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taking regium as a mere attribute and iniquos predicatively, which is harsh, and indeed, as Nauck remarks, 'impossible.'

penates] the gods of the stores (penus) which were natu rally kept in the inmost part of the house; cf. the words penetralia, penitus, penetro.

17. crede non illam] Much stronger and more pointed than ne crede illam. Be sure that she at any rate has not been wooed by you from among the base rabble.' The non is placed immediately before illam to shew that however possible such a supposition might have been in an ordinary case, in her case it is absolutely inadmissible. Notice the effect of illam and tibi in juxtaposition.

scelesta] Doubtless Xanthias belonged to the ranks of those gilded youths who concisely designate all the rest of the world (plebs those who merely fill up') as 'cads' (scelesti). His own phrase is ironically turned upon himself. For the application of epithets implying moral qualities to various classes of society cf. such words as ol dporo, optimates, aristocracy, ol paûλo, oi kaκoi, &c. Cf. 2. 2. 19 and note.

21. teretesque suras] 'shapely ankles.' teres, from tero, Gk. Tpißw, to rub, polish, finish,' denotes, says Munro (Lucr. 1. 35), 'that the thing to which it is joined is of the proper shape,' e. g. cervix teres; tunica teresa tunic of even fineness; oratio teresa style of speaking that is polished and finished.

22. integer] from in and tango (tetigi), indicates that which is free from all taint or blemish, or which is complete and whole. I praise myself heart-whole...,' cf. 3. 7. 22.

fuge suspicari] sc. eum: 'avoid suspecting one whose age has been only too eager to conclude its eighth lustre.' For the inf. cf. 1. 15, 27 n.

23. octavum claudere lustrum] Horace was born Dec. 8, B. c. 65, cf. 3. 21. 1, consule Manlio. lustrum (from luo), means the expiatory sacrifice performed by the censors at the end of every fifth year after taking the census; hence lustrum is put for a space of five years.' The technical phrase condere lustrum which was used of the censors is judiciously varied by Horace. See too 4. 1. 6, circa lustra decem.

trepidavit] A favourite word with Horace, used, 2. 3. 12, of a stream hurrying down its bed. It expresses eager, excited, quivering (cf. tremo) motion, cf. 4. 11. 11. See also 2. 11. 4 n. For claudere, cf. 1. 15. 27 n. Verbs expressive

of eager desire naturally take an infinitive after them, cf. fuge='be eager to avoid. Cf. too 2. 11. 4.

The exact value of the two concluding lines in fixing the date of the Ode, of which the commentators made much, I leave the judicious reader to determine, but cf. Dickens, Sketches by Boz, 'Mr Augustus Minns was a bachelor of about forty as he said-of about eight and forty as his friends said.'


'Lalage is too young yet for the trials and troubles of love: her delight is still in childish frolics. Why covet the unripe grape? Wait awhile and she will seek you of herself, and be dearer to you than ever was Pholoë, or Chloris, or Gyges.'

1. ferre iugum valet] The nom. to valet is Lalage, or juvenca to be extracted from juvencae in l. 6. The application of the term juvenca to a young girl, though frequent in ancient poetry, is not in accord with modern taste. The metaphor is kept up throughout the first eight lines, and is repeated in 11. 15, 16. Cf. δάμαλις and πόρτις in Gk.

2. munia comparis aequare] 'match the labours of a mate or yoke-fellow,' i. e. draw even with one in the plough.

5. circa est] lit. 'is around''is occupied with.' This use of circa is very frequent in Quintilian and some postAugustan writers, but otherwise rare. εἶναι περί τι is very common in Gk, 'to be engaged about anything.'

6. nunc...nunc] 'at one time......at another.'

8. salicto] from salix='a willow, or osier-bed.' praegestientis is a very strong word: gestire (from gestus) 'to use passionate gestures' is in itself a very emphatic word for 'desiring,' and prae in the sense of 'exceedingly' makes it more so. Horace wishes to express how she is given up heart and soul to her gambols without one thought of love or any. thing else.

10. iam...colore] 'soon shall you see (tibi) autumn marking the clusters with blue, (when she comes) gaily-dressed in brilliant hues.' lividos is proleptic. purpureo may be either 'brilliant' (cf. 4. 1. 10 n), or 'purple,' though in connection

with varius I prefer the former. lividus is the colour of bruised flesh or people who are bilious, here the 'bluish-green' of the grape when just turning.

This view, which is Nauck's, takes the words very simply in their natural order-a most important point in considering a debateable passage in the Odes. Otherwise it is necessary to take distinguet colore together and render 'many-coloured autumn shall mark the now pale clusters with a purple hue.'

13. currit...aetas] 'Her time of life, now so wild, hastens along.' ferox keeps up the metaphor of nondum subacta cervice; she is still too young to be broken in, wild, untamed.

14. dempserit, apponet] The bodily frame naturally increases in strength up to a certain age (say forty or forty-five in a healthy man), after which strength and activity gradually decrease. Hence it is very common to speak of the years up to this period as 'gained' or 'added' (apponere), and those which follow as 'lost' or 'subtracted' (demere). Cf. A. P. 175,

multa ferunt anni venientes commoda secum
multa recedentes adimunt.

