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A most noted practitioner among the Socratic catamites ? 10
Rough limbs indeed, and hard bristles on the arms,
Promise a fierce mind: but evident effects of unnatural
Lewdness expose you to derision and contempt.
Talk is rare to them, and the fancy of keeping silence great,
And hair shorter than the eye-brow: therefore more truly, 15
And more ingenuously, Peribonius : him I to the fates
Impute, who in countenance and gait confesses his disease.
The simplicity of these is pitiable; these madness itself
Excuses: but worse are they who such things with words
Of Hercules attack, who talk of virtue, and indulge 20
Themselves in horrid vice. Shall I fear thee, Sextus,
Says infamous Varillus, by how much (am I) worse than thou

Let the straight deride the bandy-legged--the white the Æthi-

Who could have borne the Gracchi complaining about sedi-
tion ?

Who would not mix heaven with earth, and the sea with heaven,
If a thief should displease Verres, or an homicide Milo?
If Clodius should accuse adulterers, Catiline Cethegus ?

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at least comparatively with those who This sentiment is pursued and exemaffect to condemn such characters as plified in the instances following. Peribonius, and yet do the same that he 24. The Gracchi.] Caius and Tiberius, does.

tribunes, who raised great disturbances, 20. Of Hercules.] This alludes to the on their introducing the Agrarian law, story of Hercules, who, when he was a to divide the common fields equally youth, uncertain in which way he should among the people. At length they were go, whether in the paths of virtue, or in both slain : Tiberius, as he was making those of pleasure, was supposed to see an a speech to the people, by Publius apparition of two women, the one Virtue, Nasica; and Caius, by the command of the other Pleasure, each of which used the consul Opimius. many arguments to gain him : but he 25. Mix heaven with earth.] i. e. Ex. made choice of Virtue, and repulsed the claim in the loudest and strongest terms, other with the severest reproaches. See like him in Terence, Xen. Memor. and Cic. de Offic. lib. i. O cælum! O terra! O maria Ne.

21. Sextus.] Some infamous character ptuni! of the kind above mentioned.

26. Verres.] Prætor in Sicily, who 22. Varillus.] Another of the same was condemned and banished for plunstamp. The puet here supposes one of dering that province. these wretches as gravely and severely --Milo.] He killed P. Clodius, and reproaching the other.

was unsuccessfully defended by Tully. Varillus in answer, need I fear any thing 27. Clodius.] A great enemy to Cicero, you can say? in what can you make me and the chief promoter of his banishout to be worse than yourself?

ment. This Clodius was a most de. 23. Let the straight, &c.] These prover- bauched and profligate person. He debial expressions mean to expose the folly bauched Pompeia the wife of Cæsar, and impudence of such who censure and likewise his own sister. Soon after others for vices which they themselves Cicero's return, Clodius was slain by practise. See Matt. vii. 3-5. Hor. Milo, and his body burnt in the Curia sat. vii. lib. ii. l. 40_2.


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In tabulam Syllæ si dicant discipuli tres ?
Qualis erat nuper tragico pollutus adulter
Concubitu: qui tunc leges revocabat amaras
Omnibus, atque ipsis Veneri Martique timendas:
Cum tot abortivis fæcundam Julia vulvam
Solveret, et patruo similes effunderet offas.
Nonne igitur jure, ac merito, vitia ultima fictos
Contemnunt Scauros, et castigata remordent?
Non tulit ex illis torvum Laronia quendam
Clamantem toties, ubi nunc lex Julia ? dormis ?
Atque ita subridens : felicia tempora! quæ te
Moribus opponunt: habeat jam Roma pudorem ;
Tertius e cælo cecidit Cato. Sed tamen unde



-Catiline Cethegus.] i. e. If Catiline 31. Mars and Venus.] They were were to accuse Cethegus. These were caught together by Vulcan, the fabled two famous conspirators against the state. husband of Venus, by means of a net See SALLUST, bell. Catilin.

