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Subtrahitur, clivoque latus pendente recedit.

Illam ego non tulerim, quæ computat, et scelus ingens 650
Sana facit. Spectant subeuntem fata mariti
Alcestim ; et, similis si permutatio detur,
Morte viri

cuperent animam servare catellæ. Occurrent multæ tibi Belides, atque Eriphylæ : Mane Clytemnestram nullus non vicus habebit.

Hoc tantum refert, quod Tyndaris illa bipennem
Insulsam et fatuam, dextrà lævâque tenebat :
At nunc res agitur tenui pulmone rubetæ;
Sed tamen et ferro, si prægustårit Atrides
Pontica ter victi cautus medicamina regis.


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651. While in her sound mind.] In cold ing to the siege of Troy, where he was blood, as we say,

sure he should die. Alceste, &c.] The wife of Admetus, 655. Clytemnestra.] The daughter of king of Thessaly, who being sick, sent Tyndarus, and wife of Agamemnon, to the oracle, and was answered that he who living in adultery with Ægisthus, must needs die, unless one of his friends during her husband's absence at the would die for him: they all refused, and siege of Troy, conspired with the adul. then she voluntarily submitted to die terer to murder him út his return, and for him.

would have slain her son Orestes also ; The ladies of Rome saw a tragedy on but Electra, his sister, privately conthis subject frequently represented at veyed him to king Strophius. After he the theatres; but, so far from imitating was come to age, returning to Argos, he Alceste, they would sacrifice their hus- slew both his mother and her gallant. bands to save the life of a favourite 656. What Tyndaris.] i.e. That daughpuppy-dog.

ter of Tyndarus-Clytemnestra. · Juve654. Belides.] Alluding to the fifty nal, by the manner of expression, illa daughters of Danaus, the son of Belus, Tyndaris, means to insinuate, that this who all, except one, slew their husbands name belonged to others beside her, on the wedding-night. See Hon. lib. viz. to many of the Roman ladies of his iii. ode xi. 1. 25-40.

time, --Eriphylæ.] i. e. Women like Eri

656, 7, Held u stupid and foolish are, phyla, the wife of Amphiarus, who for &c.] The only difference between her à bracelet of gold discovered her hus- and the modern murderers of their husband, when he hid himself to avoid go- bands is, that Clytemnestra, without




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Is withdrawn, and the side recedes from the hanging cliff.
I could not bear her, who deliberates, and commits a great

650 While in her sound mind. They behold Alceste undergoing

the fate
Of her husband, and, if a like exchange were allowed,
They would desire to preserve the life of a lap-dog by the

death of an husband.
Many Belides will meet you, and Eriphylæ :
No street but will have every morning a Clytemnestra.

This is the only difference, that that Tyndaris held a stupid
And foolish axe, with her right hand and her left:
But now the thing is done with the small lungs of a toad;
But yet with a sword too, if cautious Atrides has beforehand

The Pontic medicines of the thrice-conquer'd king. 660

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any subtle contrivance, but only with a whom the modern Clytemnestra is de-
foolish, bungling axe, killed her hus- termined to murder, for the sake of a
band. Comp. Hor. lib. i. sat. i. 99, gallant. Thus he carries on the severe,
100. Whereas the Roman ladies, with but humourous parallel, between the an-
great art and subtlety, destroy theirs, cient and modern scenes of female trea-
by insinuating into their food some la- chery, lust, and cruelty.
tent poison, curiously extracted from 650. The Pontic medicines, &c.] Mi-

venomous animal. See sat. i. thridates, king of Pontus, invented a 70.

medicine, which, after him, was called 659. With a sword too, &c.] Not but Mithridate; here the Pontic medicine, they will go to work as Clytemnestra an antidote against poison. did, rather than fail, if the wary hus - Thrice-conquer'd king.] He was conband, suspecting mischief, has prepared quered by Sylla, then by Lucullus, and and taken an antidote to counteract the then by Pompey. After which, it is poison, so that it has no effect upon said, he would have poisoned himself

