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highest excellency is void of all envy, selfishness, and tena- SERM. city, that the world was produced such as it was; those LXVIII perfections being intrinsical to God's nature, disposed him to bestow so much of being, of beauty, of pleasure upon his creatures. He openeth his hand, they are filled with Ps. civ. 28. good: it is from God's open hand, his unconfined bounty and liberality, that all creatures do receive all that good which fills them, which satisfies their needs, and satiates their desires. Every pleasant object we view, every sweet and savoury morsel we taste, every fragrancy we smell, every harmony we hear; the wholesome, the cheering, the useful, yea, the innocent and inoffensive qualities of every thing we do use and enjoy, are so many perspicuous arguments of divine goodness; we may not only by our reason collect it, but we even touch and feel it with all our

senses.

The like conclusion may be inferred from the observation of divine Providence. Every signification, or experiment, whence we may reasonably infer that divine power and wisdom do concur in upholding, managing, and directing the general state of things, or the particular affairs of men, being well examined and weighed, would afford reason apt to persuade, that the Governor of the world is graciously affected toward his creatures and subjects. The general preservation of things in their natural constitution and order: the dispensing constant vicissitudes of season, so as may serve for the supply of our needs; the maintaining such a course of things in the world, that, notwithstanding the great irregularity of will, and violence of passion in so many persons; yet men do ordinarily shift so as to live tolerably upon earth in peace and safety, and enjoyment of competent accommodations for life; with the aids and consolations arising from mutual society; the supports, encouragements, and rewards of virtue many times in a strange manner administered; the restraints, disappointments, and seasonable chastisements of wickedness, especially when it grows exorbitant and outrageous, unexpectedly intervening, with the like passages of Providence, will, to him that shall regard the works of the Lord, and P's.xxviii.5.

Isa. v. 12.

SERM. the operation of his hands, sufficiently declare as the other LXVIII. glorious attributes, (wisdom, power, and justice,) so especially the goodness of him, who presides over the world; assuring that he is a friend to the welfare, and dislikes the misery of mankind. He that shall well observe and consider how among so many fierce and hardhearted, so many crafty and spiteful, so many domineering and devouring spirits, the poor and weak, the simple and harmless sort of people do however subsist, and enjoy somewhat, cannot but suspect that an undiscernible hand, full of pity and bounty, doth often convey the necessary supports of life to them, doth often divert imminent mischiefs from them; cannot but acknowledge it credible, what the holy Scripture teacheth, that God is the friend, and patron, and protector of those needy and helpless people, Ps. xiv. 6. redeeming their soul from deceit and violence, as the

tot. x. 14. lxxii. 12.

Psalmist speaks; that he is, as the Prophet expresseth it,

Isa. xxv. 4. a strength to the poor, a strength to the needy in his distress,

Psal.

a refuge from the storm, a shadow from the heat, when the blast of the terrible ones is as a storm against the wall. He that shall remark, how frequently, in an unaccountable way, succour and relief do spring up to just and innocent persons; so that in a whole age, as the Psalmist observed, xxxvii. 25. such persons do not appear destitute or forsaken; how also iniquity is commonly stopped in its full career, and then easily receives a check, when its violence seemed uncontrollable; how likewise many times the world is rescued from confusions and distractions unextricable by any visible wit or force; with other like occurrences in human affairs; must admit it for a reasonable hypothesis (fit to render a cause of such appearances) that a transcendent goodness doth secretly interpose, furthering the production of such effects: he must upon such observation be Psal. Iviii. ready to verify that of the Psalmist: Verily there is a reward for the righteous; verily there is a God that judgeth the earth. St. Paul instructs us, that in past times (that Acts xiv. is, in all generations from the beginning of things) God did attest himself to be the Governor of the world; How? ayadora, by his beneficence; giving to men showers from

ult.

17.

LXVIII.

heaven, and fruitful seasons, filling their hearts with food SERM. and gladness: competent evidences, it seems, these were of his providence, and withal (supposing that) certain demonstrations of his goodness: although some have abused this kind of testimony, or argumentation, so valid in itself, unto a contrary purpose; alleging, that if God ruled the world, so much wickedness and impiety would not be tolerated therein; that ingrateful and evil men could not so thrive and flourish; that more speedy and more severe vengeance would be executed; that benefits would not be scattered among the crowd of men, with so promiscuous and undistinguishing a freeness. But such discourses, upon a just and true account, do only infer the great patience and clemency, the unconfined mercy and bounty of our Lord; that he is in disposition very different from pettish and impatient man, who, should he have the reins put into his hands, and in his administration of things should be so often neglected, crossed, abused, would soon overturn all things; and, being himself discomposed with passion, would precipitate the world into confusion and ruin.

Things would not have subsisted. hitherto, and continued in their orderly course, but by the moderation of an immense goodness; by that

-magni custos clementia mundi.

