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service, as well as this same cold duty you “ • My lord,' said Dalgetty, I take it talk of?'

on my conscience, that at no period, and ** Surely, my lord, it doth not become by no possible process, could one cruetzer me to speak ; but he that hath seen the of them ever be recovered. I myself never fields of Leipsic and of Lutzen, may be saw twenty dollars of my own all the time said to have seen pitched battles. And I served the invincible Gustavus, unless it one who hath witnessed the intaking of was from the chance of a storm, or victory, Frankfort, and Spanheim, and Nuremberg, or the fetching in some town or doorp, and so forth, should know something about when a cavalier of fortune, who knows the leaguers, storms, onslaughts and outfalls.' usage of wars, seldom faileth to make some

"• But your merit, sir, and experience, small profit.' were, doubtless, followed by promotion.' * • I begin rather to wonder, sir,' said

" • It came slow, my lord, dooms slow,' Lord Menteith, that you should have conreplied Dalgetty ; but as my Scottish tinued so long in the Swedish service, than countrymen, the fathers of the war, and that you should have ultimately withdrawn the raisers of those valourous Scottish re- from it.' giments that were the dread of Germany, "" • Neither I should,' answered the ritt. began to fall pretty thick, what with pesti- master; · but that great leader, captain, lence and what with the sword, why we, and king, the Lion of the North, and the their children, succeeded to their inherit- bulwark of the Protestant faith had a way ance. Sir, I was six years first private of winning battles, taking towns, over. gentleman of the company, and three years running countries, and levying contribulance-speisade ; disdaining to receive a hal. tions, whilk made his service irresistibly bert, as unbecoming my birth. Wherefore delectable to all true-bred cavaliers who I was ultimately promoted to be a fahn- follow the noble profession of arms. Simdragger, as the High Dutch call it, (which ple as I ride here, my lord, I have myself signities an ancient) in the King's Lief Re- commanded the whole stift of Dunklespiel giment of Black-Horse, and thereafter I on the Lower Rhine, occupying the Palsarose to be lieutenant and ritt-master, un- graye's palace, consuming his choice wines der that invincible monarchi, the bulwark with my comrades, calling in contributions, of the Protestant faith, the Lion of the requisitions, and caduacs, and not failing to North, the terror of Austria, Gustavus the lick my fingers, as became a good cook. victorious.'

But truly all this glory hastened to decay, “And yet, if I understand you, Captain after our great master had been shot with Dalgetty, I think that rank' corresponds three bullets on the field of Lutzen; wherewith your foreign title of ritt-master, fore, finding that fortune had changed

* i The same grade preceesely,' answer- sides, that the borrowings and lendings ed Dalgetty ; . ritt-master signifying li. went on as before out of our pay, while terally file-leader.'

the caduacs and casualties were all cut off, "I was observing,' continued Lord I e'en gave up my commission, and took Menteith, that, if I understand you service with Wallenstein in Walter Batler's right, you had left the service of this great Irish regiment.' Prince.

* • It was after his death-it was after His account of his posterior doings his death, sir,' said Dalgetty, · when I in the Imperial service under Walwas in no shape bound to continue mine lenstein—and in the Spanish troops adherence. There are things my lord, in in the Low Countries, is equally that service, that cannot but go against the

edifying. stomach of any cavalier of honour. In especial, albeit the pay be none of the A considerable part of the interest, most superabundant, being only about six. however, turns upon Allan Macauley, a ty dollars a month to a ritt-master, yet Highland gentleman, endowed with the invincible Gustavus never paid above the second sight; but this gift, upone-third of that sum, whilk was distributed monthly by way of loan; although,

on the whole, is not the means of when justly considered, it was, in fact, á producing a very impressive effect, al. borrowing by that great monarch of the though he has otherwise a good deal additional two-thirds which were due to to do in the story. A more profound the soldier. And I have seen some whole feeling is awakened by Ranald Ma. regiments of Dutch and Holsteiners mu. ceagh, one of the last survivors of a tiny on the field of battle, like base scul. clan nearly extirpated--the " children lions, crying out Gelt, gelt, signifying their of the mist,” as they are expressively desire of pay, instead of falling to blows called-one of the races of lawless freelike our noble Scotch blades, who ever dis- booters or caterans. În him we have dained, my lord, postponing of honour to filthy lucre.'

a specimen of the wildest and most "*** But were not these arrears,' said Lord primitive species of mountaineer of Menteith, o paid to the soldiery at some which any remained in the time of stated period ?'

