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taketh not pleasure in the legs of a man"; and the knees are a chief part of the legs, therefore γούνατα λύειν is used for κτείνειν. Dum virent genua, therefore, means merely while our limbs are strong, and we are young.' The tottering of the knees is one of the first signs of old age.
5. obducta-fronte] Clouded brow.' 'Senectus' is nowhere else used in this sense of melancholy,' though 'senium' is not uncommonly. 'Tu' is the master of the feast (C. i. 4. 18, n.). Sextus Manlius Torquatus was consul, B. C. 55, when Horace was born. Compare "O nata mecum consule Manlio" (C. iii. 21. 1).
7. Cetera] See C. i. 9. 9: "Permitte divis cetera." Either it is a literal version of the Greek erepa, in the sense of adverse,' or the troubles of the times may be referred to, or generally Horace may mean by 'cetera,' all troublesome thoughts opposed to mirth and wine.
8. vice.] The short syllables here and in vv. 10, 14, 'pectora,' 'flumina,' are explained on v. 24 of the last Ode.
Achaemenio] See C. ii. 12. 21, n. 'Nardo' is from 'nardum,' not 'nardus,' as in Epod. v. 59: "Nardo perunctum quale non perfectius."
9. fide Cyllenea] The lyre invented by Mercury, born on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia.
11. grandi] Juvenal (vii. 210) describes Achilles as a big boy at school, "Metuens virgae jam grandis Achilles Cantabat patriis in montibus but 'grandis' has not that meaning here, though some have supposed it has.
Centaurus] Cheiron, the instructor of Achilles and other heroes. Whether Horace took what follows from any story or not, it is impossible to determine, as with the similar episode of Teucer in C. i. 7.
13. frigida] This is an adaptation of Homer's description (Il. xxii. 151): ἡ δ ̓ ἑτέρη θέρεϊ προρέει εἰκυῖα χαλάζῃ Η χιόνι ψυχρῇ. Domus As saraci,' proles Assaraci,' are common in Virgil. Assaracus was greatgrandfather of Æneas. Homer took a more heroic view of the dimensions of the river Scamander, which was μέγας ποταμὸς βαθυδίνης (Ιl. xx. 73).
15. subtemine] The woof of the web.' Certo subtemine' means only by an unalterable destiny. See Catull. 64. 328, &c.: "Currite ducentes subtemina currite fusi." 'Mater caerula' means Thetis.
18. alloquiis.] Alloquiis' signifies 'consolations,' and is in apposition with 'vino cantuque.' There is no other instance of alloquium' being used otherwise than with reference to conversation. But Horace may have followed, after his custom of imitating the Greeks, the use of rapaμúdiov, Taрnyopia, which were applied, in a derived sense, to anything that gave relief to sorrow.
THE object of this Ode is to excuse Horace for his indolence in not having finished a poem, or volume of poems, he had long promised (v. 7). He says it is love that has prevented him, and that Macenas ought to sympathize
ARGUMENT.-Thou killest me, my noble Mæcenas, asking again and again if I have drunk the waters of Lethe. It is love, it is love that keeps back the verses I have promised, such love as Anacreon wept, in his flowing numbers, for Bathyllus, the Samian. Thou, too, feelest the flame, and if thou art more blessed than I, be thankful. Thou lovest the most beautiful of women: I am in torment for a harlot.
1. imis-sensibus,] So Virgil (Ecl. iii. 54): "Sensibus hace imis (res est non parva) reponas.'
4. traxerim,] This is the earliest instance of this use of 'traho.' 'Duco' is more common (C. i. 17. 22; iii. 3. 34; iv. 12. 14).
Ovid and later writers use 'traho' (see Forcell.). The Greeks used σráw and λк commonly in this sense. 'Candide' seems to signify 'generous,' 'true.' It is used familiarly.
6. Deus] That is, love.
8. Ad umbilicum adducere.] The several sheets of parchment on which the contents of a book were written were joined together, and at the end of the last was fastened a stick on which the whole was rolled, like our maps; and in the same way, at the ends of this roller, were knobs, which were called 'cornua' or 'umbilici.' The former word is obvious enough. The latter belongs more properly, perhaps, to the shape that the ends of the roll would take when these knobs were wanting; but it was also applied to the knobs themselves, and so 'ad umbilicum adducere' is to bring a volume to the last sheet.