with which he inclosed them. Juvenal 28. The table of Sylla.] Sylla was a means, by this, to satirize the zeal of noble Roman of the family of the Scipios. Domitian against adultery in others, He was very cruel, and first set up tables (while he indulged not only this, but of proscription, or outlawry, by which incest also in his own practice,) by: many thousand Romans were put to saying, that it was so great, that he death in cold blood.

would not only punish men, but gods - Three disciples.] There were two tri- also, if it came in his way so to do. umvirates, the one consisting of Cæsar, 32. Abortires.] Embryos, of which Pompey, and Crassus, the other of Au- Julia was made to miscarry. gustus, Antony, and Lepidus, who fol 33. Lumps.] Offas, lumps of fiesh, lowed Sylla's example, and therefore are crude births, deformed, and so resem. called disciples, i. e. in cruelty, blood- bling her uncle Domitian, the incestuous shed, and murder.

father of them. 29. The adulterer.] Domitian. He 34. Justly and deservedly.] With the took away Domitia Longina from her highest reason and justice. husband Ælius Lamia.

-The most vicioris.] Ultima vitia, i. e. 29, 30. A tragical intrigue.] He de- ultimi vitiosi, the most abandoned, who bauched Julia, the daughter of his bro are to the utmost degree vicious, so that ther Titus, though married to Sabinus. they may be termed themselves, vices. After the death of Titus, and of Sabinus, The abstract is here put for the concrete. whom Domitian caused to be assassi- MET. nated, he openly avowed his passion for 35. Despise.] Hold them in the most Julia, but was the death of her, by giving sovereign contempt, for their impudence her medicines to make her miscarry. in daring to reprove others for being See below, l. 32, 3.

vicious. 30. Recalling laws.] At the very time The feigned Scauri.] Æmilius Scauwhen Domitian had this tragical intrigue rus, as described by Sallust, bell. Ju. with his niece Julia, he was reviving the gurth. was a nobleman, bold, factious, severe laws of Julius Cæsar against greedy of power, honour, and riches, adultery, which were afterwards made but very artful in disguising his vices. more severe by Augustus.

Juvenal therefore may be supposed to 30, 1. Bitter to all.] Severe and rigid call these hypocrites ficios, as feigning to the last degree. Many persons, of to be what they were not; Scaurus, as both sexes, Domitian put to death for being like Æ. Scaurus, appearing outadultery. See Univ. Hist. vol. xv. p. wardly grave and severe, but artfully,

like him, concealing their vices.


If three disciples should speak against the table of Sylla ?
Such was the adulterer lately polluted with a tragical
Intrigue: who then was recalling laws, bitter

To all, and even to be dreaded by Mars and Venus themselves:
When Julia her fruitful womb from so many abortives
Released, and poured forth lumps resembling her uncle.
Do not therefore, justly and deservedly, the most vicious
Despise the feigned Scauri, and being reproved, bite again ? 35
Laronia did not endure a certain sour one from


them Crying out so often, “Where is now the Julian law i dost

" thou sleep?"
And thus smiling : “ Happy times! which thee
Oppose to manners: now Rome


take shame : “ A third Cato is fallen from heaven :--but yet whence 40

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However, I question whether the cha- these dissemblers; one out of this hyporacter of Scaurus be not rather to be critical herd. gathered from his being found among so 37. Crying out so often.] Repeating many truly great and worthy men, Sat. aloud his seeming indignation against xi. 1. 90, 1. Pliny also represents him vice, and calling down the vengeance of as a man summæ integritatis, of the high- the law against lewdness and effemiest integrity. This idea seems to suit nacy. best with fictos Scauros, as it leads us to -Where is the Julian law?) Against consider these hypocrites as feigning adultery and lewdness ; (see 1. 30. note ;) themselves men of integrity and good- why is it not executed ? As it then stood, ness, and as seeming to resemble the it punished adultery and sodomy with probity and severity of manners for death. which Scaurus was eminent, the better - Dost thou sleep?] Art thou as reto conceal their vices, and to deceive gardless of these enormities, as a person other people.