Claud.

32.

It is by the Lord's mercies that we (we, the whole body of Lam. iii. sinful men, so guilty of heinous provocations and rebellions against our Maker) are not consumed. And what again God in the Prophet speaks concerning Israel, he might have applied to the whole nation of men: How Hos. xi. 8. shall I give thee up, Ephraim? how shall I deliver thee, Israel? how shall I make thee as Admah? how shall I set thee as Zeboim? I will not execute the fierceness of my anger, I will not return to destroy Ephraim; for I am God, and not man. The reason (for I am God, and not man) is observable; implying (upon parity of reason in the cases, concerning that one nation, and concerning the body of men) that it is an indulgence and forbearance above, if not contrary to the temper of man, and even beyond hu

SERM. man conceit, whereby the state of things here doth subsist, LXVIII. and is preserved from ruin.

Thus nature and thus Providence do bear witness concerning the disposition of God. As for Scripture, there is nothing either in way of positive assertion more frequently inculcated, or by more illustrious examples set forth, and made palpable, than this attribute of God. When God would impart a portraiture or description of himself to his dearest friend and favourite, Moses; the first and chief lineaments thereof are several sorts, or several instances of goodness; he expresses himself Merciful and gracious, long suffering and abundant in goodness (Merciful: El rachum) a God of pitying, or strong in pity; that is, most apt to commiserate and to succour those who are in need or distress. Gracious, that is, ready both freely to forgive wrongs, and to dispense favours. Long suffering, or longus irarum, that is, not soon moved, or apt easily to conceive displeasure; not hasty in execution of vengeance, or venting his anger in hurtful effects. Abundant in goodness, that is, not sparing as to quantity or quality, either in the multitude or magnitude of his favours, but in all respects exceedingly liberal; 'conferring willingly both very many and very great benefits. Such did God represent himself to Moses, when he desired a fuller knowledge and nearer acquaintance with him, than ordinary means afford. The same character in substance we have often repeated, and sometimes with advantage of emphatical expression, well deserving our observation and Joel ii. 13. regard; as when the Prophet Joel saith, that God is penitent, or sorry, for evil inflicted; and Micah, that he deNeh.ix. 17. lighteth in mercy; and when Nehemiah calleth him a God Isa. xxx. of pardons; and when Isaiah represents him as waiting (or seeking occasions) to be gracious: and all this in the Old Testament, where God seems to look upon man with a less serene and debonair aspect. Indeed, as that dispensation (suitably to the nature and condition of things under it) doth set out God's mercy and goodness, with especial relation to this present world, or temporal estate; so the New one more abundantly displays his more excellent

Micah vii. 18.

18.

Exod. xxxiv. 6.

Psal. lxxxvi. 5. ciii. 8, &c.

care and love of our souls; his great tenderness of our spi- SERM ritual and eternal welfare. It is all of it in its nature and LXVII. design but as it were one entire declaration of the rò xgns Rom. ii. 4. To so, (the beneficial disposition, the benignity, or bountifulness of God, as St. Paul telleth us;) it is a rare project of divine philanthropy; an illustrious affidavit of God's wonderful propensity to bless and save mankind ; manifested by the highest expressions and instances of love and goodness that were possible. (For his not sparing his own Son, the express image of his substance, the dearest object of his infinite love, the partaker of his eternal nature and glory, but delivering him up a sacrifice for our offences; hi most earnest wooing our baseness and unworthiness to reconciliation with him, and admission or acceptance of his favour; his tendering upon so fair and easy terms an endless life in perfect joy and bliss; his furnishing us with so plentiful means and powerful aids for attaining that happy state-how pregnant demonstrations Rom. v. 21. are these, of unspeakable goodness toward us! whence) The ordinary titles in this dispensation attributed unto him, are, the God of love and peace, of hope, of patience; 2 Cor. xiii. of all grace, of all consolation; the Father of pities, rich 11. i. 3. in mercy, full of bowels; love and goodness itself. Thus Eph. ii. 4. doth the Scripture positively assert God's goodness; thus it Jam. v. 11. directly represents and describes his gracious disposition toward us. And as for examples, (which must serve as to illustrate and explain, so also to verify and assure matters of this nature,) if we carefully attend to God's ordinary proceedings with men there recorded, we shall find this disposition very conspicuous in them. Who can recount Luke vi, the number, or set out the value of those instances where- 35. For he in God's goodness is expressed toward such as loved him? the unof his admirable condescension in drawing them to him; thankful, of the affectionate tenderness, with which he constantly evil. embraced them; of his merciful indulgence toward them, when provoked by their untowardly behaviour; of his kind acceptance, and munificent recompensing their endeavours to please him; of his deep compassionating their

1 Pet. v. 10.

1John iv. 8.

is kind unto

and to the

VOL. III.

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