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Innuit: ergo vale nostri memor; et quoties te
Roma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino,
Me quoque ad Helvinam Cererem, vestramque Dianam 320
Convelle a Cumis: Satirarum ego (nî pudet illas)
Adjutor gelidos veniam caligatus in agros.

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Me Re Ar

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day

318. Mindful of me.] An usual way of O Rus, &c. lib. ii. sat. vi. 1. 60—2. takiug leave. See Hon. lib. iii. ode xxvii. -Your Aquinum.] A town in the 1. 14.

Latin way, famous for having been the Et memor nostri Galatea vivas. birthplace of Juvenal, and to which, at 319. Hastening to be refreshed.] The times, he retired. poets, and other studious persons, were 320. Helvine Ceres.] Helvinam Cerevery desirous of retiring into the country rem-Helvinus is used by Pliny to defrom the noise and hurry of Rome, note a sort of flesh-colour. Ainsw. in order to be refreshed with quiet and Something perhaps approaching the yel. repose.

lowish colour of corn. Also a pale redHor. lib. i. epist. xviii, 1. 104. colour-Helvus. Arnsw. But we may Me quoties reficit gelidus Digentia rivus, understand Ceres to be called Helvinus &c.

or Elvinus, which was near Aquinum. See also that most beautiful passage, Near the fons Helvinus was a temple of

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Hath hinted to me: therefore farewell mindful of me: and as

often as
Rome shall restore you, hastening to be refreshed, to your

Aquinum,
Me also to Helvine Ceres, and to your Diana,

320
Rend from Cumæ: I of your Satires (unless they are ashamed)
An helper, will come armed into your cold fields.

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Ceres, and also of Diapa, the vestiges caligati. It is used here metaphori-
of which are said to remain till this cally.
day.

I, (says Umbritius,) unless your Sa.
321. Rend from Cuma.] Convelle “ tires should be ashamed of my assist-
pluck me away, by which expression ance, will come, armed at all points,
Umbritius describes his great unwillinga “ to help you in your attacks upon the
ness to be taken from the place of his people and manuers of the times."
retreat, as if nothing but his friendship By this it appears that Umbritius was
for Juvenal could force him (as it were) himself a poet.
from it.

-Your cold fields.] Aquinum was si-
322. Armed, &c.] Caligatus—the ca tuated in a part of Campania much colder
liga was a sort of harness for the leg, than where Cumæ stood.
worn by soldiers, who hence were called

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SATIRA IV.

ARGUMENT.

From the luxury and prodigality of Crispinus, whom helashes 80

severely, sat. i. 26–9, Juvenal takes occasion to describe a
ridiculous consultation, held by Domitian over a large turbot;
which was too big to be contained in any dish that could be
found. The Poet, with great wit and humour, describes the
senators being summoned in this exigency, and gives a parti-
cular account of their characters, speeches, and advice. After
long consultation, it was proposed that the fish should be cut

ECCE iterum Crispinus ; et est mihi sæpe vocandus
Ad partes ; monstrum nulla virtute redemptum
A vitiis, æger, solâque libidine fortis :
Delicias viduæ tantum aspernatur adulter.
Quid refert igitur quantis jumenta fatiget
Porticibus, quanta nemorum vectetur in umbra,
Jugera quot vicina foro, quas emerit ædes ?
NEMO MALUS FELIX; minime corruptor, et idem
Incestus, cum quo nuper vittata jacebat

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Line 1. Again Crispinus.) Juvenal virtue to rescue him from the total do-
mentions him before, sat. i. 27. He was minion of his vices. Redemptum here
an Egyptian by birth, and of very low is metaphorical, and alludes to the state
extraction; but having the good fortune of a miserable captive, who is enslaved
to be a favourite of Domitian's, he came to a tyrant master, and has none to ran.
to great riches and preferment, and lived som him from bondage.
in the exercise of all kinds of vice and 3. Sick.) Diseased--perhaps full of
debauchery.

infirmities from his luxury and debauch-
2. To his parts.] A metaphor, taken ery. Æger also signifies weak, fee-
from the players, who, when they had ble. This sense too is to be here in-
finished the scene they were to act, re cluded, as opposed to fortis.
tired, but were called again to their parts, -And strong in lust, &c.] Vigorous
as they were successively to enter and and strong in the gratification of his
carry on the piece,

sensuality only.
Thus Juvenal calls Crispinus again, to 4. The adulterer despises, &c.] q. d.
appear in the parts, or characters, which Crispinus, a common adulterer, sins only
he has allotted him in his Satires. from the love of vice; he neither pre-

-By no virtue, &c.] He must be a tends interest or necessity, like those
monster indeed, who had not a single who sold their favours to lascivious wi-

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SATIRE IV.

ARGUMENT.

be a boti dk

to pieces, and so dressed : at last they all came over to the opinion of the senator Montanus, that it should be dressed whole; and that a dish, big enough to contain it, should be made on purpose for it. The council is then dismissed, and the Satire concludes; but not without a most severe censure on the emperor's injustice and cruelty towards some of the best and most worthy of the Romans.

