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solute, but should require to be rati- bationer to that of an established fied by the Civil Service Commis- clerk—a regular member of the Civil sioners. We say this to anticipate Service-the next thing to be conan objection which may not impro- sidered is, how we may best continue bably be offered to this suggestion, to stimulate his zeal and keep alive to the effect that the result would be his activity. We do not, in this to secure all the ablest men for cer- paper, pretend to offer any general tain favourite offices. There would scheme for the reorganisation of the not, under such a system, it may be Civil Service ; but we may observe alleged, be a fair distribution of here, that something of classification talent over the different depart- beyond that of junior and senior ments. But, after all, we are in- clerks is required; but whatever may clined to think that the objection, be the different grades, we are of though a reasonable one, exists opinion that no clerk should be prorather in theory than in practice. moted to a higher rank by dint of Young men would not elect to enter mere seniority. We have incidentthis or that office on the ground of ally alluded to this in reply to the its real or imagined general advan- Committee's remark, that although tages, so much as upon the score of no high qualifications may be dethe peculiar advantages which it may manded from the Government clerk present to each of them individually. on his first entrance into the service, If, for example, his father, or any he rises to higher office in course of other near relatives of the young time, and is invested with important clerk, holds an influential appoint- duties and responsibilities. Now, ment in the War Office, the youth we repeat that we would have no will elect that department in pre- such rising as a mere matter of ference to the Treasury or the Fo- course. When a vacancy occurs in reign Office, though, in the abstract, a higher class, the senior qualified those departments may be more member of the class next below it tempting than the one elected. In should be promoted ; but that quathe Indian military service, young lification should be severely tested. men, passing out of college for the No clerk should be promoted withengineers and artillery, were allowed out a certificate of industry, reguto make choice of a presidency, ac- larity, and general good conduct, cording to their rank; but no prac- from his immediate departmental, tical disadvantage resulted from the or, more properly, sub-departmental system; for though the intrinsic ad- chief; and he should be examined vantages of the Bengal presidency in his office, not as to his general were undeniably supreme, the pecu- attainments, which are presumed to liar personal inducements which often have been already tested, but as to invited a youth to enter the service his official acquirements. We beof the inferior presidency, preserved lieve that this practice is already in a just equilibrium. On the benefit force in some Government offices; of offering a strong inducement to but whether it is a substantial reality young men during their probationary or a mere form, we do not pretend period to qualify themselves for the to know. Under any circumstances, public service, we need not enlarge. however, it must have an advantageThere can hardly be any stronger in- ous effect upon the zeal and industry ducement than that suggested ; and of the candidate for promotion. if a veto were given to the Civil Ser- Making every allowance for the navice Commissioners, there would be tural unwillingness of the higher no fear of unsuitable appointments.* class of Government servants to The risk, indeed, would be far less blast, by unfavourable recommendathan under the present system. tions, the prospects of the junior

The young civil servant having members of the service, we still feel now passed from the state of a pro- assured that the mere knowledge of


* If, for example, a youth, however distinguished in other branches, should be deficient in modern languages, the Commissioners might very properly veto his choice of the Foreign Office.


the fact that the clerk must make a search of a competent man. We beformal display of his proficiency be- lieve, indeed, that this is the recogfore he can be promoted to a higher nised rule ; but we doubt whether grade, must stimulate him to greater practically such is the case, or exertions than, in ordinary cases, he whether it is ever likely to be so would be inclined to make, if his whilst the parliamentary chief of a qualifications were subjected to no department has entire control over such test, and promotion were to be all

its official arrangements. It may granted as a mere matter of course. be true that it will sometimes hap