Horace says that the lover (who is possibly himself, and at any rate not young) must consider that each year that passes, though a loss to himself, yet brings ample compensation in the additional charms it confers on Lalage. For the p in dempserit cf. 2. 4. 10 n.

15. proterva fronte] Lalage is again spoken of as a juvenca.

17. dilecta...] The construction is dilecta (a te, tantum) quantum non Pholoë fugax (dilecta fuit), 'beloved as much as was never coquettish Pholoë.'

19. ut pura......mari] 'as the cloudless moon is reflected in the nightly ocean.'

22. mire...voltu] The difference (i.e. between Gyges and a girl) hard to detect by reason of his flowing locks and halfgirlish face would marvellously deceive even shrewd strangers.' discrimen that which makes a distinction,' from dis and cerno, 'to distinguish' (cf. Gk. xplvw); hence the word is frequently used for a 'critical moment'-a moment which makes all the difference as to the result.


'O Septimius, thou who wouldest go with me to the world's end, if I live to old age, may Tibur be the dwelling of my declining years. But if (or 'since) the fates cruelly forbid that, then I will seek genial Tarentum. That is an earthly Paradise, thither do I summon thee to my side, there amid poetry and friendship (cf. n. on vatis amici) shall my life end, there shall thy tears bedew my funeral urn.'

H. T. Plüss, who calls attention to the depth of feeling which underlies the Ode, suggests that it was written either during severe illness or under the strong expectation of an early death. Could he, says Horace, look forward to old age (senecta 1. 6.) he would prefer no place to Tibur, but if that may not be, as he hints it may not (si prohibent not prohibeant or prohibebunt), then he calls upon Septimius to accompany him to Tarentum,

For I will see before I die

The sunny temples of the South.'

Septimius is very possibly the same man to whom Horace gave a letter of introduction to Tiberius, v. Epist. 1. 9.

1. Gades] For Cadiz put for the extremity of the universe cf. 2. 2. 11, remotis Gadibus. The pillars of Hercules were considered the end of the world, cf. 1. 34. 11, Atlanteus finis, and Eur. Hipp. 3, Tépμovés t' 'Arλavrikol. So Pind. Nem. 4. 69, Γαδείρων τὸ πρὸς ζόφον οὐ πέρατον, ‘what lies beyond Gades towards the darkness cannot be traversed.' The Atlantic was totally unexplored and unknown to the ancients, as indeed it remained up to the time of Columbus. Of some islands off the W. coast of Africa they did indeed know, but they were only known as the 'Islands of the Blessed,' 'of the Hesperides,' or by other equally mythical names.

aditure] Thou who wouldest go,' i.e. should necessity arise. Cf. 4. 3. 20, donatura, si libeat and n.

2. Cantabrum...iuga] The Cantabri inhabited the N.W. portion of Spain; occupying a mountainous and inaccessible district they maintained that guerilla warfare for which Spain has always been celebrated, and continually harassed the

important settlements on the E. and 8. coasts. Augustus went to Spain in person in B.C. 27, and stayed there until B.C. 25, but the final subjugation of the Cantabri was accomplished by his war-minister Agrippa B. c. 19. Livy (27. 12) notices that Spain was the first province entered by the Romans and the last subdued, and the interest taken in the war is shewn by Horace's frequent allusions to it. Cf. 3. 8. 22, Cantaber sera domitus catena, 4. 14. 41, Cantaber non ante domabilis. So too Virgil, wishing to select a special instance of the mountain robbers who continually threaten the peaceful farmer, selects the Hiberi, Georg. 3. 408, aut impacatos a tergo horrebis Hiberos. There is no doubt that the Ode must have been written about the time when Aug. was in Spain, or the allusion here would be unnatural and out of place. But cf. n. on 1. 7.

luga ferre] A metaphor from breaking in oxen, but which also refers to the custom of making a conquered enemy, 'pass under the yoke' (sub jugum mittere).

3. barbaras Syrtes] The epithet alludes partly to the barbarous character of the inhabitants, partly to the dangerous character of the coast itself. Cf. 1. 22. 5, Syrtes aestuosas.

5. Tibur] Tivoli; v. Class. Dict., and for a full description Burn's 'Rome and the Campagna.' For the same sentiment with regard to Tibur, cf. 1. 7. 1-21.

Argeo colono] Argeo is a representation of 'Apyely in Latin letters, long 'e' answering to '.' Tiburtus, son of Catilus, is said to have come with Evander from Greece. colono is what Kennedy calls & Recipient Dative, instead of an Ablative of the Agent,' but it is only used after the Past Part. Pass. or after gerundives. Cf. below, Laconi Phalantho, and cf. 1. 6.

1 n.

7. sit modus...] Martin gives the general sense:

'O may it be the final bourn

To one with war and travel worn.'

The genitives go both with modus (='a limit') and with lassus, for which latter of. Virg. Aen. 1. 178 fessi rerum, the gen. seeming to be dependent on the sense of having had enough of' which the word contains; it is an extension of the use of the Partitive Genitive.

The commentators explain viarum of the marches Horace had to go through when he was tribunus militum B. Ç. 42, and

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