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It is to be found in a life conformed rest upon the means of art, but upon to the vocation of genius–a life sim- those natural means by which inherent ple and pure, of high desires and low- force can make itself telt; and its sucly seeming-a life guarded from the cess is no triumph of art, but a desintrusion of all purposes and passions potism won by violence over the spiwhich belong to the minds of others, rits of men. and not to its own destination. It is The eloquence of such speakers, thus that the originality of genius is powerful in their own day, does not to be preserved, by keeping inviolate remain to the nation—it does not bethe unity of life, by protecting to the come incorporated in the literature of mind the integrity of its inmost self. their country. For, written down, it

To feed its own strength from all is bereaved of its life. To language sources, from the works of others in which has no breath of life, which is study, from nature in natural life--to silent in its written character, art guard it, by exclusion of injury—to must supply that power over the readraise, refine, and purify thought, byer's mind, which the dominion of a cherishing within itself all gentle, fervid spirit held over the sympathy good, and generous affections and to of wondering hearers. The music of lift up its own hope by the conscious the words must come in place of the bearing within itself of a great and thrilling voice; the skill of their sea high purpose ;-these seem to be the lection must give the fulness of their means by which that power in the spi- meaning; and the whole structure of rit must be fostered, which is the first oration must bring forth that clearsource to eloquence, of its first ascen- ness to the understanding, and, by daney over the minds and hearts of the enchained succession of emotions, men.

that force of passion, which overpowBut besides this higher labour of ering sympathy brought almost in the mind, of which all perhaps ac- flashes upon the intellect, and in pulknowledge, as all must have felt the sations of the blood upon the heart. importance, there is a species of culti- And art, too, with its elaborate pervation, express to the art itself, that fection, must save the calm, collected, is to be exercised, which is not only vigilant mind, from every shock to its much neglected, but often disavowed purest highest judgment, which might -the cultivation of language itself, as have been borne down perhaps by the the means of eloquence.

torrent ot' ungovernable feeling. For the mind of high thought and To him who would write eloquence, impassioned sentiment, though it will the study of language itself is of inof itself break forth into overpowering dispensable necessity—a wide, intrieloquence, is not of itself able to make cate, and difficult 'study, in which its own eloquence beautiful or dur- books are at once necessary and danable. When the spirit of a man pours gerous guides—in which the field for itself forth in words into the ears of cultivation lies in nature, and yet the hstening, thronging men, it is not by art of cultivation calis us away from the words of his eloquence only that nature. he holds them all rapt in audience, The first study of language is the but in the tones of his voice, as they study of thought itself. For the pakindle from within, in his changing ramount law which every writer aslooks, and every unstudied gesture sumes to obey, is the law of the intele that bewrays the working of his mind lectual mind. If we write, we must, -in all that, from the living man in by art, follow the natural courses of a the fervour of his own transport, mind unfolding its own thoughts. We brings upon them more overwhelm- must be skilled in the processes of ingly the communication of his spirit thought, that it we are tempted for a -lies the spell of power by which he moment to write that which we intend, seizes on their sympathy, and subjects but for which the mind of our reader their mind to himself. Such eloquence is not yet prepared, we may at once reis no work of art: it is, in the living ject it. For we must lead him gradustrife of men, the ascendancy of power ally on. We have to shew him that which one wrests to himself over all which he does not know, to persuade the others; it is the sway of predomi- him of that which he does not believe; nating force; and therefore it does not and we must be guarded, not for a VOL. V.


moment to lose our hold upon his in- sion : in part, perhaps, among the retelligence, for we might not again re- mains of the language as it existed in cover it.

its primitive forins : and in great part, We must be skilful, then, to lead his unquestionably, in the happy interintelligence on with us, step by step. course of life, froin childhood upwards, We must be skilful, that is, to pursue whenever the words of living speech and to express natural processes of the have dropped with delight on our ears, mind in thought. But however inde- or sunk with deeper impression upon pendent of words the acts of the mind our hearts. may be (if they are ever entirely inde- It happens that we are told of one pendent), yet to him who is to give of the greatest writers of our language, them expression, they are involved in that he bestowed on it this peculiar words ; and he knows nothing of study. Multon studied, with love thought for the uses of eloquence, if he and diligent care, the words of English does not know it as it is interwoven with speech, that one day he might clothe language. We have to study, therefore, in them imperishable thoughts. And that curious and subtle structure of in the monuments of his genius, both human discourse, by which it is made in his prose and in his more powerful the fit and correspondent expression verse, we feel very strongly, and with to the natural inward workings of the unceasing admiration, the effect of his mind. We have to study the science of singular study and deep science of language, not merely in the laws of language. Neither Homer, nor Dante, its minuter structure, but in those nor Shakspeare, nor any who have laws and principles of the entire com- felt most strongly the trance of inspiraposition of discourse, by which it be- tion, have left us such memorable comes a vehicle for the utterance, in all examples of the power with which the its various moods and conditions of mind's conceptions may be imaged in action, of the action of the human words, and of the might that may be mind-a science of exceeding meta- involved in the very structure of physical subtlety.