The junior clerk having risen to pen, under the existing system, that the rank of senior clerk, or having there is no officer in a department passed from one class to another, qualified to succeed to its higher until he has reached the highest at- posts; but it is worthy of consideratainable in the ordinary course of tion whether this deficiency may not departmental promotion, he either be the result of the very want of sticontents himself with the certainty mulus engendered by the insecurity of a gradual increase of pay until of which we have spoken. Men will he reaches the maximum salary of qualify themselves for higher office, clerkship, and, after a few years, when they feel that they are tolerably subsides into superannuation; or he safe to attain it. But assuming the aims at higher employment, as chief absence of the necessary qualificaof a sub-department in the office to tions in a particular department, which he belongs, or in any other it still remains to be considered more responsible and more lucrative whether, before going out into the post, the attainment of which is or- world at large in search of a qualidinarily the result not of official se- fied functionary, it should not be inniority, but of ministerial selection. cumbent on the minister to seek for And here we find ourselves in some- one throughout the whole range of thing like a dilemma. It is held to the service. If the “fragmentary chabe advantageous to the interests of racter of the service” is to cease to the State that, with reference to exist, proficiency testified in one dethese higher and more responsible partment should establish a claim to posts, her Majesty's Government promotion in another-never to the should have the widest possible field supersession of any qualified candiof selection, that they should seek date in that department, but in precompetent men, wheresoever they ference to all outsiders. If this were are to be found, without regard to to be the case, men of good promise any question of official antecedents; would not be discouraged by the fact and in order to facilitate this, an Act of there being few openings for adhas been passed sanctioning the grant vancement in their own department; of superannuation allowances to such they would look to the service genemembers of the service on a most rally rather than to the particular liberal and encouraging scale. Now, section of it in which they have grathis, however advantageous it may duated as clerks. There can be no be to the service, is detrimental in practical difficulty in the way of such the extreme to the servants of the an arrangement as this. If there State ; and we cannot doubt that were, the intermediate agency of the a great diminution of zeal and Civil Service Commissioners would activity is the result of a feeling of remove it. But the permanent heads uncertainty with respect to the of departments, under such a system, chances of attaining one of the would be continually in communicahigher offices of a department, when tion with each other, and would rethose offices are open to all the port, in the probable event of any world. It may be said, that if, in approaching vacancy, upon the the department, there is an officer qualifications of the functionaries qualified to advance beyond the point serving under them, for the post of clerkship, or, having already ad- vacant in the other department. vanced beyond it, to succeed to any It may be said that these transfers still higher post that may be vacant, would occasion jealousies and heartthe minister will not go out of it in burnings; but we do not see why au interloper from another department and likelihood, and to keep up the should be more unwelcome than one general efficiency of the service, is not from the outside world. The system a phalanx of cramming tutors, a board once established and recognised, in- of erudite examiners, or a system of deed, we are inclined to think that it competition, open or limited, but would be acceptable to the service sufficient attractions into the service generally. It could only be distaste- itself to induce young men of promisful to the drones. At present, men ing abilities to enter it in preference have come to regard a department as to all other professions. There can a sort of close borough, maintained for hardly be a more important subject their own especial convenience, and of parliamentary inquiry, but it apthey may, therefore, look with jeal- pears to us that our investigations ousy and dislike upon the intrusion have hitherto begun at the wrong of a stranger. But if such transfers end. When a man strips himself to were a recognised part of the system, fight a battle, or girds himself to and every man on entering the ser- run a race, you may be sure that he vice felt that he had a fair chance of has ascertained beforehand that the profiting by them, there could be no prize for which he is to contend is sense of intrusion in the case. The worthy of his prowess. If he has system would be that, to borrow the really any good stuff in him he will phraseology of the army, of regimen- not contend for an ignoble prize. tal promotion up to the rank of field- Let us make the Civil Service of the officer, after which the practice of country worthy of the best intelliline-selection takes effect. We are gence in it, and we may be sure that convinced that such a system would the best intelligence will enter its be advantageous alike to the service ranks. We trust that, in the course and the servants of the State. At of the ensuing session of Parliament, present, a man entering the public the whole subject will be submitted service, and feeling himself bound to to inquiry. The question of initial a department for the rest of his life, appointment is really a small, and, as is chilled and discouraged by the we think, a comparatively unimporfeeling that there are very few prizes tant part of it. There is no more within his reach, and that those fear of our not getting good men prizes may be given to a stranger, for a good service, than of our not just as he is in a position to grasp seeing good horses entered for the them.

Derby, so long as to win that race We repeat, that what is really re- is to win “the blue riband of the quired to supply the Civil Service of Turf,” with a rich pecuniary accomthe country with young men of mark paniment.


