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Quorum Flaminiâ tegitur cinis, atque Latinâ.

171. Whose ashes are covered.] When Flaminia and via Latina, the urns and the bodies were consumed on the funeral remains of the nobles were buried, and pile, the ashes were put into urns and had monuments erected. See Sat. v. l. buried.

55. Hence have been so often found -The Flaminian and Latin way.] These in ancient Roman inscriptions on monuwere two great roads, or ways, leading ments, Siste viator. from Rome to other parts. In the via It was ordered by the law of the

Whose ashes are covered in the Flaminian and Latin way.

the urns and

buried, and See Sat. vol.

often found ons on monu

Twelve Tables, that nobody should be nian way, see before, 1. 61. note. The
buried within the city; hence the urns via Latina was of great extent, reaching
of the great were buried, and their mo from Rome, through many famous cities,
numents were erected, on those cele to the farthest part of Latium,
brated roads or ways. For the Flami-

law of the

SATIRA II.

ARGUMENT.

The Poet, in this satire, inveighs against the hypocrisy of the philosophers and priests of his time the effeminacy of military officersand magistrates. Which corruption of man

ULTRA Sauromatas fugere hinc libet, et glacialem
Oceanum, quoties aliquid de moribus audent
Qui Curios simulant, et Bacchanalia vivunt.
Indocti primum : quanquam plena omnia gypso
Chrysippi invenias: nam perfectissimus horum est,
Si quis Aristotelem similem, vel Pittacon emit,
Et jubet archetypos pluteum servare Cleanthis.
Fronti nulla fides: quis enim non vicus abundat
Tristibus obscenis ? castigas turpia, cum sis

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tum.

Line 1. I could wish.] Libet-lit. it for while they make an outward shew Jiketh me,

of virtue and sobriety, as if they were - Sauromatæ.] A northern barbarous so many Curii, they, in truth, addict people; the same with the Sarmatæ. Ov. themselves to those debaucheries and Trist. ii.198.calls them Sauromatæ truces. impurities, with which the feasts of

1, 2. Icy ocean.] The northern ocean, Bacchus were celebrated. These were which was perpetually frozen. Lucan called Bacchanalia. See them described, calls it Scythicum pontum (Phars. 1.1.)— Liv. xxxix. 8. Scythia bordering on its shore.

Bacchanalia stands here for BacchaEt qua bruma rigens, et nescia vere re naliter. Grecism. These are frequently mitti,

found in Juvenal and Persius. Astringit Scythicum glaciali frigore pon 4. Unlearned.] Their pretences to

learning are as vain and empty, as to The poet means, that he wishes to virtue and morality. leave Rome, and banish himself, though 4, 5. Plaster of Chrysippus.] Gypsum 10 the most inhospitable regions, when. signifies any kind of parget or plaster, ever he hears such hypocrites, as he af- (something, perhaps, like our plaster of terwards describes, talk on the subject of Paris,) of which images, busts, and likemorality.

nesses of the philosophers were made, 2. They dare.] i. e. As often as they and set up, out of a veneration to their have the audacity, the daring impudence memories, as ornaments, in the libraries to declaim or discourse about morals. and studies of the learned : in imitation

3. Curii.] Curius Dentatus was thrice of whom, these ignorant pretenders to consul of Rome: he was remarkable for learning and philosophy set up the busts his courage, honesty, and frugality. and images of Chrysippus, Aristotle, &c.

- Live (like) Bacchanals.] Their con that they might be supposed admirers duct is quite opposite to their profession; and followers of those great men.

SATIRE II.

ARGUMENT.

y of the of mili of man

ners, as well among them, as among others, and, more particularly, certain unnatural vices, he imputes to the atheism and infidelity which then prevailed among all ranks.

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I COULD wish to Ay hence, beyond the Sauromatæ, and

the icy
Ocean, as often as they dare any thing concerning morals,
Who feign (themselves) Curii, and live (like) Bacchanals.
First they are unlearned: tho' all things full with plaster
Of Chrysippus you may find: for the most perfect of these is,
If any one buys Aristotle like, or Pittacus,
And commands a book-case to keep original images of Clean-

thes.
No credit to the countenance: for what street does not abound
With grave obscenes? dost thou reprove base (actions) when

thou art

[blocks in formation]

Omnia plena denotes the affectation chetypus, any thing at first hand, that of these people, in sticking up these is, done originally. images, as it were, in every corner of - Cleanthes.] A stoic philosopher, suctheir houses. Chrysippus was a stoic cessor to Zeno the founder of the sect. philosopher, scholar to Zeno, and a great 8. No credit, &c.] There is no trusting logician.

to outward appearance. 5. The most perfect of these.) If any 9. With grave obscenes.] i. e. Hypoone buys the likeness of Aristotle, &c. crites of a sad countenance: grave and he is ranked in the highest and most re severe as to their outward aspect, within spected class among these people. full of the most horrid lewdness and ob.

