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METRES OF HORACE.
1. OF SEVERAL TECHNICAL TERMS.
1. Foot. A foot is a combination of a certain number of syllables of a certain quantity.
2. Verse. A verse is the regular series of a certain number of feet.
3. Basis. A basis is a foot of two or three syllables preceding a verse. 4. Stanza or Strophe. A stanza or strophe is the succession of several verses in a certain order, which order is preserved through the poem.
If the stanza consists of two verses, the poem is distrophon (díorpopov); if of three, tristrophon (τpíστpopov); if of four, tetrastrophon (TEтpáσтpopov); and if of one, monostrophon (povóστpopov).
If one kind of verse only is employed in the composition of the poem, the latter is called monocōlon (μovókwλov); if two kinds of verse, dicōlon (dikwλον); and if three, tricolon (τρίκωλον).
5. Casura. A cæsura (from the Latin verb cado, to cut, sever) is the in terruption or intersection of a foot by the ending of a word.
6. Dipodia.— The feet of two syllables, especially the iambuses and trochees, are not numbered singly, but two by two, and two feet thus united are called a metrum or dipodia (diodía). One dipodia or two feet are called a monometer (μovóμerpos); two dipodia or four feet, a dimeter (díμerpos); three dipodia or six feet, a trimeter; four dipodia or eight feet, a tetrameter. But the dactyls, choriambuses, and other feet, are numbered singly, so that two of them are called a dimeter, three a trimeter, four a tetrameter, etc.
7. Versus catalectus or catalecticus (στίχος κατάληκτος or καταληκτικός) is a verse, the last foot of which wants one or several syllables. If one syllable is remaining, it is called versus catalecticus in syllabam; if two, catalecticus in dissyllabum.
8. Versus brachycatalectus is an iambic or trochaic verse (which are measured by dipodia) the last foot of which is wanting.*
9. Versus acatalectus is a verse which is complete.
10. Versus hypercatalectus is a verse which has one syllable too much.
* Sometimes this verse is comprehended under the preceding name, versus catalectus.
II. OF FEET.
The feet, of which the verses in the various metres of Horace are con structed,* are, –
The Anăpast dee and Iambus.
III. OF VERSES.
a. Iambic Verses.
The first syllable of an iambic dipodia, not being capable of being measured accurately, may be long, and thus a spondee may stand in the place of an iambus, or the solutions of the spondee, the anapast and dactyl. The same changes may be made in the third, fifth, and seventh places. For the second, fourth, and sixth iambus, a tribrachys alone can be substituted; so that iambic verses admit of these changes:
2. Versus iambicus trimeter catalectus:
It is to be observed that Horace, very moderate in the use of this liberty, uses sometimes in the even places the tribrachys, and in the odd places the spondee, but seldom the anapæst or dactyl.
1. Versus iambicus dimeter acatalectus, or versus iambicus quaternarius:
Inar sit ae stuosius. Epod. 3. 18.
Forti seque mur pectore. Epod. 1. 14.
Satis | beatus unicis | Sabinis. ii. 18. 14.
3. Versus iambicus trimeter acatalectus, or versus iambicus senarius; with a cæsura after the first syllable of the third foot:
Parentibus que abo|minatus Hannibal. Epod. 16. 8.
- and the Tribrachys
occur only as solutions of the Spon
b. Trochaic Verses.
The last syllable of a trochaic dipodia being doubtful, in the second, fourth, and sixth places the spondee, anapæst, or dactyl may be substituted for the trochee, and the tribrachys in any place.
4. Versus Ithyphallicus, which is a versus trochaicus dimeter brachycatalec
Veris et Favoni. i. 4.1.
This verse is used once by Horace, so as to form the termination of another (see No. 19), and is constructed throughout in its pure and regular form.
5. Versus trochaicus dimeter catalectus :·
Non ebur neque aureum. ii. 18. 1.
Horace does not use the spondee in the second place.
c. Choriambic Verses.
Entire verses are not formed of choriambuses, but one or several choriambuses are preceded or succeeded by different feet.
6. Versus Pherecratius, which is a versus choriambicus monometer hypercatalectus, with a basis, which in Horace is always a spondee:
7. Versus Glyconicus, which is a versus choriambicus dimeter catalectus in pyrrhichium aut iambum, with a basis, which in Horace is always a spondee : –
8. Versus Asclepiadeus minor, which is a versus choriambicus trimeter catalectus in pyrrhichium aut iambum, with a basis, which in Horace is always a spondee, and a cæsura after the first choriambus:
Maecenas atavis edite regibus. i. 1. 1.
Horace neglects the cæsura in two instances. One occurs in this book:Non incendia Carthaginis impiæ. iv. 8. 17.
