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Had drawn astonished, and compelled to hasten,
As if something concerning the Catti, and the fierce Sicambri
He was about to say; as if from different parts of the world
An alarming epistle had come with hasty wing.

149
And I wish that rather to these trifles he had given all those
Times of cruelty, in which he took from the city renowned
And illustrious lives with impunity, and with no avenger.
But he perished, after that to be fear'd by coblers
He had begun: this hurt him reeking with slaughter of the

Lamiæ.

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pifies any low mechanics, such as cob- away, and afterwards put the husband
lers, and the like. Cerdonibus stands to death.
here for the rabble in general.

The Lamiæ here may stand for the
While Domitian only cut off, now nobles in general, (as before the cerdo
and then, some of the nobles, the people nes for the rabble in general,) who had
were quiet, however amazed they might perished under the cruelty of Domitian,
be, (comp. 1. 77.) but when he extended and with whose blood he might be said
his cruelties to the plebeians, means to be reeking, from the quantity of it
were devised to cut him off, which was which he had shed during his reign.
done by a conspiracy formed against He died ninety-six years after Christ,
him. See Ant. Un. Hist. vol. xv. p. aged forty-four years, ten months, and
87.

twenty-six days. He reigned fifteen 154. The Lamiæ.] The Lamian family years and five days, and was succeeded was most noble. See Hor. lib. iii. ode by Nerva ; a man very unlike hini, being xvii. Of this was Ælius Lama, whose a good man, a good statesman, and a wife, Domitia Longina, Domitian took goud soldier.

1

SATIRA V.

ARGUMENT.

The Poet dissuades Trebius, a parasite, from frequenting the

tables of the great, where he was certain to be treated with the utmost scorn and contempt. Juvenal then proceeds to

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SI te propositi nondum pudet, atque eadem est mens,
Ut bona summa putes alienâ vivere quadra;
Si potes illa pati, quæ nec Sarmentus iniquas
Cæsaris ad mensas, nec vilis Galba tulisset,
Quamvis jurato metuam tibi credere testi.
Ventre nihil novi frugalius : hoc tamen ipsum
Defecisse puta, quod inani sufficit alvo,
Nulla crepido vacat? nusquam pons, et tegetis pars
Dimidiâ brevior? tantine injuria cænæ ?

5

Argument, line 1. Parasite.] From rada, this parasite sought his chief happiness to, and Oitos, corn; anciently signified an in the present gratification of his sensual officer under the priests who had the appetite, at the tables of the rich and care of the sacred corn, and who was in- great. vited as a guest to eat part of the sacri --Another's trencher.] Quadra significe. Afterwards it came to signify a fies, literally, a square trencher, from sort of flatterer, a buffoon, who was in- its form : but here, aliena vivere quadra vited to great men's tables by way of is to be taken metonymically, to signify, sport, and who, by coaxing and flattery, living at another's table, or at another's often got into favour. See sat. i. 1. 139, expence. and note.

3. Sarmentus.] A Roman knight, who, 1. Of your purpose.] Your determina. by his fattery and buffoonery, insition to seek for admittance at the tables nuated himself into the favour of Auof the great, however ill you may be gustus Cæsar, and often came to his treated.

table, where he bore all manuer of 2. Highest happiness.] Summa bona. scoffs and affronts. See Hor. lib. i. Perhaps Juvenal here adverts to the va sat. v. l. 51, 2. rious disputes among the philosophers 3, 4. The unequal tubles.] Those enabout the summum bonum, or chief tertainments were called iniquæ mensæ, good of man. To enquire into this was where the same food and wine were not the design of Cicero in his celebrated provided for the guests as for the master. five books De Finibus, wherein it is sup- This was often the case, when great men posed all along, that man is capable of invited parasites, and people of a lower attaining the perfection of happiness in kind ; they sat before them a coarser this life, and he is never directed to sort of food, and wine of an inferior look beyond it: upon this principle, kind.

SATIRE V.

