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nal. We may attach as many fanciful tion of the parts of such bodies properties as we please to the idea of as are submitted to the action self-existence; but all that is essential to it is included in the idea of indestruc. of heat. Page 87, it is said, tibility. This, therefore is, in my opi.
“ Water occupies a less space nion, the hinge of the controversy, and in the fluid than in the solid state, to this point alone we shall direct our and the contraction takes place attention, Is matter destructible or not?
What is the common idea of destruc- just before it reaches the point of tion? It is the separation of the parts congelation.” But it is well of a body formerly united; it is the known that water, in cooling, breaking up of a former connection by begins to expand when it is cooled superior attraction and power : this we down to 42o. 5. which has been daily see take place; but every expert called the maximum of density, riment proves that the materials are never destroyed.
and that it expands whether it It may be said, that it is only inde- is heated beyond that point, or structible because the Deity has made cooled below it. These are trifle it so. But is it possible that the Deity could communicate to any other thing ing errors which the anthor will that which is the distinguishing pro- not blame us for noticing. perty of his being ? This would be
The second essay, “ Of Deity," making his creatures equal to himself; it would be bestowing upon them a pro
commences with an examination perty which he could not have taken of the question, whether the or. to himself if he had not originally pos- der we perceive in nature were sessed it. The opinion is absurd. The produced by an intelligent Being, eternal existence of the Deity is admit- which he determines in the affirni. ted upon evidence arising from the principles of reason alone, without any ative, and supports by very co. support from sense or experiment. With gent arguments, and illustrates what consistency then can we reject the in a style of lucid eloquence. claim of matter, when both experi- 'This chapter was written, we are ment and reason concur in supporting it? If the voice of reason is to be informed, before Dr. Paley's heard in support of the existence of the “ Natural Theology” had apDeity, it must also be listened to in peared ; and we must allow that support of the claims of matter,
that work, though excellent, has But before we proceed to an, not superseded the author's in. other chapter, we think it right quiries. One branch of the sub. to point out one or two trifling ject is here more fully and ably errors, that the author may cor- discussed than it has ever been bea rect them in a future edition. fore, namely, an examination of At page 85 it is hinted that the capacities and powers of mat. whenever chemical decomposi- ter, as calculated to produce that tions are produced by caloric, order, and all that machinery they are occasioned by the su- and variety which appear in Na. perior attractions of caloric. ture's works, without the direcThe commonly received opinion tion of an intelligent Being. The is, that there is a mutual re- author nst considers the chapulsion existing in the particles ructer of Deity, and concludes of caloric, and that it is this re- with an examination of the quespulsion that produces the separa- tion, “. Whether the Deity be
improvable or not?». From never give it sanction. A good being this essay we perceive that he can never commit a bad action, so nei has embraced several novel opi. if it is in his power to prevent it. It is
ther can he sufier evil to be committed, nions; such as, that the Deity in vain to plead the intention of procur. who is supremely good, is not ing future good, or of preventing greater strictly almighty ; but was in evils. Infinite and almighty power couid some measure constrained to form about every good, as easily as it could
have prevented every evil, and brought an imperfect world, by the ori. have been the author of this imperfect ginal and eternal properties of state. Every degree of imperfection is the matter on which he had to contrary to the nature of a perfect being.
The works of an infinitely perfect being operate; and that he is other.
must be conformable to his character wise not absulutely perfect, but they must be perfect in the highest de will continue, like his creatures, grec—they cannot even be capable of to improve in intelligence to all improvement, because, when a thing is eternity. It were absurd to de absolutely perfect. everyalteration would
only make it worse. if the Deity could claim against any doctrine, how have made a better world, and could ever novel it may be, or how. have excluded evil, pain, and misery, he ever it may shock our pre-con. must of necessity have done it; as a eeived opinions ; it is the part ing directly contrary to the character of
contrary conduct would have been actof reason to deliberate
a being just and good. with coolness and impartiality.
