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veneration and pride, to the struggles ticipate only in the triumphs of her siswhich it had" witnessed, and the ter kingdom, without distinctly marktriumphs which it had won.
ing its own peculiar and national pride, Capitoli immobile Saxum.” in the glory of her own people.When Scipio Africanus was accused The valour of the Scottish regiby a faction in the forum, in place of ments is known and celebrated from answering the charge, he turned to one end of Europe to the other; and the capitol, and invited the people to this circumstance, joined to the cele accompany him to the temple of Ju- brity of the poems of Ossian, has piter, and return thanks for the defeat given a distinction to our soldiers, to of the Carthagenians. Such was the which, for so small a body of men, influence of local associations on that there is no parallel in the history of severe people ; and so natural is it for the present age. Would it not be a the human mind to embody its recol subject of reproach to this country, if lections in some external object; and the only land in which no record of so important an effect are these recol- their gallantry is to be found, was the lections fitted to have, when they are
land which gave them birth ; and that perpetually brought back to the public the traveller who has seen the tar. mind by the sight of the objects to tan hailed with enthusiasm on every which they have been attached. theatre of Europe, should find it for
The erection of a national monu- gotten only in the metropolis of that ment, on a scale suited to the great- kingdom which owes its salvation to ness of the events it is intended to com- the bravery by which it has been dismemorate seems better calculated than tinguished ? any other measure to perpetuate the The animating effects, moreover, spirit which the events of our times which the sight of a national trophy have awakened in this country. It is fitted to have on a martial people, will force itself on the observation of would be entirely lost in this country, the most thoughtless, and recal the re- if no other monument to Scottish vacollection of danger and glory, during lour existed than the monument in the slumber of peaceful life. Thou- London.—There is not a hundredth sands who never would otherwise have part of our population who have ever cast a thought upon the glory of their an opportunity of going to that city; country, will by it be awakened to a or to whom the existence even of such sense of what befits the descendants a record of their triumph could be of those great men who have died in known. Even upon those who may the cause of national freedom. While see it, the peculiar and salutary effect it will testify the gratitude of the na- of a national Scottish monument would tion to departed worth, it will serve at be entirely lost. It would be regardthe same time to mark the distinction ed as a trophy of English glory, and which similar victories may win. Like however much it might animate our the Roman capitol, it will stand at descendants to maintain the character once the monument of former great- of Britain on the field of European ness, and the pledge of future glory. warfare, it would leave wholly un
Nor is it to be imagined that the touched those feelings of generons national monument in London is suf- emulation by which the rival nations ficient for this purpose, and that the of England and Scotland have hithercommencement of a similar undertak- to been animated towards each other, ing in this city is an unnecessary or
and to the existence of which, so superfluous proceeding. It is quite much of their common triumphs have proper, that in the metropolis of the been owing: United Empire, the trophies of its It is in the preservation of this feelcommon triumphs should be found, ing of rivalry that we anticipate the and that the national funds should most important effects of the national there be devoted to the formation of a monument in this metropolis. There monument, worthy of the splendid is no danger that the ancient animosiachievements which her united forces ty of the two nations will ever revive, have performed. But the whole bene- or that the emulation of our armies fits of the emulation between the two will lead them to prove unfaithful to nations, from which our armies have the common cause in which they must already derived such signal
advantage, hereafter be engaged. The stern feelwould be lost, if Scotland were to parings of feudal hatred with which the
armies of England and Scotland for which should be followed in this namerly met ať Flodden or Bannock- tional edifice, and the influence which burn, have now yielded to the emula- the adoption of a perfect model is fittion and friendship which form the ted to have on the national taste. surest basis of their common prosperi- There is no fact more certain than ty.