6. Aristotle like.] An image resembling scenities, which they practise in secret. or like Aristotle, who was the scholar of The poet uses the word obscenis subPlato, and the father of the sect called stantively, by which he marks them the Peripatetics, from ripetutiw, circumam more strongly, bulo, because they disputed walking - Dost thou reprove, &c.] Dost thou about the school.

censure such filthy things (turpia) in - Pittacus.] A philosopher of Mity- others, who art thyself nothing but oblene. He was reckoned one of the seven scenity? wise men of Greece.

The poet here by an apostrophe, as 7. Original images.] Those which were turning the discourse to some particular done from the life were called archetypi: person, reproves all such.

Like St. from the Greek agxn, beginning, and Paul, Rom, ii. 1—3. TUTOS, form. Hence XpXiTumoy, Lat. ar

aster of

d like made,

their Oraries tation ers to busts

e, &c.

mirers

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15

Inter Scraticos potissima fossa cinados:
Hispida membra quidem, et dure per brachia setæ
Promittunt atrocem animum: sed podice lævi
Ceduntur tumidæ, medico ridente, mariscæ.
Rarus sermo illis, et magna libido tacendi,
Atque supercilio brevior coma; verius ergo,
Et magis ingenue Peribonius: hunc ego fatis
Imputo, qui vultu morbum, incescuque fatetur.
Horurn simplicitas miserabilis, his furor ipse
Dat veniam : sed pejores, qui talia verbis
Herculis invadunt, et de virtute locuti
Clunem agitant : ego te ceventem, Sexte, verebor,
Infamis Varillus ait?

.quo

deterior te? Loripedem rectus derideat, Ethiopem albus. Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes? Quis celum terris non misceat, et mare cælo, Si fur displiceat Verri, aut homicida Miloni ? Clodius accuset machos, Catilina Cethegum ?

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25

10. Among the Socratic, &c.] i. e. rities, and, in this, acted more ingenuAmong thone, who, though ipfamously ously, and more according to truth, than vicious, yet profess to be followers, and these pretended philosophers did. teachers of the doctrine and discipline 16. Impute him.] Ascribe all his vile of socrates, who was the first and great actions. teacher of ethics or moral philosophy. - To the fates.] To his destiny, so

But it is not improbable, that the poet that he can't help being what he is. here glances at the incontinence which The ancients had high notions of judicial was charged on Socrates himself. See astrology, and held that persons were FANNAHY, n. on this line; and LELAND influenced all their lives by the stars on Christian Rev. vol. ii. p. 133, 4; and which presided at their birth, so as to HOLYDAY, note c.

guide and fix their destiny ever after. 12. I would here, once for all, adver 17. His disease.] His besetting sin, tise the reader, that in this, and in all (Comp. sat. ix. 1. 49. n.) or rather, perother pannages which, like this, must ap- haps, a certain disease which was the pear filthy and offensive in a literal consequence of his impurities, and which iranalation, I shall only give a general affected his countenance and his gait, so

as to proclaim his shame to every body 16. And hair shorter than the eye-brow.) he met. What this disease was, may ap1. e. Cut so short as not to reach so low pear from lines 12, 13. of this Satire, as as the eye-brow. This was done to it stands in the original. Perhaps Rom. avoid the suspicion of being what they i. 27. the latter part, may allude to were, for wearing long hair was looked something of this sort. upon as a shrewd sign of effeminacy. 18. The simplicity of these.] The unli was a proverb among the Greeks, that disguised and open manner of such " none who wore long hair were free people, who thus proclaim their vice, is

from the unnatural vices of the Ci- rather pitiable, as it may be reckoned "pædi." May not St. Paul allude to a misfortune, rather than any thing else, this, 1 Cor. xi. 14. where puris may to be born with such a propensity. See mean an infused habit or custom. See notes on l. 16. WITSTEIN in loc. and PARRILURST, Gr. These madness itself, &c.] Their unand Eng. Lexicon. puris, No. iii. governable madness in the service of

16. Peribonins.) Some horrid cha- their vices, their inordinate passion, racter, who made no secret of his impu- stands as some excuse for their practices,

sense.

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