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You should add, at whose expence he then threw the net.

That there are many ghosts and subterranean realms,
And a boat-pole, and black frogs in the Stygian gulph, 150
And that so many
thousands

in one boat,
Not even boys believe, unless those not as yet washed for money:
But think thou that they are true: What thinks Curius, and

both
The Scipios ? what Fabricius, and the ghost of Camillus? 154
What the legion of Cremera, and the youth consumed at Cannæ,
So many warlike souls ? as often as from hence to them such
A shade arrives, they would desire to be purified, if there

could be given
Sulphur with

pines,

and if there were a wet laurel.
Thither, alas! we wretches are conveyed ! our arms, indeed,
beyond

155
The shores of Juverna we have advanced, and the lately captured
rased Numantia and Carthage. Hence not only of the belief of a future state,
VIRG. Æa. vi. 842, 3.

which influenced them in the achieve. -Geminos duo fulmina belli ment of great and worthy deeds during Scipiadas, cladem Libyæ.

their lives, but that now they experienced
-- Fabricius.] C. Luscinius the consul, the certainty of it, in the enjoyment of
who conquered Pyrrhus.

its rewards.
-Camillus.] A noble Roman ;' he, 156. As often as from hence, &c.] When
though banished, saved Rome from its the spirit of such a miscreant, as I have
final ruin by the Gauls. The Romans before described, goes from hence, leaves
voted him an equestrian statue in the this world, and arrives among the vene-
Forum, an honour never before conferred rable shades of these great and virtuous
on a Roman citizen.

men, they would look upon themselves
155. The legion of Cremera.] Meaning as defiled by such a one coming among
the 300 Fabii, who, with their slaves and them; they would call for lustrations,
friends, marched against the Veientes, that they might purify themselves from
who, after many battles, surrounding the pollution which such company would
them by an ambuscade, killed the 300 bring with it.
near Cremera, a river of Tuscany, ex 157. If there could be given.] i.e. If
cept one, from whom came afterwards they could come at materials for purifica-
the famous Fabius mentioned by Virg. tion in the place where they are.
Æn. vi. 845, 6.

158. Sulphur with pines.] Fumes of
-The youth consumed, &c.] Cannæ. sulphur, thrown on a lighted torch made
arum. A village of Apulia in the king of the wood of the unctuous pine-tree,
dom of Naples, where Hannibal defeated were used among the Romans as purify-
the Romans, and killed above 40,000. ing. See Ainsw. Teda, No. 3.
Among these such a number of the Pliny says of sulphur, “ Habet et in
young nobility, knights, and others of religionibus locum ad expiandas suf-
rank, that Hannibal sent to Carthage fitu domos." Lib. XXXV. c. 15.
three bushels of rings in token of his -A wet laurel.] They used also a
victory. There was such a carnage of laurel-branch dipped in water, and
the Romans, that Hannibal is said, at sprinkling with it things or persons
last, to have stopped his soldiers, crying which they would purify.
Parce ferro."

159. Thither, alas! &c.] We wretched 156. So many warlike souls.) Slain in mortals all must die, and be carried into battle, fighting for their country. Virg. that world of spirits, where happiness or Æn. vi. 660. places such in elysium. misery will be our doom.

By mentioning the above great men, 160. Juverna.] Al. Juberna, hod. HiJuvenal means, that they were examples bernia, Ireland. It is thought by Cam

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Orcadas, ac minimâ contentos nocte Britannos.
Sed qua nunc populi fiunt victoris in urbe,
Non faciunt illi, quos vicimus: et tamen unus
Armenius Zelates cunctis narratur ephebis
Mollior ardenti sese indulsisse Tribuno.
Aspice quid faciant commercia: venerat obses.
Hic fiunt homines: nam si mora longior urbem
Indulsit pueris, non unquam deerit amator:
Mittentur braccæ, cultelli, fræna, flagellum :
Sic prætextatos referunt Artaxata mores.

