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ART. I.-1 Chenical Catechism. more indelible impression on the young By S. Purkrs, Manufactur- mind, than the display of the 'san,

goodness in the operatoa, of cau: es ing Chemist. Pro. 69 pages. which come ubuer our daily notice and 12s. Symonds. 1806.

observation." This publication being designed The work is divided into thir. to direct the young to the 203. teen chapters; to ulich are sub. templation of the wisdom and be joined 34 pages of additional nevolence of God, as displayed roles, a varirty of chemical tables, in the works of creation, at the a chapter of isractive and amuse same time that it instructs them ing experiments, a vocabulary of in the rudiments of an useful chemical terms, and a very copiscience, we deem it worthy of ous general index. The First notice in our Review; though the Chapter, eatitled Introductory ntmost that we caa be expected to and Miscellaneous,” treats of the do is to give a faithful analysis of ditierence in the outward appear. its nature and contents, and this ance of natural borlies, and ex. plan we shall frequently adopt in plains the cause of solrity, fluidi. our examination of books of im- ty, and gaseity; the diference portance, as being most fair with between absolute and specilic regard to writers, and most use- gravity ; the cause of bodies ful to readers.

swimming in fluids; the nature of The excellent design of the evaporation; the formation of work is stated by the author in clouds, and the production of the preface.

raio, &c. “ A more powerful motive," he ob

Chap. II. « Of Atmospheric was the desire to exhibit, in a

Air” treats of its properties, its popular form, a body of the most in- 'extension, its various uses, its controvertible evidence of the wisdom weight and pressure, its compoand beneficence of the Deity in the establishment and modification of those laws sition, the properties of the dif. of matter which are infinitely and beau- ferent gases of which it is comulully varied, and whose operation is posed, the nature of its action in too delicate to be the object of general the support of animal life, and notice ; for if it could be proved to the the eprovision which has been sari faction of youth, that maiter is subject to a vast variety of laws which es. made for its perpetual renovation. cape common ob ervance, and that, in Chap. III. “ Of Calorie” (or the adjustment of tho e laws, the most the matter of heat)treats of the munute attention, if it may be so ex different sources of caloric, of lapre:scd, has been paid to our convenience and comfort. it was imagined tont caloric and free caloric, of the such a detail would tend to make a dillerent capacity of different bo.


dies for caloric, of specific calo. salt; explains how the different ric and the caloric of fluidity ; of salts are distinguished from each the thermometer anų pyrometer ; other, and describes the nature of the general and particular ef. and uses of the new chemical nofects of caloric upon bodies; and menclature: it then enumerates concludes with an account of a the principal salts of each species, remarkable deviation from the and describes the generic charac, general law of nature in the teristics of each : it next treats of freezing of water.

the nature of crystallization ; of Chap. IV." Of Water,” treats the deliqnescence, efflorescence, of the different states in which and solubility of salts; and of the water exists; of the forination nature and cause of saline decom. and decomposition of water; of positions : it then enumerates the the nature of its component ele. native salts, and concludes with ments, oxygen, and hydrogen ; reflections on the immense quan. of the solidity of water in a state tities of salts that enter into the of ice, and its still greater solidity composition of many of the in cements, spars, and salts; and mountainous parts of the globe. of the general advantages which Chap. IX. “Of Simple Comwe derive from water.

bustibles," commences with the Chap. V.“ Of Earths” treats definition of a simple substance, of the characters of an earth ; of and, after enumerating all the the nature, properties, origin, and simple substances in nature with uses of the nine distinct earths ; which we are at present acquaintand of the collective advantages ed, proceeds to the consideration arising from this class of bodies. of the four simple combustibles,

Chap. VI. 6 Of Alkalies,” hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, treats of the nature of an alkali; and carbon; and of the various and of the origin, the distinguish. compounds formed by their union ing characteristics, properties, and with other substances. The con. uses of the different alkalies; with sideration of carbon occasions reflections on the production of reflections on the rich economy such powerful substances from of nature, whereby the admirablo the efletc, recrementitions parts of variety observable in the vegetable animals and vegetables.