that a due appreciation of the grand But it is of the last importance that or the beautiful in architectural de these feelings of national rivalry should sign, is not inherent in any individual not be extinguished. In every part of or in any people ; and that towards the world the good effects of this em
the formation of a correct public taste, ulation have been experienced. It is the existence of fine models is absoluterecorded, that at the seige of Namur, ly essential. It is this which gives when the German troops were repul- men who have travelled in Italy or sed from the breach, king William or- Greece so evident a superiority in condered his English guards to advance; sidering the merits of the works of art and the veteran warrior was so much in this country over those who have affected with the devoted gallantry not bad similar advantages; and it is with which they pressed on to the as- this which renders taste hereditary asault, that, bursting into tears, he ex- mong a people who have the models of claimed, “ See how my brave English ancient excellence continually before fight.” At the storm of Bhurtpoor, their eyes. The taste of Athens conwhen one of the British regiments was tinued to distinguish its people long forced back by the dreadful fire that after they had ceased to be remarkaplayed on the beach, one of the na- ble for any other and more honourable tive regiments was ordered to advance, quality; and Rome itself, in the days and these brave men cheered as they of its imperial splendour, was compassed the British troops, who lay pelled to borrow from a people whom trembling in the trenches. Every she had vanquished, the trophies by body knows the distinguished gallant- which her victories were to be coma ry with which the Scottish regiments, memorated. To this day the lovers in all the actions of the present war, of art flock from the most distant parts have sought to maintain their ancient of the world to the Acropolis, and reputation; and it is not to be for dwell with rapture on its unrivalled gotten, that the first occasion on which beauties, and seek to inhale, amid the the Cuirassiers of France were broken, ruins that surround them, a portion of was when the leading regiments of the spirit by which they were conceivEngland, Scotland, and Ireland, bore ed. The remains of ancient Rome down with rival valour on their still serve as the model of every thing columns; and in the enthusiastic cry of that is great in the designs of modern the Greys, “ Scotland for ever,” we architects; and in the Parthenon and may perceive the value of those na- the Colisseum we find the originals tional recollections which it is the ob- on which the dome of St Peters and ject of the present edifice to reward the piazza St Marco have been formed. and perpetuate.
It is a matter of general observation, If this spirit shall live in her armies; accordingly, that the inhabitants of if the rival valour which was formerly Italy possess a degree of taste both in excited in their fatal wars against each sculpture, architecture, and painting, other, shall thus continue to animate which few persons of the most cultithem when fighting against their com- vated understanding in transalpine mon enemies, and if the remembrance countries can acquire. So true it is, of former division is preserved only that the existence of fine models lays to cement the bond of present union, the only foundation of a correct pubEngland and Scotland may well, like lic taste; and that the transference of the
Douglas and Percy both together the model of ancient excellence to this “ be confident against the world in country is the only means of giving to arms."
our people the taste by which similar Foreign foe or false beguiling,
excellence is to be produced. Shall our union ne'er divide,
Now it has unfortunately happened Hand in hand, while peace is smiling, that the Doric architecture, to which And in battle side by side.
so much of the beauty of Greece and Before concluding, we cannot avoid Italy is owing, has been hitherto little saying a few words on the design understood, and still less put in pracVOL, V.
tice in this country. We meet with few this subject, which are beginning to persons who have not visited the re- prevail, and throw the national taste mains of classical antiquity, who can a century back at the time when it is conceive the matchless beauties of the making the most rapid advances totemples of Minerva at Athens, or of wards perfection. It is in vain to exNeptune at Pestum. And, indeed, pect that human genius can ever make if our conceptions of the Doric be any thing more beautiful than the Partaken from the few attempts at imita- thenon. It is folly, therefore, to tempt tion of it which are here to be met fortune, when certainty is in our with, they would fall very far short, hands. indeed, of what the originals are fitted There are many reasons besides, to excite.
which seem in a peculiar manner to In the National Monument of Scot- recommend the Doric temple for the land an opportunity is afforded of opene proposed monument. By the habits ing the public mind to a just apprecia- of modern times, a different species of tion of the beauties of this style of ar- architecture has been devoted to the chitecture, and of presenting it, in its different purposes to which buildings most engaging form, and under cirs may be applied ; and it is difficult to cumstances peculiarly calculated to ex- avoid believing, that there is somecite attention. If the ParTHENON of thing in the separate styles which is ATHENS were transferred to Edin- peculiarly adapted to the different burgh, the public taste would be form- emotions they are intended to excite. ed on the finest model which exists in The light tracery, and lofty roof, and the world, and to the perfection of airy pillars of the Gothic, seem to acwhich the experience of two thousand cord well with the sublime feelings years has borne testimony. The taste and spiritual fervour of religion. The which sprung up round the work of massy wall, and gloomy character of Phidias might then be transferred to the castle, bespeak the abode of feudal our northern regions; and the city power and the pageantry of barbaric whose genius has already procured for magnificence. The beautiful porticos, it the name of the Modern Athens, and columns, and rich cornices of the might hope to vie with its immortal lonic or Corinthian, seem well adapted predecessor in the fine arts. Nor for the public edifices in a great city ; would such an attempt be at all in- for those which are destined for amuseconsistent with the extent of the fundsment, or to serve for the purpose of which may be looked to for the pur- public ornament. The Palladian style pose proposed. The Parthenon might is that of all others best adapted for be imitated in all its dimensions for the magnificence of private dwellings, £30,000 or £40,000; and although and overwhelms the spectator by a in such a copy the Frize would of flood of beauty, against which the course be wanting, yet this would not rules of criticism are unable to withdiminish the effect of the edifice when stand. If any of these styles of archiseen from the distance of a few hun- tecture were to be transferred from dred yards.
