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who were taught to read in large rooms; who were accustomed 10 stand at too great a distance, when reading to their teachers ; wiose instructors were very imperfect in their hearing; or who were taught by persons, that considered loud expression as the chief requisite in forming a good reader. These are circumstances which demand the serious attention of every one to whoin the education of youth is committed
In the next place, to being well heard and clearly understood, dis. tinctness of articulation contributes more than mere loudness of sound. The quantity of sound necessary to fill even a large space, is smaller than is commonly imagined; and with distinct articulation, a person with a weak voice will make it reach farther, than the strongest voice can reach without it. To this, therefore, every reader ought to pay great attention. He must give every sound which he utters, its due proportion; and make every syllable, and even every letter in the word which he pronounces, be heard distinctly; without slur. ring, whispering, or suppressing any of the proper sounds.
Ăn accurate knowledge of the simple, elementary sounds of the anguage, and a facility in expressing them, are so necessary to disinctness of expression, that if the learner's attainments are, in this respect, imperfect, (and many there are in this situation, it will be incumbent on his teacher, to carry him back to these primary articuJations ; and to suspend his progress, till he become perfectly master of them. It will be in vain to press him forward, with the hope of forming a good reader, if he cannot completely articulate every elementary sound of the language.
Due Degree of Slowness.
In order to express ourselves distinctly, moderation is requisite with regard to the speed of pronouncing. Precipitancy of speech confounds all articulation, and all meaning. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that there may be also an extreme on the opposite side. It is obvious that a lifeless, drawling manner of reading, which allows the minds of the bearers to be always outrunning the speaker, must render every such performance insipid and fatiguing. But the ex. treme of reading too fast is much more common, and requires the more to be gaurded against, because, when it has grown into a habit, few errors are more difficult to be corrected. To pronounce with a proper degree of slowness, and with full and clear articulation is nedessary to be studied by all, who wish to become good readers ; and it cannot be too much recommended to them. Such a pronunciation gives weight and dignity to the subject. It is a great assistance to the voice, by the pauses and rests
which it allows the reader more tasily to make ; and it enables the reader to swell all his sounds, both with more force and more harmony.
Propriety of Pronunciation.
Aften the fundamental attentions to the pitch and management of the voice, to distinct articulation, and to a proper degree of slowness de of speech, what the young reader must, in the next place, study, is propriety of pronunciation; or, giving to every word which he utters, that sound which the best usage of ihe language appropriates to it: in opposition to broad, vulgar, or provincial pronunciation. This is requisite both for reading intelligibly, and for reading with correct. ness and ease. Instructions concerning this article may be best given by the living teacher. But there is one observation, which it may not be improper here to make. In the English language, every word which consists of more syllables than one, bas one accented syllable. The accents rest sometimes on the vowel, sometimes on the conso.
The genius of the language requires the voice to mark that syllable by a stronger percussion, and to pass more slightly over the rest. Now, after we have learned the proper seats of these accents it is an important rule, to give every word just the same accent in reading, as in common discourse. Many persons err. in this respect. When they read to others, and with solemnity, they pronounce the syllables in a different manner from what they do at other times.. They dwell upon them and protract them ; they multiply accents on the sarne word; from a mistaken notion, that it gives gravity and importance to their subject, and adds to the energy of their delivery. Whereas this is one of the greatest faults that can be committed in pronunciation : it makes what is called a pompous or nouthinge manner; and gives an artificial, affected air to reading, which detracis greatly both from its agreeableness and its impression.
Sheridan and Walker bave published Dictionaries, for ascertaining the true and best pronunciaion of the words of our language. By attentively consulting them, particularly “ Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary,” the young reader will be much assisted, in his endea. vours to attain a correct pronunciation of the words belonging to the English language.
By emphasis is meant a stronger and fuller sound of voice, by which we distinguish some word or words, on which we design to lay particular stress, and to show how they affect the rest of the sentence. Sometimes the emphatic words must be distinguished by a particular tone of voice, as well as by a particular stress. On the right management of the emphasis depends the life of pronunciation. If no emphasis be placed on any words, not only is discourse rendered boavy and lifeless, but the mæning left often ambiguous. If the emphasis be placed wrong, we pervert and confound the meaning wholly. Emphasis may be divided into the Superior and the Inferior emphasis.
The superior emphasis determines the meaning of a sentence, with reference to something said before, presupposed by the author as general knowledge, or removes an ambiguity, where a passage may have more senses than one. The inferior emphasis enforces, graces, and onlivens, but does not fix, the meaning of any passage. The words 10 which this latter emphasis is given, are, in general, such as seem the most important in the sentence, or, on other accounts, 10 merit this distinction. The following passage will serve to exemplify the superior emphasis.
$. Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Sing heavenly Muse !" Supposing that originally other beings, besides men, had disobeyed the commands of the Almighty, and that the circumstance were well known tous, there would fall an emphasis upon the word man, in the first line ; and hence it would read thus :
u of man's first disobedience, and the fruil, &c. But if it were a notorious truth, that mankind had transgressed in a peculiar manner more than once, the emphasis would fall on first; and the line be read,
" Or man's first disobedience, &c." Again, admitting death (as was really the case) to have been an unheard of and dreadtul punishment, brought upon man in consequence of his transgression ; on that supposition the third line would be read,
“ Broughl death into the world," &c. But if we were to suppose that mankind knew there was such an avil as death in other regions, though the place they inhabit had been free from it till their transgression, the line would run thus :
“Brought death into the world, &c.