ARGUMENT.

stigmatize the insolence and luxury of the nobility, their treatment of their poor dependents, whom they almost suffer to starve, while they themselves fare deliciously.

is the same,

IF

you are not yet ashamed of your purpose, and your mind That you can think it the highest happiness to live from an

other's trencher ; If you can suffer those things, which neither Sarmentus at

the unequal Tables of Cæsar, nor vile Galba could have borne, I should be afraid to believe you as a witness, tho?

upon

oath. I know nothing more frugal than the belly: yet suppose even

that To have failed, which suffices for an empty stomach, Is there no hole vacant? no where a bridge? and part of a rug Shorter by the half? is the injury of a supper of so great value?

4. Galba.] Such another in the time ways were common stands for beggars. of Tiberius.

Sat, iv, 116. 5. Afraid to believe.] q.d. If you can 9. Shorter by the half.] Teges signifies submit to such treatment as this, for no a coarse rug, worn by beggars to keep other reason than because you love eat them warm. q. d. Is no coarse rug, or ing and drinking, 1 shall think you so even a bit of one, to be gotten to cover void of all right and honest principle, your nakedness ? that I would not believe what you say, - Is the injury of a supper, &c.] Is it though it were upon oath.

worth while to suffer the scoffs and af6. Nothing more frugal.] The mere fronts which you undergo at a great demands of nature are easily supplied ; man's table? Do you prize these so hunger wants not delicacies.

highly as rather to endure them than be Suppose even thut, &c.] However, excluded, or than follow the method suppose that a man has not wherewithal which I propose ? Comp. 1. 10, 11. to procure even the little that nature I should observe, that some are for inwants to satisfy his hunger.

terpreting injuria conæ by injuriosa 8. Is there no hole, &c.] Crepido, a hole coena: 30 Grangius, who refers to VIRG, or place bythe highway, where beggars sit. Æn. iii. 256. injuria cædis-pro-cæde

-A bridge.] The bridges on the high- injuriosa ; but I cannot think that this

VOL. ).

T

10

15

Tam jejuna fames; cum possis honestius illic
Et tremere, et sordes farris mordere canini?

Primo fige loco, quod tu discumbere jussus
Mercedem solidam veterum capis officiorum :
Fructus amicitiæ magnæ cibus: imputat hunc Rex,
Et quamvis rarum, tamen imputat. Ergo duos post
Si libuit menses neglectum adhibere clientem,
Tertia ne vacuo cessaret culcitra lecto,
Una simus, ait: votorum summa; quid ultra
Quæris? habet Trebius, propter quod rumpere somnum
Debeat, et ligulas dimittere ; sollicitus, ne
Tota salutatrix jam turba peregerit orbem
Sideribus dubiis, aut illo tempore, quo se
Frigida circumagunt pigri sarraca Boötæ.

20

comes up to the point, as the reader 10. Is hunger so craving.] As to drive may see by consulting the passage, which you into all this, when you might sathe Delphin interpreter expounds by tisfy it in the more honourable way of injuria cædis nobis illatæ; and so I con. begging ? ceive it ought to be; and if sc, it is no - More honestly.] With more reputaprecedent for changing injuria cænæ tion to yourself. into injuriosa cæna. However, it is There.] At a stand for beggars. certain that this is adopted in the Vario 11. Tremble.] Shake with cold, having rum edition of Schrevelius; Tantine tibi nothing but a part of a rug to cover est injuriosa et contumeliosa cæna; ut yon, l. 8,9. Or, at least, pretending it, propter eam turpissimum adulatorem in order to move compassion. velis agere, et tot mala, tot opprobria et 11. Gnaw the filth, 8.c.] Far literally contumelias potius perferre velis, quam signifies all manner of corn; also meal mendicare? LUBIN. To this purpose and flour-hence bread made thereof. Marshall, Prateus, and others. Doubt- A coarser sort was made for the common less this gives an excellent sense to the people, a coarser still was given to dogs. passage ; but then this is come at, by But perhaps the poet, by farris canini, supposing that Juvenal says one thing means, what was spoiled, and grown a::d means another: for he says, injuria musty and hard, by keeping, only fit to cænæ, literally, the injury of a supper; be thrown to the dogs. i. e. the injury sustained by Nævolus, The substance of this passage seems to the indignity and affronts which he met be this, viz. that the situation of a comwith when he went to Virro's table. mon beggar, who takes his stand to ask The poet asks, tantine injuria, not tan- alms, though half naked, shaking with tine coná, meaning, as I conceive, a cold, and forced to satisfy his hunger sarcasm on the parasite for his attendance with old hard crusts, such as were given where he was sure to undergo all man to the dogs, ought to be reckoned far ner of contempt and ill treatment, as more reputable, and therefore more elithough he were so abject as to prefer giblé, than those abject and scandalous this, and hold it in high estimation, in means by which the parasite subsisted, comparison with the way of life which 12. Fix, 8c.] Fix it in your hand, as Juvenal recommends as more lionour. a certain thing, in the first place. able. Hence the explavation of the -To sit down at table.] Discumbere passage which I have above given ap- lit, means to lie down, as on a couch, afpears to me to be most like the poet's ter the manner of the Romans at their meaning, as it exactly coincides with his meals. manner of expression. I would lastly 13. A solid reward.] Whatever serobserve, that Prateus, Delph. edit. in. vices you may have rendered the great terprets, tantine injuria ccnæ ? by, an man, he thinks that an invitation to suptanti est contumelia convivij?