buildings destined for one purpose to We are far from underrating the those destined for another, the improgenius of modern architects, and when priety of the change would appear very our metropolis is increasing in splen- conspicuous. The gorgeous splendour dour, under the auspices of Playfair of the Palladian front would be enand Elliot, it would be ungrateful to tirely misplaced, in an edifice destined insinuate, that sufficient ability for for the purpose of religion; and the the formation of an original design is rich pinnacles and gloomy aisles of the not to be found. But in the choice Gothic, would accord ill with the scene of designs for a building which is to of modern amusement or festivity. stand for centuries, and from which Now the National Monument is an the taste of the metropolis in future edifice of a very singular kind, and ages is in a greater measure to be such as to require a style of architecformed, we conceive that it is abso- ture peculiar to itself. The Grecian lutely essential to fix upon some mo- Doric, as it is exhibited in the Pardel of known and approved excellence. thenon, appears singularly well adapte The erection of a monument in bad ed for this purpose. Its form and taste, or even of doubtful beauty, character is associated in every cultimight destroy the just conceptions on vated mind with the recollections of classical history; and it recalls the bril- stone, which lie in the immediate viliant conceptions of national glory as cinity, have rendered architectural emthey were received during the ardent bellishment an easier object in this and enthusiastic period of youth; city than in any other in the empire. while its stern and massy form befits It cannot be denied, however, that an edifice destined to commemorate the much still remains to be done in this severe virtues and manly character of respect, and that every stranger obwar. The effect of such a building, serves the striking contrast between and the influence it would have on the the beauty of its private houses, and public taste, would be increased to an the deplorable scantiness of its public indefinite degree, by the interest of buildings. The establishment of a the purpose to which it is destined. taste for edifices of an ornamental deAn editice which recalled at once the scription, and the gradual purification interest of classical association, and of the popular taste, which may fairly commemorated the splendour of our be expected from the influence of so own achievements, would impress it- perfect a model as the Parthenon of self in the most indelible manner on Athens, would ultimately, in all prothe public mind, and force the beauty bability, render this city the favourite of its design on the most careless ob- residence of the fine arts; the spot server. And there can be no doubt to which strangers would resort, both that this impression would be far as the place where the rules of taste greater, just because it arose from a are to be studied, and the models of style of building hitherto unknown in art are to be found. And thus, while this country, and produced an effect London is the Rome of the empire, as dissimilar from that of any other to which the young, and the ambiarchitectural design, as the national tious, and the gay, resort for the puremotions which it is intended to awaken suit of pleasure, of fortune, or of amare from those to which ordinary edi. bition, Edinburgh might become an'fices are destined.
