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1831.] Review.-Nichols's Literary Illustrations, vol. VI. 327 tues only, can neither obtain nor pre- such a measure madness and absurdity. If, serve, and, in contesting which, corrup- however, the circumstances were dever so tion on one side must be opposed by favourable, the utmost length I can go to is corruption on the other,
the one additional county member ; but that It may be remembered, that soon af- I consider as an experiment, and as a comter Mr. Pitt
, in consequence of a disso pounding to prevent further mischief. This Jution of parliament, became fairly if ever it gets thither, and shall think (what
I shall certainly say in the House of Lords, seated at the head of the administration, he endeavoured to redeem a pledge liament who goes further. If
, from your
I shall not say) that he is an enemy to Parhe had given, to introduce a bill for general wish to support the Minister, or the reform of parliament. This was from your attachment to Lord Camden, or introduced in 1785, and was defeated. from a conscientious opinion upon the subSome at that time doubted whether he ject, you cannot think as I do, at least abwas sincere, and it is certain that a sent yourself upon this occasion, and do not considerable proportion of his oppo
distress me so far as to make me appear to nents were not sincere. At this time, hold two languages, at the same time that Lord Camelford's correspondent, Mr. you oppose one of the most decided political Hardinge, sat as member for Old Sa. tenets I can ever form, and oppose it with rum, and it would appear had stated
the weapon I have put into your hands. some embarrassment as to what part
“As to the democratical principle, how he should act. This produced the fol
far that is likely to be gratified by enabling
three or four great families in every county lowing letter from his Lordship, which
(generally Peers) to add to their infuence in we shall copy entire, as applying very the House of Commons, or by rendering closely to the great question which now such additional influence still more powerful agitates the public inind.
in extinguishing the balance of the
bo“My dear Hardinge,
Oxford-street, Jan. roughs, I leave to your reflection. I'profess 28, 1785.
to wish that power and property may go to“ A few words upon the last sentence in
gether, and am therefore not very anxious your note as to your democratical principles
for the plebeian system. of Reform, of which you say you gave me
" Ali I shall add is, that, if I were to conearly notice. The question now grows more
sider only my own emolument and that of serious, and therefore let us understand one
my son (for Í look no further), I should be another. I never wished you to vote against happy that any scheme took place that your opinion upon any subject, por do I
would enable me to convert my privilege wish it now. Your principles, however, can
into an increase of income, which is a far not be more decided upon the business of
more solid advantage than what is called Reform than mine ; nor are they half so
importance and consideration. Weigh ali strongly pledged to the public. Old Sarum this calmly in your own mind, and assure has two representatives ; upon one of them
yourself that no difference of opinion will I have not the smallest claim, because I ne
ever make an alteration in the affectionate ver pretended any kindness to him in the regard with which I am faithfully seat I gave him. It is to be sure, even in
CAMELFORD.” his instance, however, a whimsical thing, Perhaps, however, we cannot do that from his connection with Pitt he feels justice to his Lordship’s opinions, either himself under a necessity of subverting, as as to good sense or purity, without exfar as his vote goes, the seat he is entrusted
tracting a passage from the letter which with by his constituents, or, if you chuse to
follows the above :call it so, by his constituent. But were he to vote against what Pitt, to whom he owes “ At this moment neither you nor l are it, professes to have at heart, I am well acquainted with the plan Mr. Pitt has aware it might be interpreted by the ene- adopted; all we know with certainty is, that mies of his friend as inconsistency and dou- any augmentation of county members alone ble dealing. What is your case ? the argu- is quite unsatisfactory to the wishes of the ment cuts exactly the other way.
Who reformers, and in the teeth of their prowill believe, if they see you take a part in fessed principles, either of democracy or direct opposition to what I have so often equality in proportion, or the right of acdeclared to be my deliberate opinion, that tual representation; and that any extinction there is not a game played between us for of boroughs, without proof of delinquency or the sake of Aattering the Minister's favour- forfeiture, is either an act of arbitrary vioite object! My line has been distinct, and lence, and therefore in every sense of the I have never departed from it. I dread every word unconstitutional, or it is liable to objecchange; and at this moment in particular tions insuperable, if it is attempted to be put think it not only unnecessary, but, consider- into a shape that will make it optional withing the state of Scotland and Ireland, I think out injustice.
