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You should add, at whose expence he then threw the net.
That there are many ghosts and subterranean realms,
in one boat,
could be given
and if there were a wet laurel.
which influenced them in the achieve. -Geminos duo fulmina belli ment of great and worthy deeds during Scipiadas, cladem Libyæ.
their lives, but that now they experienced
men, they would look upon themselves
158. Sulphur with pines.] Fumes of
159. Thither, alas! &c.] We wretched 156. So many warlike souls.) Slain in mortals all must die, and be carried into battle, fighting for their country. Virg. that world of spirits, where happiness or Æn. vi. 660. places such in elysium. misery will be our doom.
By mentioning the above great men, 160. Juverna.] Al. Juberna, hod. HiJuvenal means, that they were examples bernia, Ireland. It is thought by Cam
Orcadas, ac minimâ contentos nocte Britannos.
T A T
den, that the Romans did not conquer horrid purpose of unnatural lust.
161. Orcades.] A number of small mercia here signifies intercourse, corre-
seems to mean what St. Paul expresses,
quia quasi pignus obsidetur, i. e. because
youth had been sent to Rome from Ar-
try of Asia, and was debauched by the
years, are soon old in wickedword is compounded of 571, at, and nen, ness, from the corruptions which they puberty.
meet with. The word homo is of the 165. To have yielded himself.] For the common gender, and signifies both man
Orcades, and the Britons content with very little night.
and woman; and it is not improbable, will all be laid aside; they will adopt
when they return to their own capital.
till the age of seventeen. 169. Trowsers.] Braccæ ; a sort of - Artazata.] The chief city of Armetrowsers or breeches, worn by the Arme- nia the Greater, (situate on the river nians, Gauls, Persians, Medes, and Araxes,) built by Artaxias, whom the others. Here by synec. put for the Armenians made their king.
It was whole dress of the country from which taken by Pompey, who spared both the they came.
city and the inhabitants : but, in Nero's -Knives.] Cultelli; little knives; reign, Corbulo, the commander in chief dim. from culter. This should seem of the Roman forces in the East, having to mean some adjunct to the Armenian forced Tiridates, king of Armenia, to dress; not improbably the small dag- yield up Artaxata, levelled it with the gers, or poignards, which the Easterns ground." See Ant. Univ. Hist. vol. ix. wore tucked in their girdles, or sashes, 484. of their under vestments; such are seen This city is called Artaxata-orum, in the East to this day.
plur. or Artaxata-æ, sing. See Ainsw. -Bridles, whip.] With which they It is probable that the poet mentions managed, and drove on their horses, in Artaxata, on account of the fact which their warlike exercises, and in the is recorded, 1. 164, 5; but he may be chace.
understood, by this instance, to mean, - Will be laid aside.] The meaning of that every country and people would these lines is, that the dress of their become corrupt, as they had less or more country, and every trace of their simpli- to do with Rome, city, manliness, activity, and courage,
ARGUMENT. Juvenal introduces Umbritius, an old friend of his, taking his
departure from Rome, and going to settle in a country retirement at Cuma. He accompanies Umbritius out of town ; and, before they take leave of each other, Umbritius tells his friend Juvenal the reasons which had induced
QUAMVIS digressu veteris confusus amici,
Line 2. Cumæ.] An ancient city of Cumæ. Umbritius was now going to Campania near the sea. Some think it bestow, donare, one citizen on this abode had its name from xujara, waves: the of the Sibyl, by taking up his residence waves, in rough weather, dashing against there. See Virg. Æn. vi. 1. 10. et seq. the walls of it. Others think it was so 4. The gate of Baiæ,] Passengers from called from its being built by the Cumæi Rome to Baiæ were to pass through Cuof Asia. Plin. iii. 4. Juvenal calls it mæ; they went in on one side, and empty in comparison with the populous- came out on the other, as through a ness of Rome : it was now, probably, gate. much decayed, and but thinly inhabited: -Baiæ.) A delightful city of Campa. on this account it might be looked upon nia, of which Hor. lib. i. epist. i. l. as a place of leisure, quiet, and retire 83. ment; all which may be understood by Nullus in orbe sinus Buiis prælucet amxthe word vacuis.
nis. 3. The Sibyl.] Quasi olou Bovan, Dei Here were fine warm springs and baths, consilium. Ainsw. The Sibyls were both pleasant and healthful: on which women, supposed to be inspired with a account it was much resorted to by the spirit of prophecy.
Authors are not nobility and gentry of Rome, many of agreed as to the number of them; but whom had villas there for their summer the most famous was the Cumæan, so residence. It forms part of the bay of called from having her residence at Naples.
ount out Writ dui
him to retire from Rome : each of which is replete with the keenest satire on its vicious inhabitants. Thus the Poet carries on his design of inveighing against the vices and disorders which reigned in that city.
T'HO troubled at the departure of an old friend,
4. A grateful shore.] Gratum : grate- little care taken of old and ruinous buildful, here, must be understood in the ings. . Propertius speaks of the two sense of agreeable, pleasant. The whole foregoing dangers. shore, from Cumæ io Baia, was delight Præterea domibus flummam, domibusque fully pleasant, and calculated for the ruinam. most agreeable retirement. See the lat 8,9. The fell city.) That habitation ter part of the last note.
of daily cruelty and mischief. 5. Prochytu.] A small rugged island in 9. And poets reciting.) Juvenal very the Tyrrhenian sea, desert and barren. humourously introduces this circum
---Suburra.) A street in Rome, much stance among the calamities and inconfrequented, but chiefly by the vulgar, veniences of living at Rome, that even and by women of il fame. Hence in the month of August, the hottest seaMant. vi. 66.
son of the year, when most people had Fumæ non nimium bonæ puella, retired into the country, so that one Quales in media sedent Suburra.
might hope to enjoy some little quiet, 6. For what so wretched, &c.] Solitary even then you were to be teazed to and miserable as any place may be, yet death, by the constant din of the scribit is better to be there than at Rome, bling poets reciting their wretched comwhere you have so many dangers and positions, and forcing you to hear them. inconveniences to apprehend.
Comp. sat. i. I. 1-14. where our poct 7. Fires.] House-burnings, to which expresses his peculiar aversion to this. populous cities, from many various 10. His whole house, &c.] While all causes, are continually liable.
his household furniture and goods were 8. Falling of houses.] Owing to the packing up together in one waggon, (as