Montrose, Ranald, being mortally wounded, calls his son to receive his that sort he has heretofore been more last words, and charges him to conti- than once a sad vow-breaker. For the nue the same mode of life as had been time, however, we have no doubt he praetised by his forefathers. He tells is quite sincere in all that he says him to sow no grain, to enclose no and in nothing more sincere, we will pastures, nor, in any respect, to follow believe, than in the high compliments the vocations of civilized life, but to he bestows upon a certain unknown live by hunting, and if that should author or authoress (his words are, fail, to prey upon the flocks of those “ a brother or a sister-shadow,") clans that now occupied the original whom he considers as well qualified to territories of his ancestors. The words follow in the same field which he in which this dying command is deli- talks of as abandoned by himself.vered are full of poetry, and carry the We hope this commendation-the imagination tar back into antiquity. highest commendation that could have

*And now before concluding, we been bestowed--will not be without must again protest against the resolu- its due effect as a stimulus upon the tion which the author professes to have accomplished person, of whatever sex, formed of giving us no more of his to whom the world is indebted for the novels. Our consolation is, that in tale of “ Marriage."


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College Muscum.—Thirty or forty years occasioned by the action of a central heat. ago this museum was neither extensive por This idea seems to have haunted him for splendid. It contained, as we are well in- sixty or seventy years ; and now he thinks formed, an enormous and very ill looking its truth has been demonstrated by a few white Greenland bear, a few distorted stuf. experiments he made with the thermometer fed birds, an old black skeleton or two, & in the mines of Saxony.. The following wretched looking alligator, (fit for an apo. are the experiments, of which an account is thecaries study,) some equally miserable given in the Annales des Mines for 1818: snakes, and a heap of the more common At the depth of 255) feet below the surand coarser minerals. Sir Robert Sibbald, face, the thermometer stood at 7 degrees it is true, left a considerable collection of above zero. natural curiosities, which were presented to At 601, feet

1010 the college, but these, in the course of time,

953 feet

12° disappeared. Many, through neglect, be

1348} feet

15° came useless, and others, from want of The heat thus appears to increase as the cases, were appropriated by curious collec- depth increases, in the ratio of one degree of tors with the view of adding them to their Reaumur for every 150 feet of depth ; from own stores, as interesting memorials or relics whence it results, according to Trebra, that of the college museum. This collection is at the depth of 1,196,250 feet, iron would again on the increase, and ere long promises be in a state of fusion. The worthy capto be one of the most scientific and beauti- tain-general has thus landed us on the conful in Europe. The classical zoological ca- fines of the Hell of the Volcanists, but not binet of Dufresne of Paris has been pur, in the warmest part, for he assures us, it chased for a great sum by the college, and must be infinitely hotter farther down. Unis now on its way to Edinburgh. The sale fortunately, this mode of discovering the of Bullock's museum in London was attend actual situation of the internal burning reed by a gentleman on the part of the Uni- gions, is highly unsatisfactory; for the facts versity, and he, we understand, has made stated by Trebra, prove not the existence of purchases to a considerable amount. Every a central fire, but of a sun which warms the month collections and specimens are pour- surface of the earth. ing into the museum from different parts of Coal not of Vegetable Origin. In the the world, as donations by those who feel Wernerian Memoirs, it is said that common an interest in the advancement of natural coal is an origipal chemical deposite, history, and in our national museum. and therefore is not formed from vege

Trebra on Central Heat of the Earth. tables. This opinion, which is 'fully warVery long ago, the aged Trebra, now cap- ranted by the geological relations of coal, tain-general of the mines of Saxony, con- has been further confirmed and illustrated jectured that all the decomposition and re- by the experiments of John of Berlin, and combinations which he fancied to be taking of Dr Thomson of Glasgow. Dr Thomplace in the interior parts of the carth, were son, we understand, has planned and executed a most beautiful and interesting series Holland, according to the researches of Mr of experiments on the different coals of our Brown, 1.8th, of the known phanerogamous coal fields, from which it results that coal is plants. The composite plants increase a essentially different from vegetables, whe- little in the northern part of the new conther in their perfect or altered state ; and tinent ; for, according to the new Flora of also possesses characters very different from Pursch, there is between the parallels of those which vegetables exhibit when expos. Georgia and Boston 1-6th, whereas in Gered to heat in close vessels or under compres- many we find 1-8th, and in France 1-7th, sions.