It has been disputed whether 'carmen' means a volume or a single poem. 'Ad umbilicum adducere' seems to refer to a volume, 'carmen' to a single poem; but the former might be taken in a derived sense, ad finem adducere,' as reasonably as the latter in a collective sense, and I think a single poem is meant. Perhaps it never was finished. Whether olim' belongs to inceptos' or 'promissum' is open to doubt. In sense it applies to both.
9. Bathyllo] C. ii. 4. 7, n. Anacreon's verses were full of passionate addresses to boys. The name of Bathyllus does not occur in any of the fragments that have come down to us; but it is mentioned by others besides Horace, and he is known to have been one of Anacreon's chief favorites. He was a graceful performer on the flute, which accomplishment Anacreon took delight in praising. One of the Odes falsely attributed to Anacreon is addressed εἰς νεώτερον Βάθυλλον· and from that we also learn that he was a Samian, ἦν δ ̓ ἐς Σάμον ποτ ̓ ἔλθῃς Γράφε Φοῖβον ἐκ Βαθύλλου. Anacreon, being driven from his native town, Teos in Ionia, lived many years at Samos, under the protection of Polycrates.
12. Non elaboratum ad pedem.] This means that his style was easy and his rhythm flowing, which is verified by the few fragments that remain. The poems that go by Anacreon's name are of a later age.
13. Ureris ipse miser :] See Introduction. Terentia, Macenas's wife, is here alluded to.
THIS is probably a composition from the Greek. It is addressed to an imaginary Neæra by the poet, in his own person. He complains of her deserting him for a wealthier rival. He bids her remember her vows, and beware of provoking him, lest he leave her for ever. And he pities the man whom she has caught, and warns him that, be he rich and wise as he may, she will soon leave him for another. Horace introduces the same name in a much later Ode (iii. 14. 21), and it is used throughout the third book of Elegies commonly attributed to Tibullus. The Ode is in Ovid's style, and worthy to have been written by him.
ARGUMENT. Remember that night when the moon was in the sky, and thou didst swear fidelity to me, saying, that so long as the sheep feared the
wolf, and storms vexed the winter's sea, and Apollo's locks floated in the breeze, our mutual love should last.
Thou shalt rue my firmness, Neæra. Flaccus will bear no rival. Let thy faithlessness drive him to wrath, and he will seek a true heart elsewhere. Let him once learn to hate thy beauty, and he will be its captive no more, when grief shall have settled in his soul. And thou, whosoever thou art, that Boastest thyself in my sorrow, be thou rich in flocks and fields, and let Pactolus run gold for thee; be thou wise in the secrets of Pythagoras, and of form more beautiful than Nireus; yet shalt thou weep for her love transferred to another, and my turn to laugh shall come.
2. Inter minora sidera,] Sidus' properly signifies a collection of stars, a constellation; but here it is equivalent to 'stella,' which in its turn appears for 'sidus' in C. iii. 29. 19. In C. i. 12. 47 it is also a single star, and the moon is represented as she is here: "Micat inter omnes Julium sidus, velut inter ignes Luna minores."
3. laesura] Laedere' is applied to injury by word or deed, to fraud (‘laesa fides'), or slander, or violence done to the person, or damage of any kind. It applies to high-treason, whereby the majesty of the sovereign power is violated, and to perjury, as blaspheming the name of God. Compare Ovid (Heroid. ii. 43):—
"Si de tot laesis sua numina quisque deorum
Vindicet, in poenas non satis unus eris."
The offence, however, of lovers' perjury was not supposed to weigh very heavily (see C. ii. 8. 13, n.). The Dii Magni were twelve in number: Jup piter, Minerva, Juno, Neptune, Venus, Mars, Vulcan, Vesta, Apollo, Diana, Ceres, and Mercury.
