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them gratuitously. They were distinct from the professors or teachers ('advocati') and others, who were paid for their services, and from 'oratores,' though the 'consultus' sometimes combined with his calling as such that of the orator' or 'patronus.' If we are to believe this statement of Horace, and another to the same effect (Epp. ii. 1. 103), we must suppose that these learned persons sacrificed their own convenience to the anxiety of their clients, and received them at a very early hour in the morning. 'Jus' embodied all law. As to 'leges,' see Epp. i. 16. 41, n. On 'laudat,' see v.

3, n.

11. datis vadibus] 'Vades' were sureties provided by the defendant, to secure his appearance before the prætor at a time agreed upon between the plaintiff and himself. If he did not appear, he forfeited the amount of the vadimonium' or agreement, and his 'vades' were liable to pay it if he did not (see S. 9. 36, n.). The person here represented, therefore, is the defendant in an action, going up reluctantly to Rome, to appear before the prætor according to his agreement. Ille' is as if the man were before us.

14. Delassare valent] Though 'delasso' does not occur elsewhere, there is no reason to suspect the word, or alter it. The intensive force of 'de' is well added to 'lasso. It corresponds to κará, which has the same force. Who Fabius was, it is impossible even to conjecture with probability.

15. Si quis Deus,] This is not a Roman way of speaking, but Greek, ei δαίμων τις. 'En ego' does not belong to 'faciam,' but is absolute: Here am I.' 'Eia' is an exclamation of haste, 'Away!' 'Nolint,' they would not' (oùk éléλolev av), is the apodosis to 'si quis Deus.' Compare S. ii. 7. 24: Si quis ad illa deus subito te agat, usque recuses." Atqui' is another form of 'atquin,' and 'quin' represents 'qui,' with a negative particle affixed.


18. partibus:] An expression taken from the language of the theatre: 'the part you have to play' in life.

21. Iratus buccas inflet,] An obvious, but not very reverential, representation of passion.

25. olim] See C. ii. 10. 17, n.

27. Sed tamen amoto] Sed,' 'sed tamen,' 'veruntamen,' are often used, and especially by Cicero, not to express opposition, but after a parenthesis or digression, as here and C. iv. 4. 22. See, for another instance among many, Cic. in Verr. ii. 3. 2.

28. Ille gravem] The cause of that discontent which was spoken of at the beginning is here traced to the love of money, each man thinking that his neighbor is getting it faster than he is, and wishing therefore to change places with him. But Horace does not mean that to be the only solution of the universal discontent. That would be absurd, and one at least of his own examples would contradict his theory, the jurisconsultus, who did not pursue his laborious vocation for pay. He therefore shifts or limits his ground a little, and dwells upon that which he supposes to be the most prevalent cause of discontent; and with his ground he changes his examples. Nauta' and 'mercator' here are the same person, the trader navigating his own ship. (See C. i. 28. 23.) Perfidus caupo' appears again in 'cauponibus atque malignis' (S. i. 5. 4). Per omne Audaces mare qui currunt' is repeated from C. i. 3. 9, sqq.

32. cibaria This word, which is generally used for the rations of soldiers or slaves, is used here ironically for the humblest provision that can be made for the latter years of life, as if that was all that these men set before their minds.

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33. nam exemplo est,] for this is their model.'

35. haud ignara ac non incauta futuri.] Experience tells her that times will change, and instinct teaches her to provide against that change; she knows

what is coming, and provides accordingly. This is what Horace means; but the ant is torpid in the winter, and lays up no store in her house for that season, though no error is more common than to suppose she does. These animals work hard during the warmer months of the year, but the food they gather is consumed before the winter.

36. Quae, simul inversum] 'Quae' is opposed to 'quum te' (v. 38): 'now she.' 'Inversum annum' is compounded of the two notions 'inversum caelum' and 'mutatum annum.' The sun enters Aquarius in the middle of January. Virgil uses the word 'contristat' (Georg. iii. 279): “unde nigerrimus Auster Nascitur, et pluvio contristat frigore caelum." The ant is one of the "four things which are little upon the earth, but they are exceeding wise," the ants, the conies, the locusts, and the spiders. (Prov. xxx. 24, sqq.)