kingdom is produced by the union Chap. VII.“ Of Acids,” treats of only four or five natural suh. of the origin and nature of acids stances :" this leads to the consi, in general; of the particular pro- deration of the nature and cause perties of the thirty-one different of vinous fermentation ; and the acids with which we are at pre- chapter concludes with reflections sent acquainted; of the uses of on - the unbounded comprehenthe several acids ; of the compo. sion of the Divinc mind, which, sition of various rocks and moun. in the act of creation, could force tains ; and of other natural pro. see and appoint such important ductions which are indebted to the effects to result froin the com. acids for their natures and pro. binations and changes of the perties.

most inodorous and insipid sub. Chap. VIII.“ Of Salts,” com- stances.” mences with the definition of a Chap. X. “ Or Jetals," first


explains the general character of vision of combustibles as classed this class of bodies; how they are by modern chemists ; of the suppurified from their ores; and how porters of combustion; of the classed by modern chemists : the nature, operation, and effects of twenty-three different metals are combustion ; of the origin and then separately treated of under nature of light; and of the de. five distinct heads, viz. how each oxidizement and unburning of metal is procured ; what is the bodies. The chapter concludes nature of each ; what is the effect with reflections on the indestruc, of oxygen upon each metal; the tibility of matter by combustion, salts formed by each separate me, and on the wisdom of that tal ; and the particular uses of Being who has so effectually pre. each. The whole having thus vented the destruction of those been succinctly treated of, the elementary principles which are general properties of this class of actually essential to the preserva. bodies are recapitulated, and the tion of the world.” obvious advantages which we de- Chap. XIII. “ Of Attraction, rive from them enumerated; to. Repulsion, and Chemical Affis gether with the various means nity," commences with an which nature hath adopted, in count of the different kinds of order to render these bodies sube attraction, and explains the dif. servient to our wants, and capa, ference between attraction of co. ble of ministering to our comfort hesion and the attraction of com.' and gratisication. The chapter position : it thence goes to the concludes with reflections on laws of chemical allinity, and “ the astonishing properties of treats of simple affinity, com. oxygen, whereby the Author of pound aftinity, and disposing afNature hath not only supplied finity. The nature of quiescent our wants, and administered to attractions and divellent attrac. our comforts, but even to our tions are then explained ; also the luxuries."

uses of the tables of chemical af. Chap. XI, “Of Osides," ex. finities. The nature of repulsion plains the nature of oxides; treats is then considered, and the uses of the oxidizement of metals, and of that property of matter. The their subsequent solution in acids; whole concludes with rellections of the de-oxidizement and svoluc. on the planetary attraction, and tion of metallic oxides; it also on “ the energy of that omnipo. explains the nature of the other tent Being who had wisdom ta known oxides, and concludes contrive, and ability to endue the with a reflection on the multiform matter he had formed with the properties of oxygen, " which astonishing power of operating enable it rot only to perform for upon its fellow-matter either in as an infinite number of valuable contact, or when separated by and important offices, but to be, the intinity of space.” come one of the grand agents of In treating these various sub. dscomposition and destruction.” jects, Mr. Parkes exhibits a bigh

Chap. XII.“ Of Combus. degree of science. He writes tion,” commences with a defini. with case and correctness; and in tion of combustion and of the di. cxplaining the most abstruse party


of chemistry makes himself at all insidious arts of sophistry, or of having times intelligible.

his mind bewildered by fanaticism or Prefixed to the work is

superstition. The knowledge of facts is

what he has been taught to esteem; and Dissertation on the importance of no reasoning, however specious, will an early cultivation of the under. ever induce him to receive as true what standing, and on the advantages appears incongruous, or cannot be reof inspiring youth with a taste for logy."

commended by demonstration or ana. chemical knowledge,” the value of which to the superintendents Art. II.- Dialogues, Letters, and of our various manufactories is

Essays, on Various Subjects. pointed out at some length, and

By A. Fuller. 12mo, 3s. 6d. with considerable ability : but the pp. 306. Burditt. 1806. great excellence of the Catechism is, in our opinion, its making

Our readers will be sufficiently science auxiliary to religion, and instructed in the nature of this its leading the minds of youth work when they learn that the from nature up to nature's greater part of it consists of reGod.” This is the great charm published pieces from the Evanof Dr. Priestley's philosophical gelical and other kindred maga. writings. The merely scientific zines, and that the original pieces man may think that some of Mr. differ in nothing from the se. Parkes's moral and religious re. lections. The author is a great flections might have been spared; adept in orthodox divinity, a Cal. but it should be remembered that vinistic casuist. Conscious of his the work is compiled for the theological dexterity, he delights young, in whose minds it is of in handling what our brethren the the first importance to form early Calvinists call difficult questions; religious associations. Should,

and where he chooses not to therefore, the professional che- solve, though here he displays mist censure the author for de. considerable ingenuity, he, some. parting from his province, the how or other, contrives to elude parent and the teacher will, for them. He is appealed to as an this very reason, thank him; his oracle by his party; and his decibook being, on this as well as on sions contain quite sufficient of other accounts, the most valuable oracular dogmatism. elementary work on chemical sci.