, him.

but he was so fortified by an antidote -Atrides.] Agamemnon, the son of which he had invented, and had often Atreus. Juvenal uses this name, as de- taken, that no poison would operate scriptive of the situation of the husband, upon him.


aer, his

e, er



his las the lal

This Satire is addressed to Telesinus, a poet. Juvenal laments

the neglect of encouraging learning. That Cæsar only is the patron of the fine arts. As for the rest of the great and noble Romans, they gave no heed to the protection of poets,




et ratio studiorum in Cæsare tantum :
Solus enim tristes håc tempestate camænas
Respexit; cum jani celebres, notique poëtæ
Balneolum Gabiis, Romæ conducere furnos
Tentarent; nec fædum alii, nec turpe putarent
Præcones fieri ; cum desertis Aganippes
Vallibus, esuriens migraret in atria Clio. eeeee
Nam si Pieriâ quadrans tibi nullus in umbrâ
Ostendatur, ames nomen, victumque Machæræ ;
Et vendas potius, commissa quod auctio vendit



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Line 1. The hope and reason, &c.] i. e. 6. Criers.] Præcones-whose office at The single expectation of learned men, Rome was to proclaim public meetings, that they shall have a reward for their public sales, and the like a very mean labours, and the only reason, therefore, employment; but the poor starving poets, for their employing themselves in liberal disregarded this circumstance" any studies, are reposed in Cæsar only. Do "thing rather than starve”-and indeed, mitian seems to be meant; for though he however meanly this occupation might was a monster of wickedness, yet Quin- be looked upon, it was very profitable. tilian, Martial, and other learned men, See sat. iii. l. 157, note. tasted of his bounty. Quintilian says of -Aganippe.] A spring in the solitary him, "Quo nec præsentius aliquid, nec part of Boeotia, consecrated to the nine “ studiis magis propitium numen est.” Muses, See 1. 20, 1.

7. Hungry Clio.] One of the nine 2. The mournful Muses.] Who may be Muses, the patroness of heroic poetry: supposed to lament the sad condition of here, by meton, put for the starving poet, their deserted and distressed votaries. who is forced, by his poverty, to leave

4. Bath at Gabii, &c.] To get a liveli- the regions of poetry, and would fain hood by. Gabii was a little city near beg at great men's doors. Atrium signiRome. Balneolum, a small bagnio. fies the court, or court-yard, before great

-Ovens.] Public bakehouses, where men's houses, where these poor poets are people paid so much for baking their supposed to stand, like other beggars, to bread,

ask alms,




historians, lawyers, rhetoricians, grammarians, &c. These last were not only ill paid, but even forced to go to law, for the poor pittance which they had earned, by the fatigue and labour of teaching school.

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BOTH the hope, and reason of studies, is in Cæsar only:
For he only, at this time, hath regarded the mournful Muses,
When now our famous and noted poets would try
To hire a small bath at Gabii, or ovens at Rome:
Nor would others think it mean, nor base,

To become criers; when, the valleys of Aganippe
Being deserted, hungry Clio would migrate to court-yards.
For if not a farthing is shewn to you in the Pierian shade,

love the name, and livelihood of Machæra; And rather sell what the intrusted auction sells


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8. In the Pieriun shade.] See sat. iv. I does. 35, note. q. d. If by passing your time, 10. Intrusted.] So Holyday. Comas it were, in the abodes of the Muses, missus signifies any thing committed to no reward or recompence is likely to be one's charge, or in trust. Comp. sat. ix. obtained for all your poetical labours. 1. 93–96. Some read arca--but Pieria umbra seems Goods committed to sale by public best to carry on the humour of the meto auction are intrusted to the auctioneer Dymy in this and the preceding line. in a twofold respect—first, that he sell

9. Love the name, &c.] Machæra seems them at the best price; and, secondly, to denote the name of some famous crier that he faithfully account with the owner of the time, whose business it was to no for the produce of the sales. tify sales by auction, and, at the time of Commissa may also allude to the comsale, to set a price on the goods, on which mission, or licence, of the magistrate, the bidders were to increase; hence such by which public sales in the forum were a sale was called auctio. See Ainsw. appointed. Præco, No. 1.