39. ignis, mare, ferrum,] This is a mere proverbial way of speaking, common to all languages. No obstacles are too great for a man who has a selfish purpose to serve, if he has set his heart upon it. The second person is used to give force to the language. The self-deceiver is confronted with his own illustration.

43. Quod si comminuas] The miser is supposed to interrupt, and say, "But if you were to take from it, it would soon dwindle to a paltry 'as.'' Quod' is always the neuter of the relative, but here, as often elsewhere, it is used to connect a new sentence with what precedes, and is not connected with 'pondus' as its antecedent.


45. Millia frumenti] 'Modiorum' must be supplied. As to millia,' 'mille,' see S. ii. 3. 197, n. On 'area,' see C. i. 1. 10, n. Triverit,' 'suppose that it threshes.' This is the concessive use of the subjunctive. practice of putting a note of interrogation in such sentences as this is exploded. The older editions generally have it. Similar constructions are S. 10. 64, "Fuerit Lucilius inquam Comis et urbanus; fuerit limatior-sed ille," etc.; S. 3. 15, "Decies centena dedisses :-quinque diebus nil erat in loculis"; S. ii. 6. 50; Epp i. 1. 87; and many other places.

46. plus ac meus:] This construction occurs again, S. i. 6. 130; 10. 34, 59; ii. 3. 270. Cicero likewise uses 'ac' with the comparative (Ad Att. xiii. 2), "Diutius abfuturus ac nollem." Plus quam' occurs immediately below. The scene that follows is that of a rich man's household preceding him to the country, a pack of slaves (venales'), some carrying provisions and particularly town-made bread in netted bags (reticula'), and others with different burdens, and some with none at all. The man who carried the bread would not get any more of it on that account, when the rations were given out, but all would share alike.

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49. Quid referat-viventi,] 'Refert' is 'rem fert,' and the construction 'mea,' 'tua,' etc.; refert' is no more than a corruption of meam,' tuam,' etc., rem fert.' So 'magni refert' is 'rem magni fert,' it brings with it a matter of great price,' and 'refert viventi' signifies it brings something that concerns him who lives,' that is, it affects him, and 'quid refert' is 'wherein does it affect him?'

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51. At suave est] At' introduces the supposed answer to the preceding question. A rejoinder immediately follows to this effect: "You might as well say, if you only wanted a pitcher of water, you had rather draw it from a broad stream, like the Aufidus, than from the little spring by your side. The consequence of which might be that you would be drowned."

53. cumeris] Acron explains 'cumera' as a large basket of wicker-work, or earthen-ware vessel like a 'dolium,' in which the poorer sort kept their wheat.

54. liquidi] This word is used for liquido mixta perfundit diva polenta."

aqua' by Ovid (Met. v. 454): "Cum The 'urna,' one of the Roman liquid

measures, contained half an 'amphora,' or twenty-four 'sextarii.' As observed before (C. iii. 19. 14), the 'cyathus' contained one twelfth of a 'sextarius,' which was one forty-eighth of an 'amphora.'

55. malim] Malim' simply means 'I would rather'; mallem' (the reading of the early editions), I would have done it if I could, but the time is past. The Aufidus (Horace's native river, C. iii. 30. 10) is still described as a rapid and violent stream at some seasons.

61. bona pars] The greater part.' A. P. 297: "Bona pars non ungues ponere curat." On 'cupido,' see C. ii. 16. 15, n.

62. quia tanti quantum habeas sis.] 'because you are valued according to your wealth.'

63. illi?] Such a man as this.' Quatenus' signifies 'since.' 'Bid him be miserable, since he likes to be so.' 'Facio' is sometimes used in this See C. iii. 24. 30. The story that follows may have been picked up by Horace at Athens, or invented by him. The language (' sibilat—plaudo3) is taken from the theatre.


68. Tantalus] See Epod. xvii. 66, n.

69. Quid rides?] The miser is supposed to laugh at Horace's trite illustration, and the solemn way in which it is announced.

71. tamquam parcere sacris] This appears to have been a proverbial expression. See S. ii. 3. 109, sq.