The author contends, that this If the Deity had been possessed of in- view of the Deity does not de. finite power, 'if he had been the creator of matter, and had bestowed upon it all grade him, but, on the contrary, its powers and properties, it would have makes him appear more consiste been easy for him to have guarded a. ent, amiable, and good. He goes gainst every evil: he could have pre: on to shew, that improrability vented the destructive flash of lightning, is the essential attribute of mind; and the terrible explosiin of the volano; the devouring shock of the earth- and, of course, of the Supreme quake, and the existence of every pesti- as well as of any inferior mind. lential disorder. What father, even a- Improvement and pleasure are, song men, would send his children to he thinks, necessarily connected, Lapland, if he could provide for them in the fertile plains of i nibardy, or in as
far regards intelligent the temperate islands of the Canaries? beings, and especially the Deity, A being of ordinary goodness would who has no partner, and can have prevented every evil
, and bestowed therefore draw po happiness from every good in his power, for his own honour, and for the pleasure of behold- society. lle remarks, that if the ing the perfection and happiness of his inind of man be immortal, it creatures. And it is altogether impose must be eternally improving ; sible that infnite goodness, accçmpanied and therefore, if the Deity alone with infinite power, could ever haver peor be stationary, created beings will
, one evil to take place; far less thou- in the endless succession of ages, sands co struggle with misfortune, and advance to a much nearer equali. to peri h in every age. It is vain topicid ihe power
ty with him. He argues, that reignty, or the right of doing as he the facts which most strongly pleases. The
power of doing evil can prove the existence of the Deity,
are evidences of his being im- character much more amiable and resett provable; these are, the contri. pectable
. We can look upon him with tance and variety exhibited in the instead of that terror and dismay which
zeal, admiration, 'approbation and love, works of nature. With regard opposite views of his character i must → to the latter of these he ob- always produce. It affords strong scam serves,
sons to believe, that the Deity is cons stantly employed in perfecting his works,
and in promoting the good of those The varieties which prevail through- beings he has made. And if the systems out the works of nature can only be ac. be formed upon an improvabic plan, counted for upon the idea of improve there is ground to hope, that in the pro; ment. It has in all ages puzzled the gress of time the evils which prevail wits of men to assign a reason for the will, in a great degree, be remedied. numerous varieties of animals and ve.
Infinite power is a boundless excean, in getables which exist. The solution, which we can find no pole to regulate however, is natural and easy upon my our compass; and if we attempt to ni hypothesis. Do not all these gradations, vigate it, we must infallibly lose our all these varieties appear like the work
But when we adopt the idea of a careful experimentalist, proceeding of limited power, we launch out into a from the more simple to the more com- placid yet capacious sea, in which we ples forms-from the smallest insect up have the poles of reason and common to rational man? If we contemplate sense to direct our course; we shall find through this medium the planets and the it everywhere interspersed with beautisolar systems which probably exist, ful islands, planted with trees which prowhat large provision for the improve- duce the richest fruits, and ornamented ment and the pleasure of their glorious with the most delightful scenery. We Maker shall we not behold! If we supo may feed upon the fruits ; we may per. pose that every planet and every solar ambulate amidst the scenery, and even system differs from another, what a gambol in the waters: though some range for discovery is here! What new parts are undoubtedly, unfathomable, lights must from these have shone forth! there are others in which we may safeWhat a fund of pleasure and enjoyment ly wade, where we shall find abundance has he not here prepared for hinaself, in of pearls to reward qur researchi. the contemplation of these studies, and in making comparative judgments con
This last extract reminds as cerning them! If we carry our ideas further, and suppose that the Deity, by of a beautiful passage, in the these varieties and comparisons, is in- 6 Conclusion” to Hume's 6 In? proving himself so as to discover the quiry into the Principles of Mo, best systems, and that if ever he changes rals, where we have a descrip. any, it is with the view of improving and rendering it more perfect; this tion of Virtue, as clothed with will afford a still more pleasing view of the hypothesis of Utility. his character.
