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before a great fire, which he had ready for that purpose. Although highly delighted with their embarrassment, he affected not to perceive the effects of the fire in drying their dresses, and shrivelling them into the most uncouth shapes. In dismissing them from his presence, he said, "To-morrow we will take our revenge, and in the same habits."

When they appeared the following day in their torn and disfigured garments, they furnished a most ridiculous spectacle to the whole court. The Emperor, after having rallied them on their absurdity, at last exclaimed, "Fools that ye are, now perceive the difference betwixt your luxury and my simplicity! My dress covers and defends me, and when worn out is of no consequence; whilst your rich attires, liable to be spoiled by the least accident, almost amount, in value, to a large treasure."

The ingenious writer before us animadverts on the praise bestowed by Montesquieu on Charlemagne's economy: but, if the observations of the divine are plausible, and conformable to modern notions, those of the President à Mortier are founded on more just views of the times, and on a more just appreciation of effects and consequences. In estimating conduct, we must ever connect it with situation and circumOn the whole, however, we must allow that this performance shews its author to be a man of enlarged views and liberal sentiments. If we do not discover in it traces of deeper research than has already been frequently made, and if we do not meet with disclosures of matters that before had lain concealed, (which Mr. Card induces his readers to expect,) yet we are beholden to him for a fair, authentic, and well digested account of a highly interesting period.

ART. XI. An Account of the Empire of Marocco, and the District of Suse; compiled from Miscellaneous Observations made during a long Residence in and various Journies through these Countries. To which is added an accurate and interesting Account of Timbuctoo, the great Emporium of central Africa. By James Grey Jackson, Esq. Illustrated with 13 Engravings and Maps. 4to. pp. 285. 21. 2s. Boards. Nicol and Son. 18c9.

R. Jackson informs us in his preface that the materials of
his book were composed during a residence of sixteen.
years in different parts of the Empire of Marocco, and were
at first intended as memoranda for his own use only, but that
he was induced by Lord Moira to give them to the public: to
which measure he was also incited by reflecting on the very
slender knowlege which we hitherto possess of the interior of
Barbary; our descriptions of that country consisting generally
of the narratives of journies to the Emperor's Court, under-


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taken for a local and temporary object, and consequently unproductive of satisfactory information respecting the country at large. In order to obtain a thorough acquaintance with the moral and political character of a nation so different from our own, a traveller must, as Mr. Jackson justly remarks, have long resided on the spot, have had access to the inhabitants in public as well as private life, and, above all, have acquired an accurate and practical intimacy with the Arabic language, the peculiarities of which are such as to lead the imperfect scholar into perpetual misapprehensions. Of authors previous to the present age, Mr. Jackson considers Leo Africanus to have given by far the best account of Marocco. In late years, great attention has been bestowed on Africa, but the judgment exercised in the pursuit of discovery has not been equal to the ardour of the intention. The progress of our enterprizing countryman, Parke, was much impeded by his imperfect knowlege of the temper and prejudices of the natives, as well as by his injudicious plan of travelling in an European dress ; and Hornemann, although more prudent in the latter respect, was by no means accurate in his conceptions of the African cha


The volume before us consists of the following divisions: Chapter I. describes the geographical limits of the Empire of Marocco and its several provinces. II. Rivers. III. Climate and Face of the Country. IV. Soil and Culture. V. Zoology. VI. Minerals and Vegetables. VII. Population. VIII. National Manners. IX. Observations on the Mohammedan Religion. X. Language of Africa. XI. Commerce of Marocco and Suse. XII. Ship-wrecks and Treatment of Captives XIII. Traffic with the interior of Africa by the City of Timbuctoo. The book is concluded by an Appendix, containing an account of the species of plague which raged in the Empire of Marocco in 1799 and 1800.-In our observations, we shall pursue, as nearly as possibie, the arrangement adopted by the author; classing our remarks, as well as our extracts, under the general heads to which they appear to us to belong.

Geographical Descriptions.-West Barbary, or the Empire of Marocco, extends southwards from Ceuta along the coast of the Atlantic to the 28th degree of N. lat., a length of more than six hundred English miles in a straight line. Its breadth is various, being from two to four hundred English miles, according to the particular quarter at which the computation may be made. In this definition of extent is included the province of Suse, which forms nominally the southern part of the Empire, but, from circumstances of local situation, is in a great measure independent of the Imperial Government. The Atlas Mountains

extend in a N. E. direction almost the whole length of the Empire. They are at a considerable distance from the sea, but are notwithstanding visible from it in many places, on account of their great height. From Mogodor, the central part of this immense ridge may be seen, covered with snow, at a distance of 150 miles. These mountains consist of two extensive chains, called from their position the North and South Atlas, and from them proceed the various rivers which traverse West Barbary and fall into the Atlantic. The different stages of their elevation present a considerable variety of climate; and their influence on the adjacent plains seems to be equally salubrious with that of the Andes in America, the air of Marocco being healthy and invigorating. The soil also is in general very rich, producing wheat and barley in great abundance, as well as the fruits which belong to southern


The varieties of the Animal Kingdom are considerable in. Marocco. Among these, the Hyena is particularly described by Mr. Jackson; and though its countenance is ferocious, its disposition is said to be rather stupid than fierce. Wherever rocks or caverns are seen in Barbary, this animal is to be found. We extract some of the particulars which are descriptive of it:

