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service of Mass.”(+) Ibid. p. 335.--"St. Augustin and other ancient Fathers use the same expression, and they use it as if it were common and generally received at the time.” L. 1. Rerum Liturg. c. iii. p. 17, Edit. Paris, 1678.

In this fourth century, various councils were held, which in plain terms speak of the Christian sacrifice.

COUNCIL OF ANCYRA,(Y) G. C.- Against such priests who, in the times of persecution, bad shown great weakness, it enacts : “ That they be not deprived of their stations; but that they be not allowed to offer,'") nor to address the people, nor to perform any priestly function." Can. 1. Conc. Gen. T. 1. p. 1455. .

COUNCIL OF NEOCÆSAREA, (a) G. C. -" Country priests, in the presence of the bishop, or the priests of the city, cannot offer b) nor give the sanctified bread, nor present the chalice. Ibid. Can. xiii. p. 1483.

COUNCIL OF NICE) G.C.—“The holy synod has been informed that, in some places and cities, the deacons present the Eucharist to the priests. This thing no canon por custom has taught—that they, who have themselves no power to offert ds should present the body of Christ to those who possess that power.” Can, xviii. Conc, Gen. T. ii. p. 38.

(*) The two works quoted by Cardinal Bona, as productions of St. Ambrose, are not allowed by the learned, to be his, though of some ancient author,

(y) This council, held about the year 314, consisted of bishops from all the principal sees of the East, to the number of, at least

, 118.They enacted twenty-five canons for the establishment discipline,

(3) #poopepelv.

je) This council was called soon after that of Ancyra, and consisted of nearly the same bishops.

(6) προσφερειν.
c) Held in 325, against the errors of Arius.
(d) #ponPEPELY

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COUNCIL OF LAODICEA,') G. C.-Having established certain rules to be observed in the service of the Church, it adds : “ And after the priests have given the kiss of peace to the bishop, the laity must do the same one to the other, and thus the holy offerings) be completed: but the ministers alone may approach the altar, and there communicate.Ibid. Can. xix. p. 1499.

SECOND COUNCIL OF CARTHAGE(S) L. C.-It enacts that, if any priest, having been reprimanded by his bishop, withdraw from his communion, and “offer sacrifice privately,"") erecting altar against altar, contrary to established discipline-he be deprived of his office.” Ibid. Can. viii. T. ii. p. 1161.

S. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, G. C.-On the words of the prophet Malachias; And in every place incense shall be offered to God, and a clean offering; he says, addressing the Jews : “When did this happen? When was incense thus offered ? When this clean sacrifice? You can produce no other time than this, after the coming of Christ. (i) And if of this time the prophet had not spoken; had he prophesied, not of our sacrifice but of that of the Jews, his prophecy would have been contrary to the law; for Moses forbids sacrifices to be offered in any other place than that which God had chosen : to this he con

(e) This council met about the middle of the fourth century, and has left us sixty canons, which have ever been held in the greatest estimation.

0.προσφοραν. .

() This council was called by Genethlius, bishop of Carthage, who presided at it, in 390. It enacted thirteen canons, respecting the celibacy of bishops, priests, and deacons, and other points of discipline.

?) Separatim-sacrificium Dei obtulerit.

(Ουκ αν έχεις έτερον ειπειν καιρον, αλλ' ή τατον, τον μετα την το Κριστα παρασιαν. .

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fines them. But Malachias declares, that in every place incense shall be offered, and a clean sacrifice. In the first place, the prophet foretels that, not in one city, as among the Jews, but from the rising of the sun to the going down of the same, offerings shall be made. Then, by calling the sacrifice clean, he plainly denotes of what victim he spoke. And finally, the offerings will be made, not in Israel, but in all nations. In every place, says he; evidently showing, that wherever the sun sheds its light, there the gospel shall be preached. He speaks of a clean offering, not as if by its own nature, that of the Jews had been unclean, but only through the will of the offerers. Nevertheless, if our present sacrifice be compared with the former, so vast will the difference be found that ours alone can merit the name of clean." Adv. Judæos. Orat. iii. T. 1. p. 437.-“When you behold the Lord immolated, and the priest at the altar offering sacrifice, and pouring out prayers, and then the surrounding multitude partaking of the sacred blood,(*) can you, at that moment fancy you are among mortals, and dwelling on the earth? Rather, are you not transported to the heavens?" De Sacerd. L. iii. c. iv. T. iv. p. 27-"But when the priest shall have invoked the Holy Spirit, and shall have completed this tremendous and awful sacrifice, the common Lord of all being handled by him;" I ask you, what integrity of life, and what sense of religion shall we not demand from him? Meanwhile, the angels stand by the priest, the army of heavenly powers cry out, and the space around the altar is filled by them in honour of him