The morning sun is trembling on the stream;

The green leaves wave in the cool morning air ; Nature uncovers to the welcome beam,

And every sight is fair.

Earth is not now, as it hath lately been,

In winter's dull ice-woven fetters bound : Flowers of all hue put on their lustrous sheen;

Sweet odours float around.

And birds of every wing and every note

Pleasantly flutter in the pleasant groves, Warbling together from melodious throat

The story of their loves.

No storms will darken o'er the azure way;

Nothing will hide the sunlight's merry march; Heaven will o'erhang the revelling earth to-day

One blue unclouded arch.

To-morrow may be dark with rain and gloom

Fear not, but take with thanks the present hour : To-day all pleasures in profusion bloom;

To-day no tempests lower.

Full wisely hath the all-foreseeing Heaven

Hid coming sorrows from our anxious eye, And held in front a cloud, when man hath striven

To read his destiny,

For if he could behold the advancing years,

And evil shadows following in their train, Things that are brightest would beget but tears,

And double future pain.



Two new and startling trains of For Francisco it was as yet anything thought were thus brought into ex- but good news. citing and tumultuous existence by It was not much better news to the revelation of Mariuccia, and two the English Lucy. But for this the young lives disturbed beyond any two would inevitably have forgotten possibility of immediate pacification. each other; parted shyly, with their There was no longer any rest for mutual shy liking undeveloped ; with Francisco in his lofty nest in the a little pang at the heart of each, Piazza of Trajan. He worked lan- and a soft recollection lasting perguidly and by fits when he could not haps throughout their lives. For help himself; for the severest sav- was it not inevitable—a thing beyond age Spartan existence demands still resistance ? How dared they 80 something to answer the claims of much as think of each other-these nature, and it was perfectly neces- two, between whom fortune had sary, in the first place, that he should drawn a line so rigid? But things live. Except for this sharp spur of were changed now. Francisco had necessity, he would have done no- ventured to speak and Lucy to hear. thing but muse over the miraculous That which might have died away prospects which had opened before inarticulately had been spoken and him, and make long dreamy excur- could no longer be ignored ; and a sions into that future, which - all little money, a little more money, but one initiatory step, which was would make the young painter the very dark indeed, and obscured with equal, and more than the equal, of a perpetual fog – blazed with the the little English woman. Lucy could splendours of a fairy tale. His imagi- not save herself from the thrill of that nation, much confused and bafiled intruding thought—“Some time I when it endeavoured to penetrate shall be rich"-any more than she into the darkness of that gloomy and could from the compunction rising uncertain interval which lay between immediately after it, which reminded him and his glory, at last learned to her that ere she could be rich her leap over the clouded threshold, and grandfather must die. How wicked enjoy the unquestionable delights she thought herself!-how unnatural, beyond ; for, to be sure, if the young how upgrateful, sometimes even how painter were but once proved to be miserable she felt, like a traitor in the Duke Agostini, there was an end the old man's house. But still she to all possible troubles and distresses. could not help the recurrence of that What had he further to fear? The thought. Some time she too would young man mazed himself night and be rich; and if Francisco was still day with these dreams. He loitered Francisco, and wanted that money upon his little loggia leaning over then to gain his rights, the money the railing, revelling in imagination should be his. But Lucy too grew in all the splendours of his new posi- dreamy and loved solitude - her tion. He avoided his old acquaint- imagination was captivated perhaps ance, and found no more pleasure in even more than her heart. the theatre or the café. He had not It was still beautiful, warm, idlers' even the pleasant distraction of a weather, and the life of an idler sitting from the Signorina Inglese flourishes nowhere better than in to disturb the solitude which he Rome. Francisco did nothing that peopled with such dreams. He had he could help except dream, living .

, lost an unspeakable amount of youth- imaginary glorious years as Duke ful comfort and amusement to start Agostini, and forgetting the neceswith. He was very lonely, very poor sary days which the painter Francisco - lost in a world of indolent but ex- had to live through in the mean time. citing visions-by no means happy. For what could he do? No exertion VOL. LXXXVIII.-NO, DXLI.

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