72. Cogeris] you force yourself.'

74. sextarius,] See v. 54, n. A 'sextarius' of wine would be enough for one temperate man's consumption in a day.

78. compilent fugientes,] rob you, and run away.'

79. pauperrimus-bonorum.] C. iii. 30. 11: "Pauper aquae Daunus."

S. ii. 3. 142.

80. At si condoluit] This is an argument urged by the avaricious man: 'If you have money, you will have anxious friends to nurse you in sickness.’ The answer is, 'Your nearest relatives have no wish you should live, and no wonder either, since you prefer your money to all the world.'

tentatum frigore] Tentatum' is the word commonly used in connection

with diseases.

85. pueri atque puellae.] This, which appears to be a proverbial sort of expression, occurs again S. ii. 3. 130.

86. argento post omnia ponas,] i. c. postponas omnia argento.'

88. An si cognatos,] 'But say, if you seek to retain and keep the affection of those relations whom nature gives you without any trouble of your own, would you lose your labor, like the luckless fool that tries to turn an ass into a racer?' Training an ass to run in the Campus Martius among the thorough-bred horses that were there exercised (see C. i. 8. 5; iii. 12. 8) was perhaps a proverbial way of expressing lost labor. 'Amicos' belongs to cognatos' in the way I have translated it, and 'servare amicos' is 'to keep

them fond of you.'

92. quaerendi,] 'money-getting.' 'Plus' means 'a superfluity.' 94. ne facias] Lest you fare,' uǹ прáσσŋs.

95. Ummidius quidam;] Who this person was, is unknown. All that can be safely said of him is what Horace says, that he was very rich and mean, and that he was murdered by one of his freedwomen (his mistress probably), who, Horace says, was as stout-hearted as Clytemnestra, the bravest of her family, who killed her husband Agamemnon. Tyndaridarum' is masculine: Tyndaridum' would be the feminine form. The sons of Tyndarus, therefore, as well as his daughters, should, strictly speaking, be included.


97. adusque] Forcellini gives only two other instances of this word from writings of Horace's day, Virgil (Aen. xi. 262), and Horace himself (S. i. 5.96). It is only an inversion of usque ad,' 'every step to.'

101. ut vivam Maenius ?] The construction is the same as "discinctus aut perdam nepos" (Epod. i. 34), where it has been proposed to insert ut' before 'nepos.' Mænius and Nomentanus appear to have been squanderers of money, and good livers, according to the obvious meaning of this passage. They are united again in S. i. 8. 11, ii. 1. 21, where the former appears under the name Pantolabus, one who lays his hands on anything he can get (Távra λaßov), or borrows money from any one who will lend it. He spent his money and turned parasite. Both Mænius and Nomentanus are names used by Lucilius for characters of the same kind, and Horace may very probably have only borrowed the names to represent some living_characters, whom he does not choose to point out by their own names. Nomentanus was the name of one of the guests at the dinner of Nasidienus (S. ii. 8. 25). He appears again, S. ii. 3. 224, sqq.

103. Frontibus adversis componere:] These words go together, 'to bring face to face, and compare or match."

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104. vappam] Vappa,' wine which has got flat and sour, expresses a worn-out debauchee: nebulo,' a frivolous fellow, light as a mist (nebula '). 105. Tanain · socerumque Viselli.] The Scholiast says that Horace has conveyed under these names a well-known Greek proverb. What the distinction between them may have been, is unknown.

108. nemo ut avarus] I return to that point from which I have digressed, how that no covetous man is satisfied with himself.' The reading is not certain, and the hiatus is unusual. Horace qualifies the general assertion he made at the outset, by limiting his remark to the avaricious. See note on v. 28; and on 'laudet,' see v. 3.

114. Ut, quum carceribus] These lines are a little like the last three verses of Virgil's first Georgic.

119. Cedat uti conviva satur,] These are so like the words of Lucretius (iii. 951), that perhaps Horace remembered them when he wrote,

"Cur non ut plenus vitae conviva recedis,

Aequo animoque capis securam, stulte, quietem ?"

120. Crispini scrinia lippi] We know nothing about Crispinus. The fertility of his pen has profited him nothing. He was more anxious to write much than to write well. See S. i. 4. 14, sqq. Crispinus appears in the third Satire of this book (v. 139), where he is the only attendant of the wouldbe 'rex.' He appears again in S. ii. 7. 45. Lippi' is used for mental blindness.