fast asleep is of what passes about him? - And being reproved, bite again.) Such 38. And thus smiling.) Laronia could hypocrites are not only despised by the not retrain herself at hearing this, and, most openly vicious for their insincerity, with a smile of the utmost contempt, but whenever they have the impudence ready almost at the same time to laugh to reprove vice, even in the most aban. in his face, thus jeers him. doned, these will turn again and re Happy times ! &c.] That have raised taliate: which is well expressed by the up such a reformer as thou art, to opword remordent.

pose the evil manners of the age! 36. Laronia.) Martial, cotemporary 39. Now Rome may take shame.] Now, with Juvenal, describes a woman of this to be sure, Rome will blush, and take name as a rich widow,

shame to herself, for what is practised Abnegat et retinet nostrum Laronia ser

within her walls, since such a reprover vum,

appears, Irony. Respondens, orba est, dives, anus, vidua. 40. A third Cato.} Cato Censorius, as By what Juvenal represents her to have he was called, from his great gravity and said, in the following lines, she seems to strictness in his censorship; and Cato have had no small share of wit.

Uticensis, so called from his killing him-Did not endure.] She could not self at Utica, a city of Africa, were men bear him ; she was out of all patience. highly esteemed as eminent moralists; to

- Sour.] Crabbed, stern in his ap- these, says Laronia, (continuing her pearance. Or torvum may be here put ironical banter,) heaven has added a for the adverb torve-torve clamantem. third Cato, by sending us so severe and Grecisın. See above, 1. 3. and note. respectable a moralist as thou art,

From among them.] 1. e. One of

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Hæc emis, hirsuto spirant opobalsama collo
Quæ tibi ? ne pudeat dominum monstrare tabernæ :
Quod si vexantur leges, ac jura, citari
Ante omnes debet Scantinia; respice primum
Et scrutare viros : faciunt hi plura; sed illos
Defendit numerus, junctæque umbone phalanges.
Magna inter molles concordia : non erit ullum
Exemplum in nostra tam detestabile sexu:
Tædia non lambit Cluviam, nec Flora Catullam :
Hippo subit juvenes, et morbo pallet utroque.
Nunquid nos agimus causas ? civilia jura
Novimus ? aut ullo strepitu fora vestra movemus ?
Luctantur paucæ, comedunt coliphia paucæ :
Vos lanam trahitis, calathisque peracta refertis
Vellera: Vos tenui prægnantem stamine fusum
Penelope melius, levius torquetis Arachne,
Horrida quale facit residens in codice pellex.




41. Perfumes.] Opobalsama - 0705 Hor. lib. i. epist. xvi. I. 41. mentions Badoamou—i. e. Succus balsami. This these three particulars: was some kind of perfumery, which the

-Vir bonus est quis ? effeminate among the Romans made use Qui consulta patrum, qui leges, juraque of, and of which, it seems, this same rough-looking reprover

smelt very See an account of the Roman laws at strongly.

large, in Kennett's Roman Antiq. part 41, 2. Your rough neck.] Hairy, and ji. book iii. chap. xxi. et seq. bearing the appearance of a most philo 43. The Scantinian.] So called from sophic neglect of your person.

Scantinius Aricinus, by whom it was 42. Don't be ashamed, &c.] Don't blush first introduced to punish sodomy. Others to tell us where the perfumer lives, of think that this law was so called from C. whom you bought these fine sweet-smell. Scantinius, who attempted this crime ing ointments.

on the son of Marcellus, and was puHere her raillery is very keen, and nished accordingly. tends to shew what this pretended re 45. Examine the men.] Search dihiformer really was, notwithstanding his gently: scrutinize into their abominaappearance of sanctity. She may be tions. said to have smelt him out.