speech. If his study of language This is the first study of language: is ever in excess, perhaps the cause is that study purely philosophical, which in those habits of his mind, which gave may be pursued in all languages, with to intellect altogether too great prea ditterent character in all :mand best dominance, if it may be said so, in his perhaps in those which are least fami- composition of poetry. If the fault liar to use.

of what is sometimes felt by us with The next is the study of the words painful obtrusion, lies with him and themselves of the language to be writ- not with ourselves, we should rather ten :—a study again curious and diffi- suppose that this excess of intellect cult; yet following quite a different has induced excess in the artifice of direction. For, in the study of the language, than that any argument is words of language, we seek to feel to be drawn from the writings of Miltheir beauty and power as parts of the ton, against the most studious cultivaliving speech of those by whom they tion of language. are spoken. This is less an intellectual No art can prosper which slights study. It is rather the cultivation of the materials by which it is to work. a delightful sense-of a perception In every art the productions of genius instinct with feeling, by which we re- are indeed nothing else than manifesceive upon our minds, with instan- tations of the mind itself in material taneous impression, the perfect force, forms. Then, as it respects itself, let it as it touches thought, love, and ima- honour the form in which it is to gination, of every WORD, which a appear. mighty people, for ages past, has used In fact, the study of the form by for the pregnant expresion-the vi- which the mind is to express itself, is vid image of some conception of the at the same time a study of that mind soul, in which thought, love, and ima- which is to find expression in such a gination do blend themselves together. form : which is obvious with regard to This ptrception of the force of words, language, the minuter studies of which is at once severely exact, delicate, and are plainly studies of the subtlest passionate. It is formed in rearling working of the intellectual facuities. the works of those who have written But the same truth holds, though not the language with the happiest expresa so apparently, of the other arts, of which


the material expression lies more re- Perhaps the exemplification of this mote from intellect.

careful and fond study of language is But the artist studies the material to be found more among poets than form of expression, not merely for that the writers of prose: because, in the investigation of his own mind, which composition of poetry, the mind atis included in the study of its means tempered to delight, feels more sensiof expressing itself'; but still more tively the exquisite form into which perhaps for their sakes to whom he the material expression of its concepaddresses himself by his art. He tions is wrought. And, on the same speaks to men : he calls on men account, the reader of poetry reads for their sympathy. Then he must with

awakened sensibility. submit himself to be governed by the Whence no poetry has great and perlaws, to which, in nature, their sym- manent hold upon the love of a people, pathy is subjected. If their senses in which their language is not used are impressed, and their imagining with great knowledge and delight of mind is held in fascination, by colours the words themselves of the language. and shapes, the painter or the sculptor Great writers in prose have, in some must be perfect in knowledge of those respects, a reputation and authority hues and forins which hold over their more independent of language : for spirit this mysterious sway. If men we read their writings in some degree have a mighty language of speech, and as works of science; looking through if, by a natural sensibility, or by in the expression to the thoughts. But herit d pride, their minds cleave to it this is only for the students of science. with strong association,--then he, To a nation, those writers only are whose art frames its works in speech, great who are eloquent: and those only must, for their sakes, with earnest are eloquent whose written words are study and reverend observance, gather music to living cars, and delight to the force of their speech, that when he beating hearts. uses it, he may command their minds.


(From Historie Memorabili della Citta di Bologna ristrette da Gaspare Bornbaci

pellc vitc di tre Huomini illustri, Antonio Lambertucci, Hanni Gozzadini, e Galeazzo Mariscotti. Dedicate all'Eminentissimo Prencipe Carlo Carafa Cardinul Legato.” 1666.]

