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INSTRUMENT FOR RESTORING the edges, when applied, douglı or putty SUSPENDED ANIMATION.

will answer; even butter may be used if nothing else can be promptly got.

When the instrument is rendered airtight, the operator can exhaust the foul air from the lungs while pressure is made on the chest and sides. When the pressure is relaxed, the chest, by its elasticity expands, and the thumb of the operator is to be removed to allow fresh air to rush in through the thumb orifice to the lungs.

In this way natural respiration is to be imitated by frequently repeating the pro

Experiments carefully made in France have shown that great mischief to the lungs can be done by bellows for inject

ing air, in unskilful hands. There the Sir,- Having seen in the Literary Gazette of August 24th, that Dr. Fair

use of a broad bandage pulled tight

round the body and relaxed frequently brother, of Clifton, has restored anima

to imitate the contraction and expansion tion by stopping the mouth and sucking

of the chest is everywhere recommended. the foul air from the lungs through the nostrils, while respiration was promoted instrument is cheap, injury does not arise

The plan here described is simple, the by pressure on the chest,* I send a

from its use.

If it were made without sketch of an instrument to be used in

the thumb orifice, some foul air conrestoring animation, and I hope for its

tained in it would be drawn into the insertion. As workmen are the persons most

lungs again every time the operator

would withdraw his mouth from the top likely to be near when a person is taken

of the funnel, and when he would cause out of the water, it would be desirable

the pressure on the chest to be relaxed. that the knowledge of rendering assistance

This funnel should be kept in a box, should be widely diffused.

The extensive circulation of the Mechanics' Ma.

and a canister containing the soft sub

stance to render it air-tight should be gazine will bring the following plan un

kept with it. Plain and concise direcder the consideration of many.

tions should be pasted on the inside of The instrument resembles a funnel,

the box. with a large aperture in the side; opposite this large aperture, there is a short

The top of the funnel ought to be

small, that the mouth of the operator, tube, the orifice of which can be covered

should be able to command the exhauscompletely by the thumb. This orifice

tion. may be called the thumb orifice. The instrument is to be placed over

I have frequently caused a partial vacuum the mouth and nostrils of the person to

with a small glass funnel placed over the

In this case the entire ear is to be be relieved, and the thumb orifice is to

put under the funnel, which is to be be closed by the operator. The large

pressed down close to the irregular suraperture in the side of the instrument is

face near the ear. Soft putty is then to allow the lower part of the nose to fit into it.

placed round the edges, and the operator

applies his mouth to the top of the funIf the operator apply his mouth to the

nel to cause an exhaustion. top of the funnel to exhaust the air from

In some kinds of deafness instantathe lungs, he will not succeed, because

neous relief is thus afforded, when there the instrument does not fit air-tight.

is some obstruction of the Eustachian The question is, how to render it so.

tube. This can be easily done by using some

When the edges of a funnel in contact soft tenacious substance easily got, round

with the hard and irregular surface near

the ear can be rendered air-tight, there • See Notes and Notices, last Number, p. 479. can be no difficulty in rendering an instru



DESCRIPTION OF THE CYCLOMETER, ment so, over the mouth and nostrils in base A B. It is obvious, from the prolike manner.

perty of the cycloid, that any portion of It may be asked, would it not do to the ruler, say, G I, intercepted between have an instrument that would only in- the circular arc, VG, and the cycloidal clude the nostrils. It is better to in

DI clude the mouth also, because there might be some obstruction in the nostrils that would interfere with the free admission of air.

No one can tell but that the upsetting of a boat might cause himself to be the person to whom assistance would have to be afforded.

The diffusion of whatever is useful cannot be too general. This instrument may be the means of saving many lives. I have the honour to remain,

Your obedient, Joseph MacSweeney, M.D. ork, Sept. 7, 1839.

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Sir,--Many years ago it occurred to me that the properties of the cycloid might be advantageously applied to measuring circular arcs, &c., so as to reduce the measurement simply to that of a right line. From the very flattering notice which your intelligent correspondent 0. C. F. (in your No. 316, p. 18,) did me the honour to take of my geometrical rectification of any arc of the circle I am induced to hope you will give insertion to my ideas, in your valuable journal,

I am, Sir, yours truly,

WILLIAM S. V. SANKEY. April 16, 1839.