We do not know whether the This view of thing is much more rational than the idea of an almighty being, author may be fully aware of voluntarily permitting evils which he the consequences that naturally can prevent, and wickedness which he follow these doctrines; but they can restrain; while at the same time, he certainly rob the Deity, not only could, by virtue of his infinit: power, of omnipotence, but of omni. have communicated all the good without any mixture of evil. It reconciles the science, omnipresence, and of character of the Deity to the principles every attribute except his good. of reason, and thus strikes at the root of ness. aiheism, by removing the great stum
The last chapter, which occu. bring-block to the belief of his existence.
66 Of Free. It indeed makes the Deity appear less pics 44 pages, is powerful, but it clothes him with a will.” It is a well written paper,
mgenious and smart, but appears Te informs as in the preface that to ng not to contain any new ar- he never enjoyed the advantages guments.
of a liberal education ; but few In the preceding Review. it has men will however be found bet. been our aim to inform our rea. ter instructed in the general points ders fully of the contents of this here discussed. The style, exceptwork, the most original that has ing occasional scotticisms, is perlately come under our eye. We spicuous, and sometimes elegant. dissent from the author in most of Should this volume be suficiently his leading principles, but we did encouraged, the author intends to not think ourselves called upon carry his inquiries further. We to confute him, much less to vi. recommend his sprculations to lify him. His philosophy and the notice of such of our readers theology are in the highest degree as have a relish for metaphysics, heterodox, but he advances bis and should indeed be glad to have opinions with a becoming and vir- them ably and temperately dis. taous diffidence and modesty ; cussed in our magazine. and wears indeed at all times the
A.P. demeanour of a sincere inquirer.
OBITU AR Y.
Robert diken-Nathaniel Hulme---Il. Disney, W. Mc Gill, D.D. March 24, at Ayr, Scotland, RO- March 28, at Pluckley, Kent, the BERT AIKEN, Esq. This gentleman Rev. W. DISNEY, D. D. Rector of was one of the earliest friends of Burns, that parish. He po essed a cultivated who dedicated to him “ The Cotter's understanding, and the most liberal disSaturday niht,” in the first Stanza of position ; was distinguished for his learnthat poem. The poet also compored for ing, exten ive reading and correct judge his friend the following Fpitaph which ment. In private life he was truly amiahe published in his Poems(1787, p.341) ble, for his piety charity and friend him « Know thou, O stranger to the same, and deservedly beloved by his parish. « Of this much lov'd, much honourd, ioners, and an extensive circle of friends, name!
March 31, in the 74th year of his age, " (For none that knew him need be told) and 45th of his ministry, the Rev. W. "" Awarmer heart death ne'er made coid.” M'c GILL, D). D. one of the ministers
March 28, aged 75, NATHANIEL of Ayr, and one of the early friends of HULME, M. D. F.R.S. and A.S. Purn“, who nientions him with great nearly thirty years physician to the char- re pect in his letters. Dr. Móc Gili was ter House, in the pensioners' ground of known to the public about twenty which he was interred at his own re- years ago, by his “ Practical Es ay on quest. His death was occasioned by a the Death of Jesus Christ." The effi. fall down the stairs of his house, which cacy of which to the saivation of manhe survived several weeks in great kind, he described in terms quite oppo• pain. Dr. H. was one of the earliest site to those u ed in his orthodox promoters of Dispensaries, for giving church. Such a dereliition of the e-tabniedical assistance to the peer, ard was lished faith could not pass uncen ured. we believe the first physician to the Ge. The au bor of the “ Pactical Essai"? seral Dispensary, the original institution was called before his superiors of the or that riid in Lowdon,
Kisk of Scotland, when we are sorry to
