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Ne faciant vicibus. Non est leve tot puerorum
Observare manus, oculosque in fine trementes.
Hæc, inquit, cures ; sed cum se verterit annus,
Accipe, victori populus quod postulat, aurum.

should fall into lewd and bad practices whatever the precise value of the auamong themselves.

This is the sub rum mentioned here might be, the poet stance of this, and the two following evidently means to say, that the gram. lines, which had better, as some other marian does not get more for a whole passages in Juvenal, be paraphrased year's labour in teaching, and watching than translated.

over a boy's morals, than a victorious 242. When the year, &c.] When the fencer, or sword-player, gets by a single year comes round at the end of the battle won upon the stage, viz. about year.

41. (or rather about 51.) of our money, 243. Accept a piece of gold.] Aurum. which Marshal, after Vet. Schol. says, The Roman

aureus (according to Ainsw. was the stated sum, and which was not Val. and Proportion of Roman coins) to be exceeded. was about 11, 9d. of our money : but, 243. Which the people require.] When

And corrupt each other : it is no light matter to watch 240
The conduct of so many boys, and their wanton looks.
These things, says he, take care of—but when the year turns

itself,
Accept a piece of gold, which the people require for a conqueror.

of the a 2, the pe the gras

ous,

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a fencer, or gladiator, came off victori- poet evidently, supposes to be no more

the Roman people required the than the perquisite of a common gladiaquinque aurei to be given 10 him by the tur that had come off conqueror: even prætor, tribune, or other person, who this was five times as much as a lawyer gave and presided at the show. This got by a cause. Comp. I. 122. passage is, by some, referred to Mart. Thus Juvenal concludes this Satire, lib. x. epigr. 74. where he mentions one having fully accomplished his purpose; Scorpus, a famous charioteer, who, by which was to shew, by many instances, being victor in a chariot-race, carried the shameful neglect of learning and off, one hour's time, fifteen sacks full science, as well as of the professors of of gold.

But this does not seem to them, which then prevailed among the agree with what Juvenal says of the nobility of Rome. gains of the poor grammarian, which the

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SATIRA VIII.

ARGUMENT.

In this Satire the Poet proves, that true nobility does not consist

in statues and pedigrees, but in honourable and good actions. And, in opposition to persons nobly born, who are a disgrace

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STEMMATA quid faciunt ? quid prodest, Pontice, longo
Sanguine censeri, pictosque ostendere vultus
Majorum, et stantes in curribus Æmilianos,
Et Curios jam dimidios, humeroque minorem
Corvinum, et Galbam auriculis nasoque carentem?

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Quis fructus generis tabulâ jactare capaci
Corvinum, et post hunc multà deducere virgå
Fumosos equitum cum Dictatore Magistros,
Si coram Lepidis male vivitur? effigies quo
Tot bellatorum, si luditur alea pernox

10
Ante Numantinos ? si dormire incipis ortu
Luciferi, quo signa Duces et castra movebant ?
Cur Allobrogicis, et magnà gaudeat ara,

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Line 1. What do pedigrees ?] i. e. Of nus.] Were noble Romans, the founders what use or service are they, merely of illustrious families, and an honour to considered in themselves ?

their country. Ponticus.] There cas a famous he 3. Standing in chariots.] Triumphal roic poet of this name, much acquainted cars, as expressed in the triumphal stawith Propertius and Ovid: but the per tues. son here mentioned, to whom this Satire 4. Now half.1 i. e. Half demolished is addressed, was probably some man of by length of time. quality, highly elevated by family pride, 4, 5. Less by a shoulder Corvinus.] His but whose manners disgraced his birth. statue thus mutilated by time and acci

2. By a long descent.) Longo sanguine, dent. a descent through a long train of ances 5. Galba.] The statue of Sergius Galtors of noble blood.

ba, a man of consular dignity, and who -Painted countenance, &c.] It was founded an illustrious family, was also customary among the Romans to have defaced and mutilated by time. their houses furnished with family pic

6. What fruit.] i. e. Of what real, solid tures, images, &c. and

mall use can it be? part of the pride of the nobility.

-The capacious table.] vis. A large 3, 4, 5. The Æmilii-Curi-Corri- genealogical table.

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SATIRE VIII.

ARGUMENT.

consib

to their family, he displays the worth of many who were meanly born, as Cicero, Marius, Serv. Tullius, and the Decii.

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WHAT do pedigrees? what avails it, Ponticus, to be valued
By a long descent, and to shew the painted countenances
Of ancestors, and Æmilii standing in chariots,
And Curii now half, and less by a shoulder
Corvinus, and Galba wanting ears and nose ?