Let A V B be a cycloid, A B its base, and V D its axis, as also the diameter of the generating circle, VG D. Let this cycloidal periphery, as also the circular periphery be accurately and deeply cut upon a metallic plate, and let the dia. meter be divided by a graduated scale. Lei a strong wire be affixed to the plate, and let this wire, P R, be parallel to the diameter V D, and raised a little above the plate, so that the wire P R, and the diameter V D, be in a plane perpendicular to the plane surface of the metallic plate. To this wire let a graduated ruler EH be attached so as to move freely along the wire, at the same time parallel to the

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arc VI, will be equal to the circular arc VG, and, being graduated, will therefore measure the same while the portion of



= thc

the ruler E G, intercepted between the wire and the circular periphery, being graduated will measure the sine; also, the diameter being graduated, E C, the intercepted between C, the centre, and the ruler at E, will measure the co-sine, while EV measures the versed sine. Hence, this instrument, if accurately made will be a ready mechanicul table of circular arcs with their corresponding natural sines, cosines, and versed sines, while tangents, co-tangents, &c. will be readily found from the well known for.

sin. mula, tang

In order to apply this instrument for taking observations, an instrument

furnished with sights, or a telescope, as T, should be fixed at the centre C, turning on a swivel. It should be provided also with the proper apparatus of micrometers, &c. It is obvious the ruler E H should be at least equal to D B, the semi-base of the cycloid semiphery of the circle.

This instrument, which seems to me to recommend itself by its simplicity, I have denominated a cyclo-meter, as being a measurer of the circle, and therefore appropriately named by the compound, from χυχλος, α circle, and μετρον, α measure.

WILLIAM S. V. SANKEY. 30, Harmood-street, Camden Town, London,



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Fig. 2. Sir,-In consequence of numerous accidents that have come within my knowledge resulting from the want of something to guard the hands from being drawn between the cylinders of bookbinders rolling machines, I have devised a plan to prevent them, which I send for insertion in your valuable Magazine. In my improved rolling machine, the improvement consists of two shields, one for each roller; the shields I propose to be made of well-hardened iron, about lth of an inch in thickness, to extend half up, and half down each roller, the shield being kept apart the same

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distance as the space between the rollers,

to render them more fitted for the various and to be fixed to the sides of the man uses to which they are and may be apchine. The rollers to work within them. plied, is not known, at least not practised.

Fig. 1, The rollers with the shields Straw well washed, soaked in lime, and complete; a the upper roller, bb, the macerated thercin for ten days or a fortshields.

night, then washed again and submitted, Fig. 2, One of the shields shown se- as is done by the straw bonnet makers, parately.

to the fumes of sulphur, becomes whiter Fig. 3, A section, or side view of the than hy any other process if alone used, rollers with the shields fixed.

and from French specimens I have seen By your insertion of this, you will not a very fair white paper is made thereonly confer a favour on me, but perhaps from. Perhaps the aid of chloride of be the means of saving many a man of lime may have been used in addition in family from being incapacitated for work.

paper making. Yours, &c.

For animal substances the latter maC. SANDERS, Bookbinder. terial is not wanted. A simple exposure No. 185, Drury Lane. (in a vessel partially closed) to the fumes

of burning brimstone is sufficient to give a beautiful white to parchment or vellum, and likewise to glue pieces, care being

taken to apply the gas to the materials Sir,- About thirteen or fourteen years

intended to be bleached, while they are ago, from an interest I had in manufac

in a wet state. turing glue and also size for paper-stain

It is not a little surprising that the aters, I was induced to try a variety of ex

tention of manufacturers has so long been periments on the French method (at

withheld from the bleaching property of that time shown in one of their scientific

brimstone when burning at a low tembulletins) of clarifying and bleaching perature. Cora dealers and hop growers glue. My attention was withdrawn from

have long known its value. Brimstoned it by my concern in the matter ceasing.

oats which smell of this material when I well remember, however, that from the

improperly used are well known in Markobscurity of the description of manipula

lanie. tion in the French publication, there

The wet harvest we have had must be were difficulties which could not be got my apology for offering an idea I have over, although the materials became long entertained, that a moderate sulbeautifully white. The great deteriora- phuring of masses of corn, by burning tion of the glue, its adhesive qualities

brimstone slowly under malt- kilns or being reduced one-third to one-half

, hop-casts, would take off the mouldy rendered it useless for all purposes ex

smell and taste of it if badly harvested, cept for pastry cooks, who, I believe,

and render it more fit for food. The occasionally practice this mode of pre

fumes of sulphur thus imbibed are easily paration to make their jellies keep in

got rid, both as to smell and taste, if the summer, as well as to clear them.

process is carefully done and the sulphur Mr. Rattray of Aberdeen has taken out

in body not driven over into the corn by a patent for a modification of the French using too great heat. method of clarifying glue. He uses the

The antiseptic qualities of sulphurous hydro-sulphurous acid weakened by the gas are undoubted, and the facility with addition of water. But I understand which it may be removed from the subfrom glue dealers that it is rendered

stance acted


renders it worth the much weaker from the acid combining

trial to prevent the loss of ill-gotten with the glue, and the price it is offered corn, by checking the progress of moul. at in the market, three pence per pound

diness. more than other glue, precludes the use of it.