The mode of hunting this animal is singular; a party of ten or twelve persons. accompanied with as many dogs of various kinds, go to the cavern which they have previously ascertained to be the haunt of the hyena; one of the party then strips himself naked, and taking the end of a rope with a noose to it in one hand, he advances gradually into the cave, speaking gently, and in an insinuating tone of voice, pretending to fascinate the hyena by words; when he reaches the animal, he strokes him down the back, which appears to soothe him; he then dexterously slips the noose round his neck, and instantly pulling the rope to indicate to those on the outside of the cave, who hold the other end, that it is fixed, he retires behind, throwing a handkerchief or cloth over the eyes of the hyena; the men then pull the rope from without, whilst he who fixes the noose urges the animal forward, when the dogs attack him. Some of the Shelluhs (natives of the South Atlas) are very expert at securing the hyæna in this manner, and although there may be some danger in case the rope breaks, yet the man who enters the cave always carries a dagger, or large knife with him, with which he has considerably the advantage, for this animal is by no means so ferocious as he ap pears to be in the southern Atlas I have seen them led about by the boys; a rope being fastened round the animal's neck, and a communicating rope attached to it on either side, three or four yards long, the end of each being held by a boy, keep him perfectly secure. It is confinement that is inimical to a hyena, and which increases his ferocity. There are other modes of hunting this stupid


animal, either in the night with dogs, or by shooting him; but he never comes out of his cave in the day-time, but sits at the further end of it, staring with his eyes fixed. Their general character is not to be afraid of man, nor indeed to attack or avoid him; they will, however, attack and destroy sheep, goats, poultry, asses, and mules, and are very fond of the intoxicating herb, called Hashisha. The hyena is said to live to a great age.'

From the hyæna, Mr. Jackson passes to an animal of a more gracious character, the Gazel or Antelope. Arabian poets are fond of complimenting the ladies by comparing their eyes to those of the gazel, and Mr. Jackson's imagination seems to kindle when descanting on this animating topic. 'Much art,' he informs us, is employed by the Arabian females to make their eyes appear like those of this delicate animal. Eyes originally black and lively are made to appear larger and more languishing by tinging the outer corner with El Kahol filelly, a preparation of lead ore which gives an apparent elongation to the eye. The eye-lashes and eye-brows being also blackened with this composition, they appear peculiarly soft and languishing; it is said also to improve and strengthen the sight? After this captivating enumeration, Mr. Jackson proceeds to favour his readers with an Arabian sonnet, illustrative of his remarks. It is the address of a lover to his mistress, and is presented by the author in three shapes; in the Arabic character; then in Arabic words in the Roman character; and lastly in an English translation executed by himself. Our fair readers, we believe, will be contented with the latter;

Say, thou Antelope in beauty,
Since permitted to return,
Say, what is a lover's duty
Who with ardent fire doth burn.
Sympathise with him who loves you,
Crown of all my hopes and joys,

'Tis your constant swain approves you,
His Gazel all his soul employs.'

We would observe, en passant, that the tautological expression of burning with ardent fire,' shews that the author possesses no critical mastery of language;' a remark which is farther confirmed by an unfortunate use of the active for the passive mood, in the same page, in the phrase the antelope soon fatigues but we pass with pleasure from animadversions on style, to a consideration of the useful matter with which Mr. Jackson frequently presents his readers.

Africa has been, from time immemorial, the nursery of Locusts; and we have here an account of that destructive insect which fully coincides with the affecting picture given in the Old Teftament:


Locusts are produced from some unknown physical cause, and proceed from the Desert, always coming from the south. When they visit a country, it behoves every individual to lay in a provision against a famine; for they are said to stay three, five, or seven years. During my residence in West and South Barbary, those countries suffered a visitation from them during seven years. They have a government among themselves, similar to that of the bees and ants; and when the (Sultan Jerraad) king of the locusts rises, the whole body follow him, not one solitary straggler being left behind to witness the devastation. When they have eaten all other vegetation, they attack the trees, consuming first the leaves, and then the bark, so that the country, in the midst of summer, from their unsparing rapacity, bears the face of winter. In my travels, I have seen them so thick on the ground, as sometimes actually to have covered my horse's hoofs, as he went along; it is very annoying to travel through a host of them, as they are continually flying in your face, and settling on your hands and clothes. At a distance, they appear, in the air, like an immense cloud, darkening the sun; and whilst employed in devouring the produce of the land, it has been observed that they uniformly proceed one way, as regularly as a disciplined army on its march; nor will it be possible to discover a single one going a different way from the rest. In travelling from Mogodor to Tangier, before the plague in 1799, the country was covered with them: a singular incident then occurred at El Araiche; the whole country from the confines of Sahara to that place was ravaged by them, but after crossing the river El Kos, they were not to be seen, though there was nothing to prevent them from flying across it; moreover, they were all moving that way, that is to the north; but when they reached the banks of the river, they proceeded eastward, so that the gardens and fields north of El Araiche were full of vegetables, fruits, and grain. The Arabs of the province of El Garb considered this remarkable circumstance, as an evident interposition of Providence.

This curse of heaven can only be conceived by those who have seen the dismal effects of their devastation: the poor people, by living on them, become meagre and indolent, for no labour will yield fruit, whilst the locusts continue increasing in numbers. In the rainy season they partially disappear, and at the opening of the spring the ground is covered with their young; those crops of corn which are first mature, and the grain which becomes hardened before the locust attains its full growth, are likely to escape, provided there be other crops less forward for them to feed upon.

In the year 1799, these destructive insects were carried away into the Western Ocean by a violent hurricane; and the shores were afterwards covered with their dead bodies, which in many places emitted a pestilential smell; that is, wherever the land was low, or where the salt water had not washed them; to this event succeeded a most abundant crop of corn, the lands which had lain fallow for years, being now cultivated; but the produce of the cultivation was accompanied with a most infectious and deadly plague, a calamity of which the locusts have often been observed to be the fore-runners.'


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