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church; which Mr. Jewell seeing, he guilefully bestoweth three whole leaves of his book to shew that these authorities did not directly prove the question of private mass, and sole receiving; and after those three leaves so spent in triumphing against him, he cometh in with his but, saying: But Mr. Harding will say, he allegeth all these doctors to another purpose; that is, to prove the sacrifice, gc., which he knew well enough before, but that he dissembled the matter to give himself somewhat to speak of, saith Mr. Rastall, for that he had heard Dr. Harding affirm expressly, that he alleged those fathers only for proof of the daily sacrifice of the church in general, and not for single communion, which Mr. Jewell calleth private mass : for which also he addeth this reason, for that albeit Mr. Jewell pretended enmity against private mass in word, yet indeed ħe extended his whole wit to abolish the unbloody and holy sacrifice of the church: and then, further, after his authorities alleged for proof of sacrifice, he concludeth in these words : Now, this presupposed, that the mass standeth upon good and sufficient grounds, let us come to our special purpose, and say somewhat of private mass.* How then could Mr. Jewell so mistake him, and come in with his But he will say,+ forsomuch as he had said it, and repeated it so plainly before ? Is not this a plain shift?

25. Many like examples may be alleged of this dissimulation, as whereas Dr. Harding, citing a The second er. plain place out of St. Irenæus for the prin- ample. cipality of the Church of Rome in his time, saying, that it is necessary that all churches do repair and resort to this, for the greater principality thereof : I and then another authority out of St. Ambrose, affirming to be in that city, apostolici sacerdotii principatum, —“the principality of the apostolic priesthood ”—Mr. Jewell to the first authority, as though it had made nothing to the purpose, frameth a long excursion, to shew against what heresy St. Irenæus did write, and why he commended so much Rome, and that he meaneth nothing of supremacy. And after much ado about this, the force of the objection being as it were forgotten, and his reader's mind diverted from the matter, he cometh in with his ordinary but in these words : But they will reply, that Irenæus saith, propter majorem principalitatem, all Christian churches must repair to Rome for the greater principality thereof; which he shifteth off as a matter of small moment, knowing well enough that therein stood the principal force of the argument, and that it was brought not by way of reply to a former answer, but as the first, and chief proof of the principal question. And is not this a deluding of the reader? The third er 26. And, in like manner, to the other places ample. of St. Ambrose, after Mr. Jewell had, for a show, discoursed at large of the ancient dignity, worthiness, and renown of the Church of Rome ; confirming also the same by the testimonies of St. Augustine and St. Chrysostom, concerning her zeal and ancient purity, but not for her principality of apostolic priesthood, he cometh in with his accustomed but, saying :* But St. Ambrose saith, apostolici sacerdotii principatuń, that Rome hath the principality of the apostolic priesthood; as though he had forgotten before that the chief strength of the authority standeth in these words, which now, by way of a slight objection, he would slenderly shift off: but every man seeth the deceit, and therefore I will say no more thereof.

* Harding, p. 24. of Jewell, p. 12. Irenæus, lib. 3, cap. 5.

§ Ambrose De Voc. Gent. lib. 2, cap. 16. [Although both Harding (Answer to Jewell's Challenge, p. 80) and Jewell ascribe this work to St. Ambrose, it is certainly the production of a more recent father, perhaps of St. Prosper or St. Leo.]

27. There remaineth then, to give an example or two of the last shift, or refelling one truth by another, whereof Mr. Rastall allegeth twelve examples, t but all are too many for this place; these few that follow shall suffice. Mr. Harding, for proof of communicating under one kind, allegeth the authority of St. Irenæus, which saith the Framples of custom to have been in his days, that when the fourth sletgbt bishops came to Rome, the eucharist was sent truth by ano unto them in token of their union in religion ;

whereunto Mr. Jewell, answering, saith, I that St. Paulinus sent also a loaf of bread to St. Augustine, and with this thinketh that he hath answered the matter.

* Jewell, p. 248. † Rastall, f. 156. Jewell, p. 40.

in refelling one


But, saith Mr. Rastall, both may be true, and one not overthrow the other; for that the bread sent by St. Paulinus to St. Augustine, in token of mutual friendship, being common bread, and not the eucharist, answereth not the force of Mr. Harding's argument, that speaketh of the eucharist and sacrament.