5
What fruit to boast of Corvinus in the capacious table
Of kindred, and after him to deduce, by many a branch,
Smoky masters of the knights, with a Dictator,
If before the Lepidi you live ill? whither (tend) the effigies
Of so many warriors, if the nightly die be played with 10
Before the Numantii? if you begin to sleep at the rising of
Lucifer, at which those generals were moving their standards

and camps ?
Why should Fabius, born in a Herculean family, rejoice

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7. by many a brunch.] The genealogi at the end of six months was to resign cal tables were described in the form of his office. trees : the first founder of the family was 9. If before the Lepidi, &c.] i. e. If the root, his immediate descendants the before the images of those great men stem, and all the collaterals from them you exhibit scenes of vileness and inwere the branches. So among us. famy?

8. Smoky masters of the knights.] Images 10. The nightly die, &c.] Pernox sigof those who had been magistri equitum, nifies that which lasts through the night. masters or chiefs of the order of knights, What avails it, that your room is furnow tarnished, and grown black, by the dished with busts, pictures, &c. of your smoke of the city.

noble ancestors, if, in that very room, -With a dictator.] An image of some

before their faces, as it were, you are of the family who had filled that office. gambling and playing all night at dice ? He was chief magistrate among the Ro 11. If you begin to sleep, &c.] If you, mans, vested with absolute power, and after a night's debauch, are going to bed from whom lay no appeal. Twenty-four at day-break, the very time when those axes were carried before him. He was great generals were setting forth on their never chosen but in some great danger march to attack an enemy. or trouble of the state; and commonly 13. Fabius, &c.] Why should Fabius,

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Natus in Herculeo Fabius lare, si cupidus, si
Vanus, et Euganeâ quantumvis mollior agnâ ?
Si tenerum attritus Catinensi pumice lumbum
Squallentes traducit avos : emptorque veneni
Frangendå miseram funestat imagine gentem ?
Tota licet veteres exornent undique ceræ
Atria, NOBILITAS SOLA EST ATQUE UNICA Virtus.
Paulus, vel Cossus, vel Drusus moribus esto:
Hos ante effigies majorum pone tuorum:
Præcedant ipsas illi, te consule, virgas.
Prima mihi debes animi bona. Sanctus haberi,
Justitiæque tenax factis dictisque mereris ?
Agnosco procerem: salve, Getulice, seu tu
Silanus, quocunque alio de sanguine rarus
Civis, et egregius patriæ contingis ovanti.
Exclamare libet, populus quod clamat Osiri
Invento: quis enim generosum dixerit hunc, qui
Indignus genere, et præclaro nomine tantum
Insignis ? nanum cujusdam Atlanta vocamus ;

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the son of Qu. Fab. Maximus, who over- should cast a sadness over the whole facame the Allobroges, boast in his father's mily, as it were, by having his own achievements, and in the origin of his image placed among those of his ancesfamily's descent from Hercules, the care tors, when he does such things as to deof whose altar was hereditary in that fa. serve to have his image broken. If any mily, if he be covetous and vain, and one who had an image of himself, was unworthy of the honour which he convicted of a grievous crime, his image claims.

was to be broken to pieces, and his name 15. Softer than an Euganean lamb.] erased from the calendar, either by the The sheep bred upon the Euganean sentence of the judge, or by the fury of downs had the finest and softest fleeces the people. Comp. sat. x. l. 58. Such in all Italy. To have a very soft and must, most likely, be the case of a man delicate skin was a mark of great effe. who dealt in poisons to destroy people. minacy; but more especially if, as the 19. Old waren figures.] Images and following line supposes, it was made so likenesses of ancestors, made in wax, and by art.

set up as ornaments and memorials of 16. Catinensian pumice.] The best pu. the great persons from which they were mice stones were gathered in Sicily, at taken. the foot of Mount Ætna; with these the 20. Virtue, &c.] All the ensigns of effeminate Italians used to smooth their grandeur and nobility are nothing with: skins. Catina (now Catania) was a city out this—it is this alone which stamps a near Mount Ætna, almost ruined by an real greatness upon all who possess it. earthquake, 1693. Here were the finest 21. Paulus.] Æmilius, who conquered pumice stones,

Perses king of Macedonia, and led him 17. He shames, &c.] He dishonours and his children in triumph: he was a the old and venerable pictures, or images, man of great frugality and modesty, of his rough and hardy ancestors, now -Cossus.] He conquered the Getudirty with the rust of time, and thus dis- lians, under Augustus Cæsar; hence was graces the memory of those great men. called Getulicus. See 1. 26. Traduco signifies to expose to public -Drusus.] There were three of this shame. Ainsw. No. 5.

name, all of which deserved well of the 18. An image to be broken.] If he republic.

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