Sept. 30, 1839. The method of bleaching silk and woollen goods, and indeed all animal MR. HANCOCK'S STEAM-CARRIAGE substances, by the combustion of brimstone, is well known. But the bleaching In consequence of an invitation which of resinous substances, and of straw, Mr. Hancock received from several inwood, and other fibrous matters, so as fluential parties in Cambridge, he per


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formed a demonstrative trip to that town putting a temporary stay of hoop-iron to with his common road locomotive the the blower. The thirteenth mile was Automaton on Monday last. The Auto- gone over in seven minutes; fourteenth maton is the largest steam-carriage four minutes ; fifteenth four minutes ; Mr. Hancock has constructed; it was sixteenth, three-and-a-half minutes ; built in the year 1836, and ran success- seventeenth, very hilly, five minutes; fully for some time on the Islington road. eighteenth three minutes ; nineteenth, Two years' exposure to the weather in hilly, four minutes ; twentieth and a half, an open shed was not treatment likely to the Oak at Ware, seven-and-a-half mihowever to improve steam engine ma- nutes. Here the passengers lunching, the chinery; and although several short dis- engineers dining, and filling tanks with tances were lately worked by it, and it was water, occupied fifty minutes. From Ware thoroughly examined, a derangement or the twenty-second and twenty-third miles failure of some of the parts in a journey of considerable incline, were done in six of 50 miles was no more than could have minutes each. The Automaton was now been naturally expected.

approaching its most difficult task, the The Automaton ran from Mr. Han- ascent of Wade's Mill Hill, an incline cock’s factory at Stratford to Bishop- nearly as great as Holborn Hill, London, gate-street in beautiful style. At the with a soft bottom, and newly covered Four Swans it took up its company, with loose gravel. It was confidently amongst whom were Sir James Gardner, prophesied by several who hoped and Mr. Snow of the Highgate-road trust, wished otherwise, that here the steam Messrs. Humphreys of Cambridge, seve- would fail, and many had gathered on ral civic capitalists, and a new steam- the spot to witness Mr. Hancock's carriage inventor, Mr. Hills of Deptford, success or failure.

To the gratificawho doubtless came to take a lesson tion of most and the astonishment of from Mr. Hancock in the difficult path many, the hill was ascended beautifully; of enterprise he has chosen.

the two miles of incline (twenty-fourth At about five minutes to ten o'clock, and twenty-fifth from London) were the steam-carriage left the Four Swans, done, the former in seven minutes and the and was beautifully steered by Mr. Han- latter in eight minutes. The twentycock through the crowd of spectators, sixth mile was done in three minutes; and the number of coaches, carts and the twenty-seventh, to Puckridge, in waggons usually passing in the neigh- four minutes. Here coke and water bourhood of Bishopsgate on a Monday were taken in. From Puckridge to morning. Notwithstanding a heavy lug- Buckland, the 7 miles were travelled at gage waggon blocked the way for some about 5 minutes each, exclusive of varminutes, Shoreditch-church was passed ious stoppages to cool the axles, which at two minutes past ten. This is the were now becoming extremely hot, by spot from whence the miles are mea- throwing water over them. From Bucks sured and the mile-stones placed. The land to Melborne, 8 miles, the rate was first station for taking in coke and water about 6 minutes a mile ; from Melborne was the Old Plough at Tottenham, to Harston, about 54 minutes a mile. In a distance of 45 miles from Shoreditch, ascending Wade's Mill Hill the full power which was ran in seventeen minutes. of the engines was of course exerted, Ten minutes were occupied in taking in and the force of the steam loosened the coke and water. The sixth mile-stone packing of the stuiřing-boxes; a segment was passed in six minutes, (a mile and a also of the ring of lead-packing between half); seventh mile five minutes ; eighth the flange of the cylinder, and its cap mile three minutes; ninth mile four was blown out. These leakages of steam, minutes; tenth mile three minutes ; and the clinkers which had gathered on eleventh mile four minutes. Near to the furnace-bars, and on the sides of the the twelfth mile-stone, the stay of the boiler-chambers, from the badness of blower broke, and after a stoppage of the coke, had crippled the Automaton's about ten minutes, the steainer pro- power, so that the last 5 miles into Camceeded to the second station, Cheshunt. bridge occupied nearly an hour. The The travelling time of the twelfth was average rate of travelling the first 30 about four-and-a-half minutes. An hour miles was, exclusive of stoppages, nearly and five minutes were spent at Cheshunt, 123 miles an hour, and of the whole

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