28. Again, Mr. Harding, treating of the Pope's supremacy, alleged these words of our Saviour to St. Peter: Thou art a rock, and upon this rock will I build my church.* Whereto Mr. Jewell, answering, saith : Christ is the rock, and upon Christ is built the church. Which is not denied, but rather both are true; neither the establishing of the one ought to overthrow the other. So, in like manner, Dr. Harding alleging an authority of St. Augustine to Pope Bonifacius, where he saith that the Church of Rome had principatum sedis apostolicæ" the principality of the apostolic see.” And against these words : Who is he that knoweth not (saith St. Augustine) that principality of apostleship is to be preferred before any other bishopric?+ Mr. Jewell answereth by this sleight: Socrates is called Prince of Philosophers, and Plato Prince of Orators, and Pompeius Prince of the World, und Elias Head of the Prophets; in which place princeps is taken, not for a head, or governor, but only for a man that, for his qualities, is to be esteemed above the rest ; and in this sense St. Augustine calleth the See of Rome, as it was in his time, principatum sedis apostolicæ, the principality of the see apostolic. I So Mr. Jewell; purposing to overthrow one truth by affirming the other, as Mr. Rastall noteth, for that no man denieth but that sometimes the word princeps and principatus may be so taken, but not always ; nor in the sense of St. Augustine, who speaketh of the eminency and principality of the See Apostolic of Rome above other bishops' sees: and so it will appear to him that shall read the place; and that this answer of Mr. Jewell indeed is but mere evasion.

* Matt. xvi.

f August. de Bapt. contra Donatist. lib. ii. n. 2. [Quis enim nescit illum apostolatus principatum cuilibet episcopatui præferendum ?- To the same effect a few lines before: . . . apostolum Petrum in quo primatus apostolorum tam excellenti gratiâ præeminet.]

# Jewell, p. 149.



How besides these escapes of Master Jewell, observed and

objected by others, I had noted also divers myself, by reading his Works, which I could not well answer or excuse: as neither some other alleged by Mr. Rastall, who objecteth thirteen several chapters of divers sorts of falsities.


These foresaid eight heads then of sleights and slippery conveyances are noted by the foresaid authors concerning Mr. Jewell's unsincere dealing, both in word and writing, which I, conferring with the books themselves, took marvellous great dislike thereof, and of myself did note three other heads not so distinctly observed by Mr. Rastall, though set down by another of that religion, and very familiar sometimes both in acquaintance with Mr. Rastall, and in diligent reading of his books, whom presently we a pernicious

me shall cite. The first of these two heads is the Sleight in mar. ordinary false citing of his adversary's words

and text, cutting off, and adding, leaving out, skipping over, piecing and tying together, as it best made to his purpose; yet pretending to the reader as though he set down his words wholly, where I confess that I found myself also deceived when I came to examine Dr. Harding's true text. And for that it would be over long to allege particular examples of this, the reader may be referred to Dr. Harding's last book, called the “ Detection.” But yet I cannot pretermit to set down the words of the other foresaid witness, which was at that time an earnest Protestant preacher, and, as before you have heard, of some familiarity also with Mr. Rastall himself, who, having read with much attention and judgment Mr. Jewell's books, amongst all other sleights, observed principally

this, which he testifieth afterward in print, writing as followeth.*

2. “Mr. Jewell, among many false practices, used this as one very apt to beguile the simple, and whereby I think at this present very many learned men are deceived, that is, from the discourse of his adversary he would cut out and remove from the sight of the reader the principal strength, were it Scripture, councils, fathers, or reason, whereby the adversary justified his cause, and after shuffle up some odd talk and impertinent allegations against the rest. For example, let the Defence of the Apology of the English Church' serve, where is no matter seriously handled, from the first beginning to the last line of the book, but the very pith and most forcible parts, as it were, the joints and sinews, are thus taken away and left out of the book, sometimes whole and many pages together, sometimes half-pages, sometimes four or five lines in a side, sometimes whole sentences or pieces of sentences, according as he thought requisite for the bettering of his cause and disgracing of his adversary; and yet, notwithstanding, he pieceth and patcheth up the rest, as though it were the full and perfect discourse of Dr. Harding. This is as much as if some bragging Thraso, appointed to combat with his enemy, should at the time of fight cause his enemy to be tied up in prison, and shew his chivalry upon a man made of clouts. This is, instead of a body to fight with a shadow. I will not exemplify this by any particularity, because I can assure the reader by certain experience, let him in that book fall upon what place he list, be shall hardly miss an example.” Thus Mr. William Reynolds of his own experience, which did not a little move and induce me to seek further.

3. The other head of sleights observed is The second sort concerning the disgracing or shifting off the an- vis cient fathers when they make against him, cient fathers. wherein though great multitude of examples may be given,

disgracing an.

* Mr. William Reynolds, in his Refutation of Mr. Whitaker, in the preface, p. 75. [The conversion of Reynolds to the Catholic faith is said to have been occasioned by his close examination of Jewell's works. A highly interesting memoir of him will be found in Dodd, ii. 65, folio ed.]

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