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(β) τον κυριον τεθυμενον και κειμενον, και τον ιερεα εφεστωτα τη θυματι-και παντας εκεινη τη τιμιο φοινισσομενες αιματι.

(1) τον φρικωδεστατην έπιτελη θυσιαν, και το κοινο παντων συνεχώς εφαπτηται δεσποτα.

who lies there.” Ibid. L. vi. c. iv. p. 82.—These sentiments be often repeats.—“He has ordained a sacred rite, changing the victim; and in the place of animals, commanding himself to be immolated.”(m) Hom. xxiv. in 1 Cor. T. x. p. 256.-“ All the people being present, and raising their hands to heaven, and the sacred victim lying there, n) shall not God be rendered propitious to them?” Hom. iii. in c. 1. Ep. ad Philip. T. ci. p.

32. “ But do we not (it may be asked) offer sacrifice daily ?" We do; but in remembrance of his death. And the victim is one, not many. But how is this? Because it was once offered and brought into the sanctuary. This sacrifice is a copy of that; the offering is the same. Not one on one day, and on the next another ; but always the same) Thus then the sacrifice is one. But are there many Christs, as the offering is made in many places? By no means : it is the same Christ every where; here entire and there entire; one body. As then, though offered in many places, there is one body, and not many bodies : so is there one sacrifice. He is our high priest, who offered the victim of our expiation: that same victim we now offer that was then offered; which cannot be consumed. This is done in remembrance of what was done. Do this, he said, in remembrance of me.Hom. xvii. in c. x. Ep. ad Hebr. T. xi. p. 856."

S. JEROME, L. C. — “According to thee, the Roman bishop does wrong, who offers sacrifices to the Lord, over the bodies of Peter and Paul, which bodies we call vener.

(m) την ιεραργιαν μετεσκευασε, και την θυσιαν αυτην αμειψας, και αντι της αλογων σφαγης, εαυτον προσφερειν κελευσας. (n)

προκειται η φρικτη θυσια. . (ο) τον γαρ αυτον αει προσφερομεν ου νυν μεν έτερον, άυριον δε ετερον, άλλα αει το αυτο" ώστε μια έστιν ή θυσια.


able remains, but you, vile dust. To him their tombs are altars.” Adv. Vigilantium, T. 1. p. 591.

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CENT. V. S. AUGUSTIN, L. C. — “ This eating and drinking of which the wise man speaks (Eccles. iii.) relate to the participation of this table, which the mediator of the new covenant, the priest, according to the order of Melchisedec, offers of his body and blood. This sacrifice has succeeded to all those of the ancient covenant, which were offered, as the shadows of this that was to come.” De Cic. Dei, L. xvii. c. xx. p. 1138.—“The prophet Malachias foretelling the Church, which we now behold propagated by Christ, thus manifestly speaks to the Jews in the person of God: I have no pleasure, &c. (Malach. 1.) Since, then, we behold this sacrifice, in every place, offered to God, by the priesthood of Christ,(?) according to the order of Melchisedec; and as the Jews cannot deny that their sacrifices have ceased, why do they still look for another Christ?" Ibid. L. xviii. c. xxxv. p. 1210.

Speaking afterwards in reply to those who asked, why miracles were not then wrought; he recounts many, to most of which he was himself a witness, and among them relates, that the property of a great man, whom he names, having been much troubled by wicked spirits, he requested that, “in my absence some of the priests would go, and by their prayers remove the evil. One of them went, offered there the sacrifice of the body of Christ," praying that the mischief might cease ; and, by the mercy of God, it instantly ceased.” Ibid. L. xxii.c. viii. p. 1485.

(p) Hoc sacrificium per sacerdotiam Christi, cum in omni loco videamus offerri.

(9) Obtulit ibi sacrificium corporis Christi.

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