of the total number of the species, with vi. Humboldt on the Geography of Plants.- sible fructification. In the whole temperate ALEXANDER Count Humboldt has submit- zone, the glumaceæ and the composite ted to the Institute a curious paper, on the plants, form together, nearly one-fourth of laws observed in the distribution of vegetable the phanerogamous plants; the glumaceæ, forms over the globe. Botany, long con- the compositæ, the cruciferæ, and the legafined to the simple description of the exter- minosa, together, nearly one-third. It renal forms of plants, and their artificial class sults from these researches, that the forms sification, now presents several branches of of organized beings are in a mutual de study, which place it more on a footing with pendence; and that the unity of nature is the other sciences. Such are the distribu- such, that the forms are limited, the one tion of vegetables, according to a natural after the other, according to constant laws method founded upon the whole part of easy of determination. their structure; physiology, which displays The number of vegetable species describtheir internal organization ; botanical geo- ed by botanists, or existing in European graphy, which assigns to each tribe of plants herbals, extends to 44,000, of which 6000 their height, limits, and climate. The

are agamous. In this number we had alterms alpine plants, plants of hot countries, ready included 3000 new phanerogamous plants of the sea-shore, are to be found in species enumerated by M. Bompland and all languages, even in those of the most samyself. France, according to M. Decanvage nations on the banks of the Oronoko. dolle, possesses 3645 phanerogamous plants, They prove that the attention of men has of which 460 are glumaccæ, 190 composite, been constantly fixed on the distribution of and 230 leguminous, &c. In Lapland there vegetables, and on their connexion with the are only 497 phanerogamous plants ; among temperature of the air, the elevation of the which are 124 glumaccæ, 55 composite, 18 soil, and the nature of the ground which leguminous, 23 amentaceous, &c. they inhabit. It does not require much sa- Mr Pursch has made us acquainted with gacity to observe, that on the slope of the 2000 phanerogamous plants which grow behigh mountains of Armenia, vegetables of tween the parallels of 350 and 44o ; cona different latitude follow each in succession, sequently, under mean annual temperatures like the climates, superposed, as it were, of 160 and 70. The flora of North Ameupon each other.

rica is a mixture of several floras. The The vegetables, says he, which cover the southern regions give it an abundance of vast surface of the globe, present, when we malvaceæ and composite plants; the northstudy by natural classes or families, striking ern regions, colder than Europe, under the differences in the distribution of their forms. same parallel, furnish to this flora abundOn limiting them to the countries in which ance of rhododendrons, amentaceæ, and cothe number of the species is exactly known, niferæ. The caryophylleæ, the umbelliferæ, and by dividing this number by that of the and the cruciferæ, are in general more rare glumaceæ, the leguminous plants, the la- in North America, than in the temperate biated, and the coinpound, we find nume- zone of the old continent. rical relations which form very regular se- These constant relations observed on the ries. We see certain forms become more surface of the globe, in the plains from the common, from the cquator towards the pole, equator to the pole, are again traced in the like the ferns, the glumaceæ, the cricincæ, midst of perpetual snows on the summits of and the rhododendrons. Other forms, on mountains. We may admit, in general, the contrary, increase from the poles to- that on the cordilleras of the torrid zone, wards the equator, and may be considered the borcal forms become more frequent. It in our hemisphere as southern forms : such is thus that we sce prevail at Quito, on the are the rubiaceæ, the malvaceæ, the eu. summit of the Andes, the cricinca, the rho. phorbia, the leguminous, and the compo- dodendrons, and the gramincous plants. On site plants. Finally, others attain their the contrary, the labiatæ, the rubiaceæ, the maximum even in the temperate zone, and malvaceæ, and the euphorbiaceæ, then bediminish also towards the equator and the come as rare as they are in Lapland. But poles ; such are the labiated plants, the this analogy is not supported in the ferns amentaceæ, the cruciferæ, and the umbel- and the composite plants. The latter eliferæ. The grasses form in England 1-12th, bound on the Andes, whereas the former in France 1-13th, in North America 1-10th, gradually disappear when they rise above of all the phanerogamous plants. The glu: 1800 fathoms in height. Thus the climate maceæ form in Germany 1-7th, in France of the Andes resembles that of northern Eu1-Sth, in North America 1.8th, in New rope only with respect to the mean tem