Ma Editor,

principal place, and accordingly gives This work, from which I propose to name to the first book or division of make a few extracts, as being, in all the work. probability, very little known among After the famous defeat of the emEnglish readers, is written on a sin- peror Frederick II., before Parma, gular plan, but with great felicity, and the destruction of the fortified and even eloquence of style, and in camp to which, in the arrogance of the spirit of the best Italian historians. dominion, he had given the title of It comprises an outline of all the prin- “ the city of victory," the states which cipal events that had taken place in had embraced the party of the Guelphs the native city of its author, from the (which was then the cause of freedom earliest times to the commencement throughout Italy), began to elevate of the sixteenth century, that outline themselves upon the decline of the being filled up and enlarged into a re- imperial power; and, among others, gular history, in three particular pe- the citizens of Bologna reduced to riods of time; the first of which con- their subjection the towns of Faenza, tains the fatal and bloody fends of the Imola, and Forli, together with alLambertacci and Gieremei, from their nost all the surrounding territory of first origin, about the time of the Romagna. The progress of their conModenese war, in 1249, to the final quests at last alarmed the neighbourexpulsion of the Lambertacci in 1281, ing state of Modena, which was more an interval of thirty years, during justis excited by the detection of which Antonio Lambertacci, the lead. Nonantola and San Cesario, these er of one of the factions, occupies the places having voluntarily withdrawn

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themselves from its protection, to join The Carroccio of the Florentines is the Bolognese confederacy. The am- thus described by Ricordano Malesbassadors of Modena having in vain pini, (the venerable chronicler qucted demanded restitution of their alleged by Muratori in his Dissertation on the dependencies, both states prepared for Military System of the ruder ages.war, and the Modenese secretly See Atheneum, vol. I. p. 225.) strengthened themselves, by engaging “ The Carroccio was car on four the support of Enzo, or Henry, king wheels, painted all over of a vermillion coof Sardinia, (the emperor's bastard lour, on the top of which were elevated two son), who was then at Reggio with a large vermillion poles, supporting the grand numerous army, waiting an opportu- standard of the republic, half vermillion tunity to retrieve the honour lost by and half white. It was drawn by a pair of his father on several late occasions. great oxen, covered with vermillion cloth, The people of Bologna no sooner heard which were absolutely set apart for this serof this formidable accession to their city. This Carroccio was used by the an

vice, and the driver was a freeman of the enemies, than they sought to create cients as a sign of triumph and dignity; some balance of power, by inviting and, whenever they went out in host, the the Marquis of Este to assuine the of- knights and barons of the surrounding counfice of Podestà, an honour which, ac- try drew it into the market place, and there cording to the prevailing policy of the consigned it into the hands of the people, Italian republics, was always confer

who conducted it to the army. And for red on a foreigner, from the fear of the purpose of guarding it were selected the

most perfect, and valiant, and worthy, of entrusting private citizens with a dan

the citizens." The inhabitants of Florence, gerous pre-eminence. The Marquis, he adds, had, besides their Carroccio, a fahowever, thought it prudent to de

mous bell, which was rung night and day cline the offer, and the Bolognese, re- for a full month, before they sallied forth duced to the necessity of relying on on any expedition, by way of vaunting getheir own unaided force, bestowed the nerosity, to give fair warning to the enemy command on Philip Hugoni, a native of their intended march. And this bell, he of Brescia, who shortly afterwards says, was by some called Martinella, but took the field with an ariny ot' 20,000 by others, " the Bell of Asses,” and when That of Modena amounted on

they set out on their march, it was placed

on a wooden tower, in another car, which to 2,000 more, but possessed a great also accompanied the army. “. To these superiority, in being partly composed of the regular ani well-disciplined mass, and for other occasional services. troops of Germany, and commanded The machine was guarded by 1500 sol. by a general of great military talent diers, having for their captain some valiant and experience. Under such circum- knight, distinguished by the state with the stances, it appeared to many of the gift of a coat of mail, a sword, and a golden elders in council, the most prudent belt, and the payment of a public salary, a part to act on the defensive within the Italian republics, divided into centuries, did

thing unusual in those days, when the walls of their city, but the bolder

not pay their forces, but the citizens, withopinion prevailed, and the army out fee or reward, not only performed all marched on the direct road to Modena, warlike services for their parent state, but attended by all the principal nobility also contributed their assistance to her allies. of the state, and preceded by the Car- Whenever the Carroccio stopped, the army


likewise halted; there was the Prætorium, and from thence, as from the tribunal, the

commander harangued, issued his orders, This celebrated machine, which it is well and gave the word of battle. The squadknown, was not peculiar to Bologna, but rons, dispersed in fight, re-united themselves used by all, or most of the Italian republics, within its sacred enclosure, and set themis thus described in the work before us. selves in order to renew the engagement, "" It was a car ot' fine workmanship, support, and whenever it fell into the power of the ed on four wheels, in shape square, and con- enemy, the day was held for lost. It was taining within it ten men, completely arm- never brought into the field without the ed. In the midst of it was erected a pole, consent of all the different councils. In to which the standard was affixed, and the time of peace it was used at the meetings of pole itself terminated in a golden cross at idlustrious personages, or on certain great the top. The whole fabric was covered, as s lemnities was ordered out by the Antiani, well as the oxen by which it was drawn and (or inembers of the supreme council,) for the charioteer, with a red and white cloth, the purpose of gratifying and raising the suitable to the device of the city, and a spirits of the people by the image of their priest always accompanied it to perform ancient triumphs ?”