328 Review.-Nichols's Literary Illustrations, vol. VI. [April,
“Do not imagine, however, my dear In a letter dated Lyons, Nov. 19, 1788, friend, that I wish to persuade you against he begins :your conviction; use your own discretion,
“ Heavens! what a misfortune does your act upon your own feelings in perfect freedom: all I have to beg of you is, that if you thing else. I loved him (George 111.) as
letter announce to me! I can think of noapprehend your duty obliges you to take a
who bore his faculties so meekly.' I part contrary to my opinions, you will at the same time find an opportunity of making it
feel gratitude to him as one who so lately clearly understood, that it is so far from be
honoured me with proofs of his esteem and ing in concert with me, that it is in direct
gracious distinction; but what are my priopposition to those sentiments which I have
vate feelings to those of the public? I con. so repeatedly declared, and which I shall
clude, before this answer reaches you, our entertain to my dying day.
fate will have been decided; in truth, I al“ Having now explained our thoughts ready look upon the stroke as past. '1 dare to each other freely on both sides, let us
not look forward. What a revolution we are drop the subject, and hope that it will be
to expect; not only England, but all Euthe only important one upon which there
rope, trembles at the expected change of will ever be such a difference of sentiment
men and measures! Our situation was ton between you and your faithful and affection
prosperous ; happy in our interior governate,
ment and respected abroad, every power
looked up to us to restore and to preserve In 1787, Lord Camelford visited the peace of Europe. Youog as our minister several parts of the Continent, particu- is in years, the wisdom of experience seemed Jarly Italy, where he continued to pass
to be born with him, and he was regarded as the greater part of the remainder of his a consummate statesman in the wisest cabilife. His letters from abroad, although but we know already that they are likely to
nets. What will succeed him we are to see ; his health was much decayed, are writ
be such as will be neither possessed of the ten with great vivacity, and contain
confidence of the nation or the reverence of many curious remarks, both on what foreign princes. Pitt has shewn himself was passing at home, and on the man
great in power, it remains for him to supners, &c. of the country he visired.
port when deprived of office the high opinion While at Rome, Lord C. exerted him
he has acquired. If he is betrayed into the self to procure an order of treasury, or an petulance of opposition, and lends himself, act of parliament, is the latter should be as all have done before him, to be at the thonght necessary, to relieve the English head of a faction, instead of consistently esartists and studenis from the heavy du- pousing the cause of his country, whether ties imposed upon the importation into the proposition comes from one side of the this country of moulds, plaister casts,
House or the other, he will be no more in models, or other auxiliaries of the arts,
future than a common man with good parts." and was successful. A young noble
But his Lordship was soon informed man, now Earl Grosvenor, being on his that he had no cause for despair, and return home, was intrusted by Lord C. although at a distance from the scene with this commission, and it is perhaps of action, he was statesman enough to unnecessary to add that he alterwards follow, from his own judginent, the distinguished himself by forming one measures by which Mr. Pili's rash and of the finest collections of pictures in impatient enemies rendered his trithis country. We well recollect, but umphs easy, and defeated their own with shame, that the commencement purposes in a manner which he could of Mr. Pili's administration was not hardly anticipate. For all this they remarkable for much liberality in the
were chiefly indebted to the unconstipromotion of art and science; witness
tutional politics of Lord Loughbothe sale of the Houghton collection, rough, and the frantic and ungovernathe rejection of Dr. Hunter's offer of ble passions of Mr. Burke, who, disaphis museum, &c. At that time, taxation pointed in the popularity he expected was every thing. Another and a better from his favourite hobby, the impeachspirit now prevails ; and we trust will ment of Hastings, thought that he had render the last two reigns as illustrious now got hold of a force which nothing for arts as for arms, although we may could overturn; but which was overstill be annually disgusted by the
turned by the hand of Providence, the wretched parsimony that would hazard voice of ihe nation, and his own insathe destruction of our choicest mu
tuation. We shall return with pleaseums and libraries.
sure to this subject, and to the sentis During Lord C.'s residence abroad,
ments of Lord C. in our next. his Majesty's alarming illness occurred.
(To be continued.)
1831.] Review.-Cunningham's British Architects.
329 The Lives of the most eminent British Archi- among the arts." Jones was the Vic
tects. By Allan Cunningham. (Murray's truvius of England; the establisher of Family Library, No. XIX.)
a classic taste; and if his opportunities THIS forms the fourth volume of had been equal to his designs, his “the Lives of British Painters, Sculp- country would have possessed prouder tors, and Architects," which have been memorials of his talents than those to already noticed with just commenda- which she now points the admiring tion. The first in this useful collec- finger. Of his early life little is retion is the life of William of Wyke- corded, and that little not to be de ham; one of a class of men, who, pended on. His taste was formed by " trained to other studies, and living the intense study of Greek and Romant in the daily discharge of devout duties, architecture. He designed a palace for planned and reared edifices with a ma- James the First, of the most magnifithematical skill, a knowledge of effect,
cent kind; the whole of which, says and a sense of elegance and usefulness Mr. Cunningham slyly, is still in the which regular practitioners have never portfolio, except that beautiful detached surpassed.". In reviewing the labours fragmeni, from whose middle window of this celebrated man, Mr. Cunning his unfortunate son Charles the First ham 'is naturally led by his subject stepped out upon a scaffold. Nor was into an investigation of the style of ar- ihe talent of Jones confined to archichitecture denominated the Gothic. tecture; he was the deviser of court He claims for it a character original pageants and masques, and in conjuncand peculiar; and, unable to reconcile tion with Ben Jonson produced sevethe conflicting theories of Evelyn, ral, of which the latter claimed the Gray, Warburion, and others, he finds poetry, and assigned the machinery to in it a distinct order, not inappro- his partner. The result, as might have priately denominated the Order of the been expected, was perpetual strise Catholic Church, fitted and adapted to
and merciless satire, in which the irrithe religion of the country, corresponde table poet lampooned his colleague ing with the scenery, and suited io the with “ a porcupine quill dipped in peculiarities of the climate; and with. gall.” The works of Jones were nuout denying the resemblance that may merous, but few remain; enough, exist between the Grecian and the however, is lest 10 show of what his Gothic, he considers the general theory genius was capable, had he fallen on to be merely an ingenious fallacy, better times. In his restoration of St. which supposes it to be a happy cor- Paul's, he was thwarted by the Parliaruption of the Greek.