Mitscherlich very properly questions the genuineness of this verse. In one instance the first choriambus is changed into a pæon primus (~~~~): —
Quam si, | quidquid arat | impiger Apulus. iii. 16. 26.
9. Versus Asclepiadeus major, which is a versus choriambicus tetrameter catalectus in pyrrhichium aut iambum, with a basis, which in Horace is always a spondee, and two cæsuras, after the first and second choriambus: 1200 L || Quis post | vina gravem || militiam aut || pauperiem crepat? i. 18.5,
In one instance the secord cæsura is neglected :
Arcanique Fides || prodiga, per lucidior | vitro. i. 18. 16.
10. Versus Aristophanicus, which is a versus choriambicus dimeter catalectus in amphibrachyn aut bacchium:
11. Versus Sapphicus minor, which is the preceding verse preceded by a trochaic dipodia (----) or Epitritus secundus, with a cæsura after the first syllable of the choriambus:
+ || L
Fluminum lapsus || celeres que ventos. i. 12. 10.
Several times the last word is divided, a part of it belonging to the follow ing line: i. 2. 19; ii. 16. 7.
12. Versus Sapphicus major, which has one more choriambus than the preceding verse, with a second cæsura after the first choriambus:
± 12 200 L
Oderit campum, || patiens || pulveris atque solis? i. 8. 4.
d. Dactylic Verses.
13. Versus Adonicus," which is a versus dactylicus dimeter catalectus:
Templaque | Vestae. i. 2.16.
14. Versus Archilochius minor, which is a versus dactylicus dimeter hyper catalectus, or trimeter catalectus in syllabam :
Flumina praetereunt. iv. 7. 4.
15. Versus dactylicus tetrameter catalectus, or versus tetrameter heroicus. A spondee may be used instead of a dactyl in the first and second places, seldom in the third; a cæsura occurs after the first syllable of the second or third foot:
Carmine perpetu|o || celebrare et. i. 7. 6.
16. Versus Alcmanius (see No. 19), which is a versus dactylicus tetrameter acatalectus, with a cæsura after the first syllable of the third foot; spondees are used in the first three feet:
Nunc decet aut virildi || nitidum caput. i. 4. 9.
17. Versus hexameter heroicus, which is a versus dactylicus hexameter catalectus, with a principal cæsura after the first syllable of the third foot (πενθημιμερής), or after the first syllable of the fourth foot (έφθημιμερής), and frequently one or more subordinate cæsuras; instead of the dactyl, the spondee may be used in all places except the fifth; in a few instances a
*This verse may also be considered as a versus choriambicus monometer hypercatalec tus:-Templaque Vês | tu.
spondee is used even in the fifth place, and such a verse is then called versus spondaicus:
Tiburis umbra tuli. | Teulcer Sala mina patremque. i. 7. 21.
e. Logaædic Verses.
Logaœdic verses (λoyaoidikoí, i. e. verses combining the rhythm of prose and verse) are those in which a series of dactyls is succeeded by a series of trochees.
18. Versus Alcaicus decasyllabus, composed of two dactyls and two trochees:
Sardiniae segeltes felraces. i. 31. 4.
19. Versus Archilochius major, composed of the versus Alcmanius, or four dactyls (see No. 16), and three trochees (see No. 4), with two cæsuras, one after the first syllable of the third dactyl, the other after the fourth dactyl. Many, especially older, editions have this verse divided into two, the first containing the dactyls, the second the trochees:
Jam Cytherea choros | ducit Venus | imminente | Luna. i. 4. 5.
f. Versus Asynartēti.
Versus asynarteti (ảσvváρτητο), that is, unconnected verses, are those which consist of two or more members, connected, however, as loosely as one verse with another. The first and last syllables, therefore, of each member are doubtful, and no elision takes place, in case the last letter of one member and the first of the other are vowels. Many are of opinion that these verses, being in effect separate verses, should be printed as such.
20. Versus iambelĕgus, consisting of a versus iambicus dimeter acatalectus (see No. 1), and a versus Archilochius minor (see No. 14):
Tu vina Torquato | move | consule | pressa melo. Epod. 13. 6.
21. Versus dactyliambicus, consisting of a versus Archilochius minor (see No. 14), and a versus iambicus dimeter acatalectus (see No. 1).
Scribere | versiculos || amore percussum | gravi. Epod. 11. 2.
g. Verses of Different Feet.
22. Versus Alcaicus hendecasyllabus, consisting of an iambus, bacchius, and two dactyls, with a cæsura after the bacchius; a spondee is generally used instead of an iambus:
Dulce et decorum est || pro patria mori. iii. 2. 13.