The superior emphasis finds place in the following short sentence, which admits of four distinct meanings, each of which is ascertained by the emphasis only:
“Do you ride to lown to day?" The following examples illustrate the nature and use of the inferior emphasis :
Many persons mistake the love for the practice of virtue."
Shall i reward his services with falsehood ? Shall I forget hin, who cannot forget 'me ???
“If his principles are false, no apology from himself can make them right ; if founded in truth, no censure from others can make them turong."
“Though deep, yet« lear; though gentle, yet not dill;
" A friend exaggerates a man's virtues ; an enemy his crimes,"
“ The wise man is happy, when he gains his own approbation; the fool, when he gains that of others.”
The superior emphasis, in reading as in speaking, must be détermined entirely by the sense of the passage, and always made ulike : but as to the inferior emphasis, taste alone seems to bave the right of fixing its situation and quantity.
Among the number of persons, who have had proper opportunities of learning to read, in the best manner it is now taught, very few could be selected, who in a given instance, would use the inferior emphasis alike, either as to place or quantity. Some persons indeed, use scarcely any degree of it : and others do not scruple to carry it far beyond any thing to be found in common discourse; and even sometimes throw it upon words so very trifling in themselves, that it is evidently done with no other view, than to give greater variety to the modulation.* Notwithstanding this diversity of practice, there are certainly proper boundaries, within which this emphasis must be restrained, in order to make it meet the approbation of sound judg. ment and correct taste. It will doubtless have different degrees of exertion, according to the greater or less dlegrees of imporiance of the words upon which it operates ; and there may be very properly some variety in the use of it; but its application is not arbitrary, depending on the caprice of readers.
As emphasis often falls on words in different parts of the same sentence, so it is frequently required to be continued with a little variation, on two, and sometimes more words together. The following sentences exemplify both the parts of this position : “ If you seek to make one rich, study not to increase his stores, but to diminish his desires." “ The Mexican figures, or picture writing, represent things, not words : they exhibit images to the eye, not ideas to the understand. ing."
Some sentences are so full and comprehensive, that almost every word is emphatic ; as “ Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains !" or, as that pathetic expostulation in the prophecy of Ezekiel, “ Why will ye die !"
Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regulator of quantity. Though the quantity of our syllables is fixed, in words separately pronounced, yet it is mutable, when these words are arranged in sentences; the long being changed into short, the short into long, according to the importance of the word with regard to meaning. Emphasis also, in particular cases, alters the seat of the accent. This is demonstrable from the following examples. “ He shall increase, but I shall decrease.” “There is a difference between giving and
forgiving.” " In this species of composition, plausibility is much more essential than probability." "In these examples, the emphasis requires the accent to be placed on syllables, to which it does not commonly belong
By modulation is meant that pleasing variety of voice, which ia perceive ed in uttering a sentence, and which, in its nelure, is perfectly distinct from emphasis, and the tones of emotion and passion. The song reader should be caretul to render his modulation correct and easy ; and, for this purpose, should form it upon the model of the mos: judicines and accurale speakers.
In order to acquire the proper management of the emphasis, the great rule to be given, is, that the reader study to attain a just conception of the force and spirit of the sentiments which he is to pro
For to lay the emphasis with exact propriety, is a constant exercise of good sense and attention. It is far from being an incon. siderable attainment. It is one of the most decisive trials of a true and just taste; and must arise from feeling delicately ourselves, and from judging accurately of what is fittest to strike the feelings of others.
There is one error, against which it is particularly proper to cau. tion the learner ; namely, that of multiplying emphatical words too mucb, and using the emphasis indiscriminately. It is only by a pru. dent reserve and distinction in the use of them, that we can give them any weight. If they recur too often ; if a reader attempts to render every thing he expresses of high importance, by a multitude of strong emphasis, wo boon learn to pay little regard to them. To crowd every sentence with emphatical words, is like crowding all the pages of a book with Italic characters; which as to the effect, is just the same as to use no such distinctions at all.
Tones are different both from emphasis and pauses ; consisting in the notes or variations of sound which we employ, in the expression of our sentiments. Emphasis affects particular words and phrases, with a degree of tone, or inflection of voice; but tones, puculiarly so called, affect sentences, paragraphs, and sometimes even the whole of a discourse.
To show the use and necessity of tones, we need only observe, that the mind, in communicating its ideas, is in a constant state of activi. ty, emotion, or agitation, from the different effects which those ideas produce in the speaker. Now the end of such communication being not merely to lay open the ideas, but also the different feelings which they excite in him who utters them, there must be other signs than words, to manifest those feelings; as words uttered in a monotonous manner can represent only a similar state of mind, perfectly free from all activity and emotion. As the communication of these internal feelings was of much more consequence in our social intercourse, than the mere conveyance of ideas, the Author of our being did not, as in that conveyance, leave the invention of the language of emotion to man; but impressed it himself upon our nature, in the same manner as he bas done with regard to the rest of the animal world; all of which express their various feelings, by various tones. Ours, indeed, from the superior rank that we hold, are in a high degree more com. prehensive; as there is not an act of the mind, an exertion of the fan. cy, or an emotion of the heart, which has not its peculiar tone, or note of the voice, by which it is to be expressed ; and which is suited exactly to the degree of infernal feeling. It is chiefly in the proper use of these tones, that the life, spirit, beauty, and harmony of deLivery consist