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was then universally offered as the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ really present under the appearances of bread and wine, by all Christian churches of every denomination in the world; not only by those which were in communion with the see of Rome, and which are spread more or less over all nations ; but by those, which for many centuries had been separated from its communion; by the Greek schismatical church, and by all the various sects of the Nestorians, Eutychians, and other heretical churches spread over Asia and part of Africa. That the Sacrifice of the Mass was at that period offered in all churches throughout the world, which were in communion with the See of Rome, will not be denied. That it was offered at that time, by the schismatical and heretical churches alluded to, will be shewn by proper testimonies. It has, indeed, been acknowledged by Protestant writers of the first respectability.

“ It is also an historical fact, that the constant and universal practice of offering the Sacrifice of the Mass, as the Sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ really present under the appearances of bread and wine, may be so far traced back in all those Christian churches, in every country, from the sixteenth century to the earliest ages; that no later origin can be assigned of this religious practice, than the first establishment of Christianity in those countries.

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" It may be observed that none of those schismatical or heretical churches mentioned above, had derived any religious doctrine or rite from the Church of Rome, since the period of their separation from the faith and communion of the Apostolic See; and, consequently, that the Christian doctrines or rites which they held in the sixteenth century, in common with the Church of Rome, were held by both before the period of the separation. Hence the testimony of the Greek schismatical church, and of the other schismatical and heretical churches in Asia and Africa, concerning the antiquity and divine institution of the Sacrifice of the Mass, cannot be suspected as given in favour of the Church of Rome, but must be admitted as strong evidence of fact.

“The attempts which were made by some Lutherans and Calvinists in the sixteenth or seventeenth century, to engage the Greek schismatics in the East to adopt the doctrines of the Reformation, and particularly to reject the Sacrifice of the Mass, drew from the Greek bishops the most solemn attestations of the practice of their churches, the most explicit professions of their ancient doctrines, and the most energetic condemnations of the innovations, both in doctrine and practice, introduced by the reformers of religion, in the sixteenth century. Relative to the Sacrifice of the Mass, the following declarations were made by

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Lustical authorities of the different
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into the substance of the body of our Lord Jesus
Christ, and that the substance of wine is changed
into the substance of his precious blood, so that
nothing remains of the bread and wine, but their
accidents. We offer this holy body, which was
crucified for us, and this blood, which was shed
for many and for us; i. e. for the living and the
dead, for the remission of their sins.

“Seven schismatical Greek archbishops, who
were assembled at Constantinople, on the 18th
July, 1671, attested the doctrine of their churches,
by this solemn declaration : “That the Eucharist
is a sacrifice for the living and the dead, insti-
tuted by Jesus Christ, and delivered to us by the
Apostles.

" It is therefore an historical fact, that at the time of the Protestant reformation, by Luther and Calvin, not only the Greek schismatical Church, but the heretical Churches in Asia and Africa, of which the Nestorians and Eutychians are the leading sects, admitted and offered the sacrifice of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, really present under the appearances of bread and wine. From whom did they receive this doctrine and this sacred rite? Not from the Church of Rome, from which they had received no rite of religion, no tradition, no doctrine, since the distant period of their separation from its communion. The Mass was, therefore, admitted as the common Christian sacrifice, by the

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Greek schismatical Church before the year 890; by the Eutychians, before the year 451; and by the Nestorians before 431 : the periods of their separation from the communion of the Church of Rome. Indeed, we see that the seven Greek Archbishops cited above, declared; . That the Eucharist is a sacrifice for the living and the dead, instituted by Jesus Christ, and delivered to us by the Apostles. The doctrine of the Nestorians and Eutychians concerning the sacrifice of the Mass, which is the same on this point as the doctrine of all other ancient Christian Churches, was not invented by Nestorius, nor by Eutyches, when they began to teach their heretical doctrines against other articles of the Christian creed; but this doctrine of the sacrifice of the Mass was the ancient doctrine of the Churches in which Nestorius and Eutyches were originally instructed in the Christian Faith.

“ The above testimonies, which shew what was the doctrine and practice in the sixteenth century of the Greek, and of all the Christian Churches of Asia and Africa, which are separated from the communion of the Apostolic see, and which shew the high antiquity, even the divine origin, of that universal doctrine and practice of offering the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ, really present under the appearances of bread and wine, cannot be suspected of partiality to the Church of

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