perature of the year. The repartition of which we are here examining,-a law which heat into the different seasons is entirely is so important for the history of the catasdifferent, and powerfully influences the phe- trophes of our planet, and according to nomena of vegetation. In general, the which, the organized beings of the equi. forms which prevail among the alpine plants, noctial regions differ essentially in the iwo are, according to my researches, under the continents. torrid zone, the graminæ (ægopogon, podo- Variation of the Magnetic Needle. The sæmum, deyeuxia, avena); the compositæ mistake seems to have prevailed, pretty ge(calcitium, espeletia, aster, baccharis); and nerally, that the western variation of the directhe caryophylle (arenaria, stellaria.) Under tion of the magnetic needle from the meridian the temperate zone, the compositæ (senecio, or true north, had sometime ago reached its leontodon, aster); the caryophylleæ (ceras- maximum, and was now decreasing, and the tium, cherleria, silene); and the cruciferæ needle, at a very slow rate, approaching a(draba, lepidium.) Under the frozen zone, gain towards the true north. The reverse the caryophyllæ (stellaria, alsine); the eri- of this seems, however, to be the case, from cineæ (andromeda), and the ranunculaceæ. the recent and delicate observations of Coll. It has been long known, and it is one of Mark Beaufoy, made at his seat near Stanthe most interesting results from the geo- more in Middlesex; whence it appears that graphy of animals, that no quadruped, no the variation uniformly increased from the terrestrial bird, and, as appears from the month of April 1817 until January 1819, researches of M. Latreille, almost no insect and has fluctuated since. The total of inis common to the equatorial regions of the crease in two years to the 31st of March, as two worlds. M. Cuvier is convinced, by deduced from the monthly means of all the precise inquiries, that this rule applies even observations, is 2' 25'' ;-the mean of all to reptiles. He has ascertained, that the the observations made in the first quarter of true boa constrictor is peculiar to America; the present year, shows the variation to have and that the boas of the old continent, were been then 24° 37' 0". pytons. Among the plants, we must dis- Medical Properties of Hydrosulphurate linguish between the agamæ and the cotyle. of Iron.-Professor Van Mons has discoverdoneæ : and by considering the latter be- ed that the hydrosulphurate of iron, protween the monocotylodens and the dicotyle- duced by iron, sulphur, and water,, possessdons. There remains no doubt that many es, when taken internally, the property of of the mosses and lichens are to be found at making salivation instantly cease as if by once in equinoctial America and in Europe. enchantment; and when administered exBut the case is not the same with the vascu- ternally, of curing the worst of scabs and lar agamæ as with the agamæ of a cellular sores.-Journal de la Médecine de la Bel

The ferns and the lycopodiaceæ gique. do not follow the same laws with the mosses Roccipt for Making the Purple Enamel · and the lichens. The former, in particular, uscd in the Mosuic Pictures of St Peter's, exhibit very few species universally to be Rome.-One lb. sulpher, 1 do. saltpetre, 1 found; and the examples cited are fre- do. vitriol, 1 do. antimony, 1 do. oxide of quently doubtful. As to the phanerogamous tin, 20 lbs. minium, oxide of Icad 40 lbs. ; plants (with the exception of the rhizophora, all mixed together in a crucible and melted the avicennia, and some other littoral in a furnace : it is next to be taken out and plants), the law of Buffon seems to be exact washed to carry off the salts : afterwards with respect to the species furnished with melt it in the crucible, add 19 ozs. rose two cotyledons. It is absolutely false, al- copper, 1 oz. prepared zaffre, 1.4 oz. crocus though it has been often affirmed, that the martis made with sulpher, 3 oz. refined ridges of the cordilleras of Peru, the climate borax, and 1 lb. of a composition of gold, of which has some analogy with the climate silver, and mercury: when all are well of France or Sweden, produce similar plants. combined, the mass is to be stirred with a The oaks, the pines, the yews, the ranun- copper rod, and the fire gradually diminishculi, the rose-trees, the alchemilla, the va- ed to prevent the metals from burning. The lerians, the stellaria, the draba of the composition thus prepared is finally to be Peruvian and Mexican Andes, have put into crucibles and placed in a reverberanearly the same physiognomy with the tory furnace, where they are to remain twenspecies of the same genera of North A. ty-four hours. The same composition will merica, Siberia, or Europe. But all answer for other colours, by merely chang. these alpine plants of the cordilleras, with ing the colouring matter. This composi. out excepting one among three or four tion has almost all the characters of real thousand which we have examined, differ stone, and when broken exhibits a vitreous specifically from the analogous species of the fracture. temperate zone of the old continent. In