4. In verba jurabas mea,] This is the usual way of expressing the oath of obedience taken by soldiers, the words being dictated to the men. Hence the phrases conceptis verbis jurare,' 'conceptis verbis pejerare.' 'Jurare in verba' was conventionally applied to any oath of allegiance, and the poet says Neæra swore by the gods eternal devotion to his will. Elsewhere Horace expresses by these words the blind adherence to a particular teacher, declaring that he is "Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri" (Epp. i. 1. 14).
6. Lentis adhaerens brachiis:] 'Lentissima brachia' is used in a different sense in S. i. 9. 64. Here 'lentis' signifies 'twining,' as that which is soft and pliant.
7. Dum pecori lupus] Infestus' belongs to both clauses, but in the first 'foret' must be supplied. There is a slight irregularity in the sentence. As to 'Orion,' see C. i. 28. 21. 9. Intonsosque agitaret] Long hair was the mark of youth (C. iv. 10. 2, n.), and Apollo as well as Bacchus (see Epod. xi. 13, n.) was held to be always young. Hence in all ancient representations of Apollo he has long hair, either braided or flowing, in which respect he is frequently compared with Bacchus by the poets. See Ovid (Met. iii. 421), "Et dignos Baccho dignos et Apolline crines." Hence the expression in the text is almost proverbial, and Neæra's vow is one of eternal fidelity. Other allusions to Apollo's hair will be found in C. i. 21. 2, "Intonsum pueri dicite Cynthium"; C. iii. 4. 62, “Qui rore puro Castaliae lavit Crines solutos"; and C. iv. 6. 26, "Phoebe qui Xantho lavis amne crines."
11. virtute] Virtus' here signifies moral courage, determination, and firmness. See note on C. S. 58. The name Neæra is formed from velapa, which is used by Homer, and is said to be an irregular comparative of véos, so that Neæra signifies the younger.'
14. parem,] One who is his match, equally loving and true.
15. Nec semel offensae] Offensus' is here used as the object of dislike. Horace says, Nor shall his firmness yield to thy beauty, if he hate it once, when settled pain has entered his soul."
19. licebit This use of the future tense shows that 'licet' and some other words, which are called by the grammarians conjunctions, are in fact only verbs, after which 'ut' is understood. 'Licebit' is used below (S. ii. 2. 60), and by Ovid (Trist. v. 14. 3), "Detrahat auctori multum fortuna licebit." The Pactolus, in Lydia, was not the only golden stream of the ancients. The Tagus, Hebrus, Po, and Ganges, all had the same repute. What the secret learning of Pythagoras was, is expressed in the epithet given him, 'renati.' His metempsychosis is referred to in C. i. 28. 10. As to Nircus, see C. iii. 20. 15.
THIS Ode is written with great care, and was probably one of those compositions by which Horace brought himself into public notice. It has more the appearance of having been written for fame than any other in the book. Probably it was written at the outbreak of the Perusian war, B. c. 41. Horace mourns over the civil wars, and proposes that all good citizens shall migrate to the Fortunate Islands.
ARGUMENT. - Another age is wasting in civil wars. She whom no enemy could tame, shall be destroyed by her own accursed children; the wild beast shall devour her; the barbarian shall trample upon her, and scatter the dust of her Romulus to the winds.
What are we to do? Go forth like the Phocæans, leave our homes and our temples to be the dens of beasts, and go wherever the winds shall waft us. Shall it be so? Then why delay? But let us swear:- When rocks shall swim, and the Po shall wash the tops of Matinus, and the Apennine be cast into the sea; when the tiger shall lie with the hind, and the dove with the hawk, and the herds fear not the lion, and the he-goat shall love the waves, - then we will return to our home. Thus let the nobler spirits resolve, while the craven clings to his couch. For us there are those happy isles where the earth yields her harvests and the trees their fruit, unbidden; where honey drops from the oak, and the stream leaps babbling from the hills; where the goat comes unbidden to the milk-pail, and udders are full, and the fold fears no beasts, and the ground bears no vipers; where the rainflood and the drought are not known; whither the venturous sail comes not; where the flock is unhurt by pestilence or heat. Jove destined these shores for the pious, when the golden age had passed away, and thither the pious may resort and prosper.