T A T

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den, that the Romans did not conquer horrid purpose of unnatural lust.
Ireland ; this passage of Juvenal seems -A burning tribune.] Virg. ecl. ii. 1.
to imply the contrary. The poet might has used the verb ardeo in the same hor-
speak here at large, as a stranger to rid sense. The tribune is not named,
these parts, but according to the report but some think the emperor Caligula to
of the triumphing Romans, who some be hinted at, who, as Suetonius relates,
times took discoveries for conquests, and used some who came as hostages, from
thought those overcome, who were neigh- far countries, in this detestable manner.
bours to those whom they overcame. 166. See what commerce may do.] Com-

161. Orcades.] A number of small mercia here signifies intercourse, corre-
islands in the north of Scotland, added spondence, converse together,

Mark
to the Roman empire by the emperor the effects of bad intercourse. The poet
Claudius. Hod. the Orkneys.

seems to mean what St. Paul expresses,
- The Britons content, &c.] At the 1 Cor. xv. 33. “ Evil communications
summer solstice the nights are very short; corrupt good manners.'
there is scarce any in the most northern -He had come an hostage.] Obses-
parts of Britain.

quia quasi pignus obsidetur, i. e. because
162. The things which, &c.] The abo- kept, guarded, as a pledge. An hostage
minations which are committed in Rome, was given as a security or pledge, for the
are not to be found among the con- performance of something by one people
quered people, at least not till they learn to another, either in war or peace, and
them by coming to Rome; instances, was peculiarly under the protection and
indeed, may be found of this, as may care of those who received him. This
appear by what follows.

youth had been sent to Rome from Ar-
164. Želates.] An Armenian youth, iaxata, the capital of Armenia, a coun-
sent as an hostage from Armenia.

try of Asia, and was debauched by the
-More soft, &c.] More effeminate; tribune who had the custody of him.
made so, by being corrupted at an ear This breach of trust aggravates the
lier period of life than was usual among crime.
the Roman youths. Ephebus signifies a 167. Here they become men.) Here, at
youth or lad from about fourteen to Rome, they soon lose their simplicity
seventeen. Then they put on the toga and innocence of manners, and though
virilis, and were reckoned men.

in

years, are soon old in wickedword is compounded of 571, at, and nen, ness, from the corruptions which they puberty.

meet with. The word homo is of the 165. To have yielded himself.] For the common gender, and signifies both man

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The young

1

Orcades, and the Britons content with very little night.
But the things which now are done in the city of the con-

quering people,
Those whom we have conquered do not: and yet one
Armenian, Zelates, more soft than all our striplings, is said
To have yielded himself to a burning tribune.

165
See what commerce may do: he had come an hostage.
Here they become men: for if a longer stay indulges
The city to boys, never will a lover be wanting.
Trowsers, knives, bridles, whip, will be laid aside.
Thus they carry back prætextate manners to Artaxata. 170

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and woman; and it is not improbable, will all be laid aside; they will adopt
but that Juvenal uses the word homines the dress and manners, the effeminacy
here, as intimating, that these youths and debauchery of the Roman nobility,
were soon to be regarded as of either which they will carry home with them

when they return to their own capital.
167. If a longer stay, 8c.] If they are See 1. 166, note.
permitted to stay a longer time at Rome, 170. Prætextute manners.] See sat. i.
after their release as hcstages, and are at 78, note. Rome's noble crimes. Holy-
large in the city, they will never want day. As' we should express_it, the
occasions of temptation to the worst of fashionable vices of the great. The per-
vices : at every turn they will meet sons who wore the prætexta, were ma-
with those who will spare no pains to gistrates, priests, and noblemen's children
corrupt them.

till the age of seventeen. 169. Trowsers.] Braccæ ; a sort of - Artazata.] The chief city of Armetrowsers or breeches, worn by the Arme- nia the Greater, (situate on the river nians, Gauls, Persians, Medes, and Araxes,) built by Artaxias, whom the others. Here by synec. put for the Armenians made their king.

It was whole dress of the country from which taken by Pompey, who spared both the they came.

city and the inhabitants : but, in Nero's -Knives.] Cultelli; little knives; reign, Corbulo, the commander in chief dim. from culter. This should seem of the Roman forces in the East, having to mean some adjunct to the Armenian forced Tiridates, king of Armenia, to dress; not improbably the small dag- yield up Artaxata, levelled it with the gers, or poignards, which the Easterns ground." See Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. ix. wore tucked in their girdles, or sashes, 484. of their under vestments; such are seen This city is called Artaxata-orum, in the East to this day.

plur. or Artaxata-æ, sing. See Ainsw. -Bridles, whip.] With which they It is probable that the poet mentions managed, and drove on their horses, in Artaxata, on account of the fact which their warlike exercises, and in the is recorded, 1. 164, 5; but he may be chace.

understood, by this instance, to mean, - Will be laid aside.] The meaning of that every country and people would these lines is, that the dress of their become corrupt, as they had less or more country, and every trace of their simpli- to do with Rome, city, manliness, activity, and courage,

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SATIRA III.