The above receipt was received from an Italian general, in that part of America situated be clergyman who has considerable chemical knowtween the tropics, the monocotyledontal ployed in St Peter's during his residence there at plants alone, and among the latter almost college. solely the cyperaceæ and the gramineæ, are Paper from Beet-Root.-A M. Sinisen common to the two worlds. These two fa- has published at Copenhagen, an account of milies form an exception to the general law a series of experiments which he has ma


for ascertaining the practicability of manufac- ciety for the encouragement of Arts, &c. (in turing paper from the pulp of beet-root. France) has for these fourteen years past As a proof of the success of his experiments, proposed premiums for a process by which he has printed his work on paper manufac- cast-iron could be rendered malleable, and tured from this material,

proper to be made into common utensils, Pyroligneous Acid.-A discovery of great such as boilers, stew-pans, &c. usually importance engages at this moment the at. made of copper, the use of which is dan, tention of the physicians, the chemists, and gerous, and often attended with accidents. the government in France. A person nam, This interesting problem of domestic ecoed Mange has discovered, that the pyrolig- nomy has been solved by Messrs Baradelle neous acid, obtained by the distillation of and Dedor, and the Society in consequence wood, has the property of preventing the decreed to them, on 23 September last, the decomposition and putrefaction of animal premium offered for it. substances. It is sufficient to plunge meat The Marquis de St. Crois, who is a for a few moments into this acid, even member of the Society, has since turned slightly empyreumatic, to preserve this his attention to the application of this dismeat as long as you may desire. Cutlets, covery; and he has just had experiments kidneys, liver, rabbits, which were as far made in the manufactory of Loulans, upon back as the month of July last, are now as pieces of this iron, which leave no doubt of fresh as if they had been just procured from their malleability, and of the advantages the market. I have seen, says Mange, care which result from it. Pots, vessels of dif. cases washed three weeks ago with pyrolig. ferent kinds, nails, keys, spoons, and forks, neous acid, in which there is yet no sign of were first rough cast, then submitted to the decomposition. Putrefaction not only stops, process of malleabilisation. The malleabut it even retrogrades. Jakes exhaling in- bilized pieces not only resisted shocks which fection, cease to do so, as soon as you pour would have fractured the brittle cast iron, into them the purifying acid. You may but were not even broken by falls from the judge how many important applications height of ten feet and more on the pavemay be made of this process. Navigation, ment. They could not be broken without medicine unwholesome, manufactories, will letting them fall upon stones from the height derive incalculable advantages from its of 20 or 30 feet. These pieces were turned This explains why meat merely dried in a and filed with more facility than pewter. stove, does not keep, while that which is The broken parts, the grain of which is smoked becomes unalterable. We have fine and nearly the same as that of steel, here an explanation of the theory of hams, were bronzed and perfectly well soldered; of the beef of Hamburgh, of smoked tongues, the keys answered in the hardest locks as sausages, red herrings, of wood smoked to well as the usual iron keys; the nails did preserve it from worms, &c. &c. &c.

not rivet well, but entered easily and withPaper from the Aiga Marina_This is out breaking the hardest wood. The vesnot a new invention, but it is possible that in sels designed for tinning received it very the improved state of manufactures, and es. well ; lastly, the malleabilised cast iron ex. pecially of chemistry, some alteration may ceeds in strength by more than one half the have been made on the process before used. cast iron hitherto in use. It is also well known, that there are several Chinese Stone Y16.--Many of our readers other plants, at present of no use, from are aware that there is a stone of a greenish which very good paper might be made, but white colour, and considerable hardness, to the expense has not yet been ascertained. which the Chinese give the name of Yu,

Oil from Pumpkins. The seeds of and which they prize more than any other pumpkins are commonly thrown away; but stone. It is said to cccur in the form of abundance of an excellent oil may be ex- nodules, in the bottom of ravines, and in tracted from them. When peeled they the beds of torrents, and in larger masses in yield much more oil than an equal quantity the mountains themselves, especially in of fax. This oil burns well; gives a lively Yunan, one of the most northern provinces light ; lasts longer than other oils, and of the empire. It has been long known emits very little smoke. The cake remain- in this country under the name of Chinese ing after the extraction of the oil may be jade or nephrite ; but Professor Jameson, given to cattle, who eat it with avidity. The in the last edition of his Mineralogy, oil, when cold, is greasy, soft and pure ; it Vol. 1, page 505, assures us that it is preh. docs well for frying, especially fish. nite. The following are the characters of

New Mctal.-Dr Vert, professor of che- this mineral, as given by Mr Clarke Abel, mistry at Gratz, has discovered in the mine in his Narrative, &c. p. 134. of Nickel, at Scaldmig, in Styria, a metal, " Its colour is greenish white, passing indiffering from all those hitherto known. to greyish green and dark grass green. InIts principal characters are, that it is not ternally, it is scarcely glimmering. Its reducible, except when combined with ar- fracture is splintery ; splinters white. It is senic ; its oxides are white, as are also the semi-transparent and cloudy. It scratches salts resulting from it. He proposes to glass strongly; and is not scratched by, nor give it the name of Vestium.

scratches rock crystal. Before the blow-pipe Cast-iron rendered Malleabk. The So- it is infusible without addition,

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