Rev. 7. Muinwaring - Mr. M. Dunsford-7. Opie, Esq.-Mrs. Anderson, may, that he was tempted to accome nised the se'f-taught artist, and appears modate in a manner to which his cir- to have had the merit of first opening cumstances rather than his will, appear to him the path of fame and fortune. to have consented. Such temptations After some stay at Exeter, where he there are in more churches than one, but supported himsef by his pencil, he resurely they are in danger of incurring moved to London at the age of 19. la a woe" by whom the temptation com- 1786 he exhibited at the Royal Acaeth." - The following, we doubt not, demy, of which he shontly after became just character is given of Dr. Móc Gill, a member. . He had just finished some in a respectable publication. « Poses- works for the next exhibition. His sed of a strong and discerning mind, anxious attention to them is supposed he carefully studied the sacred scriptures, to have hastened his dissolution. The he explained them with great clearncss first of his large historical pictu es and accuracy, and his illustrations of re- was the murder of Rizzio, painted for ligious truths were varied and impres- the late alderman Boydell, for whom it sive. Severely tried in the cour e of was engraved by Mr. Isaac Taylor, nei Divine Providence, he drew consolation a dissenting minister at Colchestere la from the gospel of Christ, and in imi- this piece the painter has taken occatation of his great master, whom he sion to pay a rather ambiguous complie loved, he was resigned to the will of ment to his early patron, by giving, in God. His manners were plain and un- one of the as a sins of Rizzio, a por. affected, and no man possessed more up- trait of Dr Walcott. Mr. Opie furnished rightniss and integrity of heart. By several pieces to the different splendid his pari hioners and by all who had the publications of the Boydel.s, ani to the pleasure of being intimate with him, he Bible of Macklin. was very highly esteemed, and his death It is said of this artist, as to his pri. is deeply regretted !"
vate character, that " although he had At Cambridge at a very advanced age, cultivated his mind by much reading, the Rev. JOHN MAINWARING, La. there was a want of polish in his man. dy Mar aret's Professor of Divinity in ner, which, upon a first acquaintance, that University. He was born in War- gave not full indication of that urba. wickshire, and educated at St. John's nity and benevolence which, by those College. In 1780 he published a volumne who knew him well, he was found so of Sermons preached before the Univer- eminently to possess.” He married a sity, prefixing an Essay on the Compo- few years ago, for his second wife, Miss sition of a Serinon. Some Strictures, in Alderson of Norwich, who survives this Essay, on the Sermons of Dr. Og. him, a lady well known by various den, then just published, engaged him in works of imagination, in prose and a controversy with the late bishop of verse. Hallifax, the editor of Ogden's discour es. Mr. O. was buried in St. Paul's Ca.
At Tiverton, Mr. MARTIN DUNS. thedral, his funeral being attended by FORD, for many years a respectable several of the nobility and gentry, and merchant there, and author of “ His- numbers of artists and literary friends. Lorical Memoirs of Tiverton. (1790 4to.) April, 9, after 15 days illness, in
April 9, in Berner's Street, in his 46th the 43rd year of her age, Mrs. AN. year, JOHN OPIE, Esq. R. A. and DERSON, wife of Mr. Richard An. professor of painting. Mr. Opie was derson, of Lutton Lincolnshire. This one of the many eminent persons, who, amiable woman was the only daughter by the force of genius, have emerged of the late Rev. William Thompson, of from obscurity. Born in a village of Boston (many years pastor of the genethe county of Cornwall, his early youth ral Baptist Congregation in that town) was employed in the occupation of a who for his piety, zeal, and benevolence, country carpenter. Here some of his together with Mrs. Thompson, was long attempts ac painting and drawing were and justly esteemed. Mrs. Anderson seen by Dr. Walcott, (the fictitious Peter seemed to have imbibed those truly Pindar,) who then practised as a sur• chi tian virtues from her parents, for geon in the neighbourhood where young which they were long eminent, Her Opie resided. This gentleman patro- piety was cheerful yet deeply rooted in