖσι σκέλεσι ἐχειρονόμησε Her. vi. 129.

Cultello, donec peragat dictata magistri
Omnia: nec minimo sane discrimine refert,
Quo gestu lepores et quo gallina secetur.
125 Duceris planta, velut ictus ab Hercule Cacus,
Et ponere foras, si quid tentaveris umquam

Hiscere, tamquam habeas tria nomina. Quando propinat
Virro tibi, sumitque tuis contacta labellis

Pocula? Quis vestrum temerarius usque adeo, quis
130 Perditus, ut dicat regi," Bibe"? Plurima sunt, quæ
Non audent homines pertusą, dicere læna.
Quadringenta tibi si quis Deus aut similis Dîs
Et melior fatis donaret; homuncio, quantus
Ex nihilo fieres, quantus Virronis amicus!

122. Of his master or instructor in the art of carving.' cf. xi. 136 sqq. LU. The directions,' all that has been taught him.' cf. vi. 392. Hor. I Ep. i. 55. xviii. 13. R.

123.There is a very wide difference between the one and the other.' LU. Or in both cases it makes an immense difference how the thing is done.' M.

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125. Pedibusque informe cadaver protrahitur; Virg. Æ. viii. 264 &c. ictus clava, morte occubuit; Liv. i. 7. PR. Ov. F. i. 543 sqq.

127. To mutter.' LU. 10. Tí Tò δυσχερές ; ΠΟ. ἓν μὲν μέγιστον, οὐκ ἔχειν παῤῥησίαν. 10. δούλου τόδ' εἶπας, μὴ λέγειν ἃ τις φρονεῖ. ΠΟ. ἀλλ ̓ εἰς τὸ κέρδος παρὰ φύσιν δουλευτέον· Eur. Ph. 401 sqq.

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As though you still retained the rights of a freeborn Roman, and had not virtually forfeited those privileges, when you condescended to turn parasite.' G. Free citizens had three names: Decimus Junius Juvenalis, Caius Julius Cæsar; (1) the prænomen, which answers to our baptismal name; (2) the nomen, which was common to the gens or clan,' and commonly ended in ius; (3) the cognomen, which distinguished the several families' under one and the same clan, as the Scipiones, Lentuli, Cethegi, Dolabellæ, Cinna, Sylla, &c. under the Corneli. Some clans were not divided into families, as the Marii, Sartorii, Mummii. Some individuals had a fourth name, agnomen, as an epithet from some remarkable circumstance, and even a fifth; as P. Corn. Scipio Africanus Emilianus. Slaves had no prænomen. AD. cf. Pers. v. 76-82.

Martial says wittily of a foul-mouthed fellow; quod nulli calicem tuum propinas, humane fucis, Herme, no superbe; II. xv. PR. gorivu was to take a sip and then pass the cup to your friend.' Mart. V. lxxviii. 3. Anac. iv. 3. Virg. Æ. i. 736 sqq. R.

128. Sumit ve would be more correct. JA.

'Contaminated.'vi.288.Virg. Æ.ii.168. 130. So lost to all sense of decorum, as to challenge his noble host.' R. tum Bitiæ dedit increpitans; Virg. Æ. i. 738.

131. With a great-coat out at elbows.' ii. 283. Compare the proverbs ; “ vestis virum facit : & lacer pannus :” τῶν γὰρ πενήτων εἰσὶν οἱ λόγοι κενοί· and that of Theognis, r vàg wevin dedunμivų diderai ἡ γλῶσσα· and yet πολλάκι καὶ κηπωρὸς ἀνὴς μάλα καίριον εἶπεν. FE. R.

132. Quadringenta; i. 106. ii. 117. PR.

Some godlike hero.' Nemo propius ad Deum accedit, quam qui hominibus salutem dat et beneficium; Sen. LU. • Some rich man. πλούτῳ δ ̓ ἀρετὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ δαίμονι δ ̓ οἷος ἔησθα Hes. O. D. 313 sq. or 'the emperor.' R. 'Some munificent benefactor,' Deus nobis hæc otia fecit: namque erit ille mihi ́ semper deus; Virg. E. i. 6 sq. TiμwvTai μάλιστα οἱ εὐεργετηκότες· εὐεργεσία δὲ . . . . εἰς πλοῦτον μέρη δὲ τιμῆς θυσίαι, κ. τ. λ. Arist. Rh. I. v. 7. ix. 2.

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133. Kinder to you than the fates have been.' PR.

Though now a sorry mortal.' M. ¿ πλοῦτος, ἀνθρωπίσκε, τοῖς σοφοῖς θεός· Eur. Cy. 316.

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