ARGUMENT. Juvenal introduces Umbritius, an old friend of his, taking his

departure from Rome, and going to settle in a country retirement at Cuma. He accompanies Umbritius out of town ; and, before they take leave of each other, Umbritius tells his friend Juvenal the reasons which had induced

5

QUAMVIS digressu veteris confusus amici,
Laudo tamen vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis
Destinet, atque unum civem donare Sibyllæ.
Janua Baiarum est, et gratum littus amoni
Secessûs. Ego vel Prochytam præpono Suburræ.
Nam quid tam miserum, tam solum vidimus, ut non
Deterius credas horrere incendia, lapsus
Tectorum assiduos, ac mille pericula sævæ
Urbis, et Augusto recitantes mense poëtas ?
Sed dum tota domus rhedâ componitur unâ,

10

Line 2. Cumæ.] An ancient city of Cumæ. Umbritius was now going to Campania near the sea. Some think it bestow, donare, one citizen on this abode had its name from xujara, waves: the of the Sibyl, by taking up his residence waves, in rough weather, dashing against there. See Virg. Æn. vi. 1. 10. et seq. the walls of it. Others think it was so 4. The gate of Baiæ,] Passengers from called from its being built by the Cumæi Rome to Baiæ were to pass through Cuof Asia. Plin. iii. 4. Juvenal calls it mæ; they went in on one side, and empty in comparison with the populous- came out on the other, as through a ness of Rome : it was now, probably, gate. much decayed, and but thinly inhabited: -Baiæ.) A delightful city of Campa. on this account it might be looked upon nia, of which Hor. lib. i. epist. i. l. as a place of leisure, quiet, and retire 83. ment; all which may be understood by Nullus in orbe sinus Buiis prælucet amxthe word vacuis.

nis. 3. The Sibyl.] Quasi olou Bovan, Dei Here were fine warm springs and baths, consilium. Ainsw. The Sibyls were both pleasant and healthful: on which women, supposed to be inspired with a account it was much resorted to by the spirit of prophecy.

Authors are not nobility and gentry of Rome, many of agreed as to the number of them; but whom had villas there for their summer the most famous was the Cumæan, so residence. It forms part of the bay of called from having her residence at Naples.

SATIRE III.

ARGUMENT.

ount out Writ dui

him to retire from Rome : each of which is replete with the keenest satire on its vicious inhabitants. Thus the Poet carries on his design of inveighing against the vices and disorders which reigned in that city.

T'HO troubled at the departure of an old friend,
I yet approve that to fix his abode at empty Cumæ
He purposes, and to give one citizen to the Sibyl.
It is the gate of Baix, and a grateful shore of pleasant
Retirement. I prefer even Prochyta to Suburra :

5
For what so wretched, so solitary do we see, that you
Would not think it worse to dread fires, the continual
Falling of houses, and a thousand perils of the fell
City, and poets reciting in the month of August ?
But while his whole house is put together in one vehicle, 10

4. A grateful shore.] Gratum : grate- little care taken of old and ruinous buildful, here, must be understood in the ings. . Propertius speaks of the two sense of agreeable, pleasant. The whole foregoing dangers. shore, from Cumæ io Baia, was delight Præterea domibus flummam, domibusque fully pleasant, and calculated for the ruinam. most agreeable retirement. See the lat 8,9. The fell city.) That habitation ter part of the last note.

of daily cruelty and mischief. 5. Prochytu.] A small rugged island in 9. And poets reciting.) Juvenal very the Tyrrhenian sea, desert and barren. humourously introduces this circum

---Suburra.) A street in Rome, much stance among the calamities and inconfrequented, but chiefly by the vulgar, veniences of living at Rome, that even and by women of il fame. Hence in the month of August, the hottest seaMant. vi. 66.

son of the year, when most people had Fumæ non nimium bonæ puella, retired into the country, so that one Quales in media sedent Suburra.

might hope to enjoy some little quiet, 6. For what so wretched, &c.] Solitary even then you were to be teazed to and miserable as any place may be, yet death, by the constant din of the scribit is better to be there than at Rome, bling poets reciting their wretched comwhere you have so many dangers and positions, and forcing you to hear them. inconveniences to apprehend.

Comp. sat. i. I. 1-14. where our poct 7. Fires.] House-burnings, to which expresses his peculiar aversion to this. populous cities, from many various 10. His whole house, &c.] While all causes, are continually liable.

his household furniture and goods were 8. Falling of houses.] Owing to the packing up together in one waggon, (as

VOL. I.

к

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