-These do more things.] They far outdo 43. Statutes and laws are disturbed.] the other sex; they do more things From that state of sleep in which you worthy of severe reprehension. seem to represent them, and from which 46. Number defends.] This tends to you wish to awaken them. The Roman shew how common that detestable vice jurisprudence seems to have been found was. (Comp. Rom. i. 27.). Such numed on a threefold basis, on which the bers were guilty of it, that it was looked general law, by which the government upon rather as fashionable than crimiwas carried on, was established ; that is nal; they seemed to set the law at de. to say, Consulta patrum, or decrees of fiance, as not daring to attack so large a the senate-Leges, which seem to an- body. swer to our statute-laws—and jura, those -Battalions joined, &c.] A metaphor rules of common justice, which were de- taken from the Roman manner of enrived from the two former, but particu- gaging. A phalanx properly signiffied a larly from the latter of the two, or, per- disposition for an attack on the enemy haps, from immemorial usage and cus- by the foot, with every man's shield or tom, like the common law of England. buckler so close to another's, as to join

“ Do you buy these perfumes which breathe from your rough “ Neck? don't be ashamed to declare the master of the shop: “ But if the statutes and laws are disturbed, the Scantinian

Ought before all to be stirred up. Consider first, “ And examine the men: these do more things-but them 45 “Number defends, and battalions joined with a buckler. “ There is great concord among the effeminate: there will

66 not be any

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Example so detestable in our sex:
" Trædia caresses pot Cluvia, nor Flora Catulla:
“Hippo assails youths, and in his turn is assailed.

“Do we plead causes ? the civil laws
6 Do we know ? or with any noise do we make a stir in your

66 courts ? 66. A few wrestle, a few eat wrestlers' diet: “You card wool, and carry back in full baskets your finished “ Fleeces; you the spindle, big with slender thread, 55 “Better than Penelope do twist, and finer than Arachne, " As does a dirty harlot sitting on a log.

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them together and make a sort of im- osier or wicker baskets, in which the penetrable wall or rampart. This is said women put their work when they had to have been first invented by the Mace- finished it, in order to carry it back to donians; phalanx is therefore to be con

their employers. sidered as a Macedonian word.

56. Penelope.] Wife of Ulysses, who 47. There is great concord, &c.] They during her husband's absence was im, are very fond of each other, and strongly portuned by many noble suitors, whose connected and united, so that attacking addresses she refused with inviolable one would be like attacking all. constancy: but, fearing they might take

49. Tædium Floru, &c.] Famous Ro- her by force, she amused them, by deman courtezans in Juvenal's time--bad siring them to wait till she had finished as they were, the men were worse. a web, which she was then about; and to 51. Do we plead, &c.] Do we women

make the time as long as possible, she usurp the province of the men ? do we undid druing the night what she had take upon us those functions which be- done in the day. long to them?

Arachne.] A Lydian damsel, very 53. A few wrestle.] A few women there skilful in spinning and weaving. She is are, who are of such a masculine turn of fabled to have contended with Minerva, mind, as to wrestle in public. See Sat.i. and, being outdone, she hanged herself, 22, 3. and notes ; and Sat. vi. 245–57. and was by that goddess changed into a and notes.

spider. Ov. Met. lib. vi. fab. 1. Wrestlers' diet.] Prepare themselves By mentioning these instances, Laro. for wrestling as the wrestlers do by nia ironically commends the great profeeding on the coliphium-a uwra apua, ficiency of the men in carding and spinmembra robusta ; a kind of dry diet ning: both these operations seem to be which wrestlers used, to make them strong distinctly marked by the poet. and firm-fleshed. See Ainsw.

57. Å dirty harlot.] Pellex properly . 54. You curd wool.] You, effeminate denotes the mistress of a married man. wretches, forsake manly exercises, and This, and the Greek radaaxis, seem addict yourselves to employments which derived from Heb. Wabe pilgesh, which are peculiar to women.

we render, concubine. In baskets.] The calathi were little Codex, from caudex, literally signifies

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