“ The writer," says Mr. Fuller of ence which they can put into the himself, p. 156. was sometime since hands of their pupils and children, in a company where mention was made

We are much pleased with the of one who believed in the final salvafollowing remarks on the moral devils likewise.

tion of all men, and perhaps of all

He is a gentleman,' advantages of a chemical edu. said • of liberal principles. Such cation:

principles may doubtless be denominated

liberal, that is, free and enlarged, in one “ It is the necessary consequence of sense: they are free from the restraints a attention to this science, that it gives of Scripture, and enlarged as a nes which the habit of investigation, and lays the contains a great multitude of fishes, foundation of an ardent and inquiring good and bad; but whether this ought to mind. If a youth has been taught to recommend them, is another question. receive nothing as esue, but what is the What would be thought of one who result of experiniene, he will be in little should visit the felons of Newgate, and danger of ever beir.g led away by the persuade them that such was the good

VOL. 11.


66 Get

ness of the Government, that not one of nous for their perusal. We shall them, even though condemned, would be therefore render a service to these finally executed! If they couid be induced to believe him, they would doubt. daring inquirers by stating thať less think him a very liberal-minded the substance of them, and we man; but it is likely the Government trust they will lay it to heart, is and every friend to the public good the niller's warning: would think him an enemy to his coun

back! get back ! get back !" try, and to the very parties whom by his glozing doctrine he had deceived.” Mr. F. relates, in p. 252, some

Art. III.--An Apology for Dr.

Michael Serretus : including an queries which were once put to him, and the answer which he

Account of his Life, Persecureturned. The querist, appar..

tion, I'ritings, and Opinions : ently a sensible and wodest in- being designed to eradicate Bic quirer, asks, How the doctrines gotry and Uncharitableness; and of hunan depravity and divine

to promote Liberality of Sentia influences are reconcileable with

mout among Christians. By 'man's accountableness? Our di.

Rich. Wright. 8vo. pp. 458.

Boards. Price Os. Vidler. vine tells him, 6 he would do well to consider whether he he

The benevolent design of the not off Christian ground;" (sub, author, in the composition of stitute Calzinistic ground, and this work, 6 To eradicate bigo. Nr. Fi's suggestion is right: as try uncharitableness: and to prosoon as á man begins to inquire mote liberality of sentiment among into the reasons of his belief and christians,” is kept in view in all hope, he is truly off Calvinistic its parts: and we feel confident ground) and then proceeds to il. that the impartial reader cannot lustrate his advice by a story con- fail to have excited in his breast cerning some honest millers and

abhorrence of bigotry and himself.

persecution, and a higher tone of “I remember," says he, “ when a

liberality, by the perusal of the boy of aboutien years old, I was bathing, facts and observations which Mr. with a number of other boys, near a mill. W. has placed before him. dam; and the hat of one of my compa- Nr. W. has very properly innions falling into the stream, I had the

scribed his book, "" To Calvinhardihood, without being able to swini, to attempt to recover it. I went so ists in general; to the admirers deep, that the waters began to run into of Mr. Andrew Fuller's book, my mouth, and to heave my feet from entitled the Calvinistic and Socia the ground. At that instant, the mill: nian systems compared as to their ers seeing my danger, set up a loud cry; moral' temener, in particular.” • Get back! get back! get back !' did so, and that was all

. What the In the preface he justly observes, miliers aid to me, modesty, sobriety, that " If it be still contended and right reason say to all such objec. that the truth of religious systems tions as the above.

• Get back! get is to be determined by the temper back ! get back !"

and conduct of those who adopt Mr. Fuller has written many then, we iwirst insist that (albooks for the use of various ad. vinism ought to be judged of buy venturous heretics, which may tue spirit and conduct of Calvin, possibly be thonght too volumi. from vi hom it derived its name.”

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