roccio. *

two pieces of parade, the Carroccio and the came after, covered with purple, drawn by Martinella, was limited the pride of our oxen, uniformly caparisoned, and guarded simple ancestors.” Malesp. Hist. Fior. by young noblemen, arrayed in cuirasses, cap. 161.

bearing long swords, and uncovered above The expedition ended as gloriously the shoulders. Then walked the prisoners as it was valiantly commenced; for, a with a proper escort, and among them many general engagement having at last German barons and others of note, the last taken place at the bridge of Sant Am being Enzo himself, sitting upon a mule, brosio, the Modenese and Germans of every eye. All admired the beauty and

the subject of all discourse, and the object were completely routed with great majesty of his countenance, which bore evi. slaughter, and the loss of no less than dence by every token of his royal descent. sono men made prisoners, among Nor were there wanting many, who, pitywhom we find the names of Rosio ing the ill fortune which had befallen the Dovara, lord of Cremona, Gerardo Pio, son of so great an emperor, stained the gloand Thomasino Gorzano, of the most ries of their country with the tears rather of illustrious houses of Modena, and to men than of citizens. Last appeared the Town the whole, of the unfortunate victorious general, on horseback, clad in a king of Sardinia himself. Antonio

robe of purple, crowned with laurel, and

followed by companies of soldiers armed Lambertacci, then a very young man, with breastplates, and also laurelled. To but already conspicuous for his talents, enjoy so magnificent a scene, not only were was not only the principal instrument the porticoes and the streets filled with in obtaining their great success by the spectators, but the very roofs were crowded, advice which he gave in council pre- and the ladies standing at their windows divious to the battle, but became still vided with the conquerors the general admore the object of applause and envy,

miration." by having, with his own hand, in sin

Equal in rank with Antonio, and gle combat, brought the king to the next to him in reputation for the conground, and compelled him to yield duet of this war, was Ludovico Gierehimself captive to his enemies. 'Im- mei (of whom mention has already mediately after the battle, he was se

been made); and from their rivalship lected to bear the good tidings of vic

on the present occasion, may be detory to the city, where he was received their families and of their native city.

duced all the subsequent calamities of with the loudest acclamations of gra- The first beginnings of this bloody distitude and joy. Meanwhile, Modena was invested by the conquering army,

sension are detailed, and the character and the Podestà, baving left to Ludo of the ambitious hero of a Republic vico Gieremei, (another noble Bolog. drawn, with considerable ability in nese) the conduct of the siege, repair

the passage which follows :ed himself to Bologna to participate in tation, endeavoured the more zealously to

“ Antonio having acquired a high repu. the ensuing triumph ; " a spectacle maintain and augment it by the acts of • unequalled in majesty and splendour by any

since the days of the Roman empire, ex. peace and the dignities of civil government, cept when Castruccio had discomfited the the more he was incited by the emulation army of Florence, and when Alphonso of Arragon had expelled King René, and ac- * The unfortunate king of Sardinia, after quired the throne of Naples. The streets having thus been made a public spectacle, through wbich the procession was to pass, was condemned to pass the remainder of his were decorated with triumphal arches, days in an honourable imprisonment, where, whereon were exhibited many symbolical to use the expression of our author, “ he. representations of victory. The ground was enjoyed every indulgence of royalty, except strewed with flowers, the halls were orna- his liberty. The emperor Frederic used mented with ancestral images, so that the his best endeavours, first with threats, afterdead seemed to be spectators of the triumph, wards with unbounded offers from his treaas well as the living. The Podestà, with sury, to procure the emancipation of his Antonio by his side, was met near the city son; but these sturdy republicans were by the nobility and all the populace. Then proof to the temptation, and constantly reentered, first, the trumpets and warlike in- fused to yield up, for any consideration, the struments of music ; the light cavalry fol. glory of retaining within their walls a royal lowed, and then the foot soldiers, crowned captive. Enzo, resigning at length the with oak. Behind them were trained along vain hopes of freedom, addicted himself enthe dust, the standards and ensigns of the tirely to the honourable pursuits of literaenemy, and the imperial eagles, while a dis- ture and the arts, and obtained a respectable play was made of the spoil, consisting of rank among the ancient Tuscan poets. He vessels of gold and silver, and all the furni- died in the 23d year of his captivity, and ture of the royal pavilion. The Carroccio was buried at Bologna with royal honours.

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