1. Altera] The last being that of Sulla, which ended about forty years before.
3. Marsi] This refers to the Social War, mentioned in C. iii. 14. 18. 4. Porsenae] The penultimate syllable of this name is usually long, but it is here short. Porsena was king of Clusium, in Etruria. He espoused the cause of Tarquinius Superbus, and attacked Rome with a large army. The Roman legends of Cocles, who defended the bridge, of Cloelia, who with her maidens swam over the river, and of Mucius Scævola, who thrust his hand into the fire, are all connected with this period. Though the Roman historians have thrown disguises over the fact, there is every reason to believe that Porsena reduced the city to submission, and took from her all the territory she had obtained north of the Tiber.
5. Aemula nec virtus] After the battle of Canna, Hannibal established himself in Capua, and Livy (xxiii. 6) relates a boasting speech of the Campanians, how they expected that Hannibal, when he withdrew to Carthage, would leave Rome a wreck and the power over Italy in the hands of CapuaThey also sent ambassadors to Rome, and demanded, as a condition of their assistance, that one of the consuls should always be a Campanian. Five years afterwards the Romans took the town, and dealt very severely with it, reducing it to a praefectura (see S. i. 5. 34, n.). As to Spartacus, see C. iii.
6. Allobrox,] The Allobroges, whose country lay on the left bank of the Rhone, between that river and the Isère, had ambassadors at Rome at the time of Catiline's conspiracy, praying for redress for certain grievances. These men were tampered with by the conspirators, and promised to forward their designs, which, soon repenting, they betrayed, and became the principal witnesses against the conspirators (Sall. Cat. 41; Cic. in Catil. iii. 2-4). This explains Horace's meaning. Two years afterwards these people, having broken out in war and invaded Gallia Narbonensis, were defeated by C. Pomptinus, governor of that province. Their restlessness is mentioned by Cæsar (B. G. iv. 5).
8. Parentibus] This is like "bella matribus detestata" (C. i. 1. 24).
11. insistet] Insistere' is followed by the accusative case sometimes, particularly when it implies motion, as 'insistere viam,' which peculiarity is found in the Greek κadéçoμat. It more usually governs the dative case, or is followed by the ablative after in.' See Aen. vi. 563: "Sceleratum insistere limen." Ezekiel's prophecy against Tyre declares that Nebuchadnezzar "with the hoofs of his horses shall tread down all her streets" (xxvi. 11); and Jeremiah exclaims (viii. 1, 2): "At that time they shall bring out the bones of the kings of Judah, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets, and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem out of their graves, and they shall spread them before the sun : they shall not be gathered nor be buried; they shall be as dung on the face of the earth." Horace does not take account of the apotheosis of Romulus, which he himself refers to elsewhere (C. iii. 3. 16). Porphyrion, on the authority of Varro, says the tomb of Romulus was behind the Rostra.
15. expediat] This belongs to 'carere'; 'what course befits us best, that we be free from our vile sufferings,' where the Greeks would express or (more commonly) understand ore. The story of the Phocæans abandoning their city when Harpagus was besieging it, and declaring that they would not return till a bar of iron they threw into the sea should float, is told by Herodotus (i. 165). It must have been familiar to educated men, and the form of oath may have become proverbial. 'Exsecrata' is used in a middle sense, • binding themselves under a curse,” ἐποιήσαντο ἰσχυρὰς κατάρας. So 'agros' is governed by 'profugit,' not by exsecrata.'
23. Sic placet ?] Placetne? the usual formula addressed to the people at the comitia. The poet fancies himself addressing a meeting of the citizens. 'Habet suadere' is another Greek construction, weißew exeι.
25. Sed juremus in haec:] 'but let us take an oath in this form'; to make our departure inevitable.
33. ravos] C. iii. 27. 3, n. 'Levis hircus amet,' 'the goat become sleek, and love.'
41. Oceanus] The Atlantic.
42. divites et insulas,] See C. iv. 8. 25, n.
46. Suamque pulla ficus ornat arborem,] and the purple fig adorns its own tree'; that is, without grafting.
51. vespertinus] See C. i. 2. 45. Virg. Georg. iii. 538: “Nocturnus obambulat."