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BEHOLD again Crispinus! and he is often to be called by me
To his parts:

a monster by no virtue redeemed
From vices-sick, and strong in lust alone:
The adulterer despises only the charms of a widow.
What signifies it, therefore, in how large porches he fatigues
His cattle, in how great a shade of groves he may be carried,
How many acres near the forum, what houses he may have

bought ?
NO BAD MAN IS HAPPY: least of all a corrupter, and the same
Incestuous, with whom there lay, lately, a filletted

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dows, in hopes of being their heirs. Sat. piece of luxury was to be carried in lit-
i. 38–42. He was too rich for this, ters among the shady trees of their
but yet too wicked not to gratify his pas- groves, in sultry, weather.
sions in the most criminal manner: he 7. Acres near the forum.] Where land
would not intrigue with a widow, lest he was the most valuable, as being in the
should be suspected to have some other midst of the city.
motives than mere vice; therefore he -What houses, &c.] What purchases
despises this, though he avoided no other he may have made of houses in the same
species of lewdness.

lucrative situation. Comp. sat. i. 1. 105.
5. In how large porches, &c.] It was a and note.
part of the Roman luxury to build vast 8. No bud man, &c.] This is one of
porticos in their gardens, under which those passages, in which Juvenal speaks
they rode in wet or hot weather, that more like a Christian, than like an hea.
they might be sheltered from the rain, then. Comp. Is. lvii. 20, 21.
and from the too great heat of the sun. -A corrupter.] A ruiner, a debau,
Jumentum signifies any labouring beast, cher of women.
either for carriage or draught. Sat. iii. 9. Incestuous.) Incestus-from in and
316.

castus in general is used to denote that 6. How great a shade, &c.]. Another species of unchastity, which consists in

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Sanguine adhuc vivo terram subitura sacerdos.
Sed nunc de factis levioribus; et tamen alter
Si fecisset idem, caderet sub judice morum.
Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio, Seioque, decebat
Crispinum : quid agas, cum dira, et foedior omni
Crimine persona est? mullum sex millibus emit,
Æquantem sane paribus sestertia libris,
Ut perhibent, qui de magnis majora loquuntur.
Consilium laudo artificis, si munere tanto
Præcipuam in tabulis ceram senis abstulit orbi.
Est ratio ulterior, magnæ si misit amicæ,
Quæ vehitur clauso latis specularibus antro.

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defiling those who are near of kin—but, tial was Domitian to his favourite Crispiin the best authors, it signifies unchaste; nus, that what would be reckoned shame. also guilty, profane. As in Hor. lib. ful, and be punished as a crime, in good jii. ode ii. 1. 29.

men, was esteemed very becoming in -Sæpe Diespiter

him. Neglectus incesto addidit integrum.

Titius, or Seius.] It does not appear In this place it may be taken in the who these were ; . but probably they sense of profane, as denoting that sort of were some valuable men, who had been unchastity which is mixed with profane- persecuted by the emperor

for some ness, as in the instance which follows, of supposed offences. See this sat. l. 151, defiling a vestal virgin.

2. 9, 10. A filletted priestess.] The ves 14. What can you do, &c.] q. d. What tal virgins, as priestesses of Vesta, had can one do with such a fellow as Crispifillets bound round their heads, made of nus? what signifies satirizing his crimes, ribbons, or the like.

when his person is more odious and abo10. With blood us yet alive.] The vestal minable than all that can be mentioned ? virgins vowed chastity, and if any

broke What he

IS,

is so inuch worse than what their vow, they were buried alive ; by he does, that one is at a loss how to a law of Numa Pompilius their founder. treat him.

11. Lighter deeds.) i. e. Such faults This is a most severe stroke, and inas, in comparison with the preceding, are troduces what follows on the gluttony trivial, yet justly reprehensible, and and extravagance of Crispinus. would be so deemed in a character less 15. A mullet.] Mullus a sea fish, of abandoned than that of Crispinus, in a red and purple colour, therefore called whom they are in a manner eclipsed by mullus, from mulleus, a kind of red or greater.

purple shoe, worn by senators and great 12. Under the judge, &c.) This seems persons. Ainsw. I take this to be what to be a stroke at the partiality of Domi is called the red mullet, or mullus bartian, who punished Maximilla, a vestal, batus; by some rendered barbel. Hoand those who had defiled her, with the race speaks of this fish as a great greatest severity. Suet. Domit. ch. viii. dainty: See note 2. on 1. 60.

Laudas insane, trilibrem Crispinus was a favourite, and so he Mullumwas suffered to escape punishment, how

HOR. sat, ii. lib. ii. 1. 33, 4. ever much he deserved it, as was the So that about three pounds was their vestal whom he defiled, on the same ac usual weight: that it was a rarity to find

them larger, we may gather from his Suet. says, that Domitian, particularly saying, l. 36. His breve pondus. -Morum correctionem exercuit in ves But Crispinus meets with one that tales.

weighed six pounds, and, rather than 13. What would be base, &c.] So par not purchase it, he pays for it the enor

count.

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