per is a very solid and full recompence.

10

15

Is hunger so craving, when you might, more honestly, there
Both tremble, and gnaw the filth of dogs?-meat ?

11
Fix in the first place, that you, bidden to sit down at table,
Receive a solid reward of old services :
Food is the fruit of great friendship: this the great man reckons,
And tho' rare, yet he reckons it. Therefore if, after two 15
Months, he likes to invite a neglected client,
Lest the third pillow should be idle on an empty bed,
“Let us be together," says he.- It is the sum of your wishes

-what more
Do you seek ? Trebius has that, for which he ought to break
His sleep, and leave loose his shoe-ties; solicitous lest 20
The whole saluting crowd should have finished the circle,
The stars dubious, or at that time, in which the
Cold wains of slow Bootes turn themselves round.

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cant.

14. Food is the fruit, &c.] A meal's site with whom Juvenal is supposed to meat (as we say) is a}} you get by your be conversing. friendly offices, but then they must have -For which he ought, &c.] Such a fabeen very great. Or magnæ amicitiæ vour as this is sufficient to make him may nean, as in sat. iv. l. 74, 5. the think that he ought, in return, to break friendship of a great man, the fruit of his rest, to rise before day, to hurry himwhich is an invitation to supper, self to the great man's levee in such a

-The great man reckons, &c.] Rex- manner as to forget to tie his shoes; to lit. a king, is often used to denote any run slip-shod, as it were, for fear he great and high personage. See sat. i. should seem tardy in paying his re.. 136. He sets it down to your account; spects, by not getting there before the however seldom you may be invited, yet circle is completely formed, wbo meet to he reckons it as a set-off against your pay their compliments to the great man. services. Hunc relates to the preced- See sat. iii. 127-30. where we find one ing cibus.

of these early levees, and the hurry 17. Lest the third pillow, &c.] 4. d. which people were in to get to Only invites you to fill up a place at his them. table, which would be otherwise va Ligula means not only a shoe-latchet,

or shoe-tie, but any ligature which is neIn the Roman dining room was a ta cessary to tie any part of the dress; so ble in fashion of an half-moon, against a lace, or point-ligula cruralis, a garthe round part whereof they sat three ter. Ainsw. beds, every one containing three-per 22. The stars dubious.] So early, that sons, each of which had a (culcitra) pil- it is uncertain whether the little light low to lean upon : they were said, dis- there is be from the stars, or from the cumbere, to lie at meat upon a bed. first breaking of the morning. " What We say, sit at table, because we use “ is the night?"-" Almost at odds with chairs, on which we sit.

"worning, which is which.” Shak. See VIRG. Æn. i. 1. - 712. Toris jussi Macb. act. iii. sc. iv. discumbere pictis.

22, 3. The cold wains.) Sarraca, plur. 18. "Let us be together," says he.] Sup- the wain consisting of many stars. Friposed to be the words of some great gida, cold-because of their proximity man, inviting in a familiar way, the to the north pole, which, from thence, is more to enhance the obligation. called Arcticus polus. See AINSW.

um of your wishes.] The sum 23. Bootes.] A constellati near the total of all your desires-what can you Ursa Major,or Great Bear-Gr. Bourns think of farther?

Lat. bubulcus, an herdsman-he that 19. Trebius.] The name of the para- ploughs' with oxen, or tends them.

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The sum

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