Some understand commissa auctio in q. d. If you find yourself pennyless, a metaphorical sense, alluding to the and so likely to continue by the exercise contention among the bidders, who, like of try, then, instead of thinking it gladiators matched in fight, commissi, below you to be called a crier, you may (see sat. i. 163, note,) oppose and encordially embrace it, and be glad to get gage against each other iu their several a liveliňood by auctions, as Machæra biddings,

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Stantibus, oenophorum, tripodes, armaria, cistas,
Alcithoen Paccì, Thebas et Terea Fausti.
Hoc satius, quam si dicas sub judice, Vidi,
Quod non vidisti: faciant equites Asiani,
Quanquam et Cappadoces faciant, equitesque Bithyni,
Altera quos nudo traducit Gallia talo.
Nemo tamen studiis indignum ferre laborem
Cogetur posthac, nectit quicunque canoris
Eloquium vocale modis, laurumque momordit. .
Hoc agite, ô Juvenes: circumspicit, et stimulat vos,
Materiamque sibi ducis indulgentia quærit.

putas rerum expectanda tuarum
Præsidia, atque ideo croceæ membrana tabella
Impletur; lignorum aliquid posce ocyus, et quæ
Componis, dona Veneris, Telesine, marito:
Aut claude, et positos tineâ pertunde libellos.
Frange miser calamos, vigilataque prælia dele,
Qui facis in parvâ sublimia carmina cellâ,
Ut dignus venias hederis, et imagine macrå.

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open court.

11. To the standers by.] i. e. The peo- and were in high favour, and shared in ple who attend the auction as buyers. titles and honours.

12. The Alcithoethe Thebes, &c.] 16. The other Gaul, &c.] Gallo-Græcia, Some editions read Alcyonem Bacchi,&c. or Galatia, another country of Asia MiThese were tragedies written by wretched nor; from hence came slaves, who, like poets, which Juvenal supposes to be others, were exposed to sale with naked sold, with other lumber, at an auction. feet. Or it may rather signify, that these

13. Thun if you said, &c.] This, mean wretches (however afterwards highly hoas it may appear, is still getting your noured) were so poor, when they first bread honestly, and far better than came to Rome, that they had not so hiring yourself out as a false witness, much as a shoe to their feet. and forswearing yourself for a bribe, in The poet means, that getting honest

bread, in however mean a way, was to 14. The Asiatic knights.] This satirizes be preferred to obtaining the greatest afthose of the Roman nobility, who had fluence, as these fellows did, by knafavoured some of their Asiatic slaves so

very. much, as to enrich them sufficiently to 16. Brings over.] Traducit signifies to be admitted into the equestrian order. bring, or convey, from one place to anThese people were, notwithstanding, other. It is used to denote transplanting false, and not to be trusted.

trees, or other plants, in gardens, &c.' Minoris Asice populis nullam fidem esse : and is a very significant word here, to

adhibendam. Cic. pro Flacco. denote the transplanting, as it were, of . 15. The Cappadocians.] Their country these vile people from the east to Rome. bordered on Armenia. They were like 18. That joins, &c.] The perfection of the Cretans, (Tit. i. 12.) liars and dis- heroic poetry, which seems here inhonest to a proverb ; yet many of these tended, is the uniting grand and lofty found means to make their fortunes at expression, eloquium vocale, with tuneRome.

ful measures, modis canoris, -The knights of Bithynia.] Bithynia Vocalis signifies sometimes loud-maka was another eastern province, a country ing a noise-therefore, when applied to of Asia Minor, from whence many such poetry, lofty-high-sounding.-4. d. No people, as are above described, came, writer, hereafter, who excels in uniting

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