THIS Satire, the coarsest of all written by Horace, seems to have been suggested by the death of Tigellius, a celebrated musician of the time. It is directed against the tendency of men to run into extremes, and to pass from one extreme to the other. Illustrations of this subject are drawn from the social life of Rome. The ideas and the language are marked by a grossness which is unusual with Horace.


THE last Satire was, as has been said, written on the death of one Tigellius, an eminent musician, a native of Sardinia, and a friend of Julius Cæsar. Some of the vices and follies of the age are attacked in strong language, and

besides Tigellius, who was dead, it is probable many living persons felt injured by that Satire, and perhaps by others that have not come down to us. We may infer from the present poem, that Horace wished to clear himself from the imputation of a censorious spirit, and so to set himself right with Mæcenas and his friends. The connection between the two Satires is seen in the opening of this, in which Tigellius is again introduced, and the peculiarities of his character described, for no other reason, as it would seem, than to serve as a text for the discourse that follows, on the duty of judging others charitably, as we wish to be judged ourselves. In the course of his remarks on this subject, Horace falls upon two of the Stoic absurdities; one, that all faults are alike (v. 96, sqq.), which he meets by the Epicurean absurdity that expediency is the foundation of right; and the other, that every wise man (that is, every Stoic) is endowed with all the gifts of art and fortune, from the skill of the mechanic to the power of a king. With a jest upon this folly the Satire closes.

4. Tigellius] See Introduction. This person is described as a capricious, inconsistent man, of whom you never could tell what he would do next.

6. ab ovo Usque ad mala] The 'promulsis,' otherwise called 'gustus,' preceded the regular meal, and consisted of things calculated to provoke the appetite, of which a list is given in the eighth Satire of the second book, v. 8, sq., where, however, eggs are not mentioned, but they were usual, and 'ab ovo usque ad mala,' from the eggs to the dessert,' was a common way of speaking. The 'gustus' was eaten with a draught of mulsum' (S. ii. 2. 15, n.) sometimes before they sat down, or even before they left the bath.

7. citaret, Io Bacche!] This use of citare,' 'to shout,' is not common. There were convivial songs among the Greeks to which they gave the name lóẞakyo. Several fragments of such songs by Archilochus have been preserved. The final syllable in 'Bacche' is lengthened, and should properly be pronounced as the singer might be supposed to pronounce it.

modo summa] The strings in the tetrachord, or harp with four strings, which continued to be used even after the heptachord was invented (see A. P. 83, n.), from which the low notes proceeded, were uppermost as the player held it in his hand, and the notes of the voice which corresponded with these are expressed by 'summa voce.' For the same reason, the high notes would be those which harmonized with the lowest of the strings. The summa chorda' was called in Greek várη, and the ima' výr. Chordis' is the dative case, the literal translation being, 'that voice which is the lowest (where, for the above reason, those notes are called the lowest which we should call the highest), and that echoes to the four strings.'

11. Junonis sacra ferret ;] This refers to the 'canephoroe,' damsels who carried the basket of sacred instruments on their head at sacrifices. Those of Juno are mentioned here; but the practice was observed at all sacrifices. habebat saepe ducentos,] Ten slaves were a very small household for a rich man, and Tigellius was rich. The number of slaves in wealthy houses in primitive times was small, but afterwards grew to an extraordinary number.

12. modo reges atque tetrarchas,] 'Modo,' as an adverb of time, signifies 'now,' or some time not far from the present. It is the ablative of 'modus,' 'measure,' and 'modo' is 'within measure,' and therefore its sense is confined to limited quantities. Compare the use of 'modo' and 'admodum ' in Terence (Hec. iii. 5. 8): "Advenis modo? Pam. Admodum." 'Are you coming now? -Just now.' 'Modo' thus comes to have the meaning of nunc,' and to be used in the same combinations, as here nunc regesloquens; nunc, sit mihi mensa tripes' would have the same meaning; and likewise in S. 10. 11. Tetrarchs were properly governors of a fourth part of

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