other Athens, in which the arts and We cannot help considering this as the sciences flourished, under the shade a matter of great importance to this of her ancient fame, and established a city, and to the taste of the age in dominion over the minds of men more which we live. It is no inconsiderable permanent than even that which the matter to have one building of fault- Roman arms were able to effect. less design erected, and to have the Should the Parthenon be finally youth of our people accustomed from fixed on as the model for the national their infancy to behold the work of monument, it seems hardly necessary Phidias. But the ultimate effect which to hint at the situation in which it such a circumstance might produce on ought to be placed. It is observed by the taste of the nation, and the cele- Clarkc, that of all the cities which he brity of this metropolis, is far more im- had visited during his extensive traportant. It is in vain to conceal, that vels, Edinburgh bears the closest rethe wealth and the fashion of England semblance to the cities of ancient is every day attracting the higher part Greece. Its position on a rock, in of our society to another capital; and the middle of a fertile and champagne that Edinburgh can never possess at- country; the vicinity of the sea, and tractions of the same description with the disposition of the town at the base London, sufficient to enable her to of the fortress, resemble in the most stand an instant in the struggle. But striking manner the situation of Cowhile London must always eclipse this rinth, Athens, Argos, and most of the city in all that depends on wealth, Grecian capitals. To make the repower, or fashionable elegance, nature semblance complete, he adds, it is onhas given to it the means of establish- ly necessary to have a temple of great ing a superiority of a higher and a dimensions placed on the Calton Hill; more permanent kind. The matchless and such an edifice, seen from all beauty of its situation, the superb cliffs quarters, and forming an object in by which it is surrounded, the mag- every landscape, would give a classical nificent prospects of the bay, which it air to that beautiful city of which the commands, have given to 'Edinburgh value cannot easily be conceived. We the means of becoming the most beau- are thoroughly persuaded, that the tiful town that exists in the world. erection of the Parthenon on the CalAnd the inexhaustible quarries of free ton Hill would do more to add to the beauty of Edinburgh, than a million has seen these columns only in their laid out in any other situation. present situation, overtopped by the
The Greeks always fixed on an lofty piles by which they are sureminence for the situation of their rounded, could conceive the beauty of temples, and whatever was the prac- the originals, standing on the rock of tice of a people of such exquisite taste the Acropolis, and gilded by the rays is well worthy of imitation. The of an Athenian sun. Acropolis of Athens, the Acrocorin- In the landscapes too of Claude and thus of Corinth, the temple of Jupiter Poussin, who knew so well the situaPanhellenius in Egina, are instances of tion in which every building appears the beauty of these edifices when placed to most advantage, the ruins of temon such conspicuous situations. At ples are almost always placed on proAthens in particular, the Temple of minent fronts, or on the summit of Jupiter Olympius and of Theseus are small hills ; in such a situation, in situated in the plain ; but although short, as the Calton Hill presents. the former is built in a style of mag. The practice of the ancient Greeks, in nificence to which there is no parallel, the choice of situations for their temand is double the size of the Parthe- ples, joined to that of the modern non, its effect is infinitely less striking Italian painters in their ideal representhan that of the temple of Minerva, tations of the same objects, leaving no which crowns the Acropolis, and room to doubt that the course which meets the eye from every part of the they followed was that which the peadjacent country. The Temple of culiar nature of the building require Jupiter Panhellenius, in the island of ed. Egina, is neither so large nor so beau- If it shall be said that the Calton tiful as the Temple of Theseus; but Hill would be too crowded, and that there is no one who ever thought of there is not sufficient room for the comparing the effect which the for- observatory and such a temple as has mer produces crowning a rich and now been proposed, the answer is, wooded hill, to that which is felt on that on the Acropolis of Athens, viewing the latter standing in the which has been admired for two thouplain of Attica. The Temple of Nep- sand years, the temples are much tune, at Pestum, has a sublime effect more crowded, and in particular that from the desolation that surrounds it, the Erychtheum bears nearly the same and from the circumstance of there proportion to the Parthenon which being no eminence for many miles the observatory would do to the proto interfere with its stern and ve- posed edifice. If the monument to nerable form ; but there is no one Lord Nelson is an obstacle to such a who must not have felt that the building, nothing would be easier grandeur of this edifice would be en- than to pull it down and build up tirely lost if it was placed in a mo- another in some other situation more dern city, and overtopped by build- worthy of the hero to whom it is conings destined for the most ordinary secrated, and more consonant to the purposes. The Temple of Vesta, at public taste, which has improved so Tivoli, perched on the crag which remarkably since it was built. The overhangs the cataract, is admired by expense of such a proceeding would all the world; but the temple to the not be a fourth part of the cost of the same goddess, on the banks of the ground in any other central situation Tiber at Rome, is passed over without in the city. notice, though the intrinsic beauty of It is difficult to estimate the addithe one is nearly as great as that of tion which the Parthenon, if placed the other. To come nearer home, on the rock where Nelson's Monuthe Temple of St Bernard's Well is ment now stands, would make to the perhaps nearly as beautiful a building beauty of Edinburgh. To a stranger as the observatory on the Calton Hill, who enters the city from the London but no one we believe ever thought of Road, it would be the most splendid comparing the delight experienced by of all objects, both in approaching the the sight of the one to that which eastern slope of the Calton Hill, and the other produces ; and the county crowning the superb cliff that overrooms are built precisely, so far as the hangs the road immediately before columns go, on the model of the Erych- you enter Waterloo place. From the theum at Athens ; but no one who North Bridge it would rise in une