ment; and the following is the melanThe character of Wykeham is vigor. choly close of his labours and his life: ously drawn:
“The chief of the works on which he had “Wykeham was the Cardinal Wolsey of depended for fame was stopt by Parliament Edward the Third, with more than Wolsey's far short of completion, and the whole strucmunificence, and nothing of his worldly am- ture treated with such contumely that its bition. He was a wise and sagacious minis- destruction was dreaded. Tradition says, ter to the state, and a watchful and faith- that the sorrowing old man was sometimes ful one to the Church, bringing to either to be seen wandering in the vicioity of service strong good sense a wonderful apti
Whitehall and St. Paul's Cathedral, looking Lude for business—eloquence full of persua- at those splendid but incomplete works. sion-a temper whose serenity nothing from one of the windows of the former, the could disturb—a courage which no trials royal master, for whom he had made so many dismayed—and, last and best of all, a cha- masques and planned so many mansions, was racter of unsullied honesty. Though a rigid conducted to an undeserved fate; and he Romanist, he was merciful to the Wickliff- could see with his own eyes the degradation ites, when his brethren set an example of se
of St. Paul's. During the Usurpation,' verity; he adorned and enriched the churches says Dugdale, the stately portico with the which others of the clergy desired to plun- beautiful Corinthian pillars being converted der; and he laid out his wealth in colleges into shops for seamstresses and other trades, and schools, that knowledge might increase with lofts and stairs ascending thereto-the in the land."
statues had been despitefully thrown down The next architect noticed by Mr.
and broken iu pieces.' Of this he was wit
ness; but he did not live to see the unfiCunningham is Inigo Jones; "a
nished cathedral with its magnificent portico name," says Walpole, “ which would
wrapt in those flames which consumed so alone save England from the reproach much of London. 'Inigo,' says Walpole, of not having her representatives “ tasted early of the misfortunes of his masGent. Mag. April, 1831.
[April, ter. He was not only a favourite but a Ro- and landscape-gardeving. "His name," man Catholic. Grief, misfortunes, and age says Mr. C. “ was so famous in many terminated his life. He died at Somerset ways in his own time, that it could House, and was buried in the Church of St. not be omitted in these sketches ; but Bennet's, Paul's Wharf, where a monument I doubt whether any man would take erected to his memory was destroyed in the it as a compliment now to be told that fire of London.' Walpole adds some errodeous dates. We know that Jones was
he painted a picture, planned a monu. eighty years old when he died in June, ment, designed a house, or laid out a
garden, like William Kent." To Jones succeeds Sir Christopher
Of Lord Burlington we are told that Wren. His life is written with great he was an elegant copyist, admired in perspicuity, and forms a very interest- his own day, but has been ever since ing portion of the volume. Among his
on the wane. The colonnade of Burchurches, St. Paul's, St. Mary-le-Bow, lington House and Chiswick House St. Stephen's Walbrook, and St. Bride's are of his designing, but his fame is Fleet-sireet, are well-known triumphs best secured by the Hauery of Pope. of his genius. His steeples, says Mr.
The volume concludes with the life Cunningham, are universally admired, of Sir William Chambers, who has and deserve to be studied by mathemas written upon art with more talent ticians as well as by architects; they than he exemplified it. No one who surpass all others in geometrical beauty. desires the talent of an architect can As the poverty of James confined the acquire it without the treatise of Cham. magnificent conceptions of Inigo Jones bers. This is Mr. Cunningham's praise, to paper, so the profligacy of Charles and it is deserved. His dissertation on the Second was as fatal to one of the oriental gardening, however, was an noblest designs of Wren. The Com- error in taste, which was severely hanmons voled seventy thousand pounds dled by the celebrated Heroic Épistle for a mausoleum to receive the body of to Sir William Chambers ; a satire, Charles the First. The body was not according to Warton, “cut out by found, for there was no disposition to Walpole, and buckram'd by Mason.” discover it; the money was spent by
There is no one who writes upon the profligate son of the Royal Martyr, art more to our laste than Allan Conand the mausoleum of Wren still lives ningham; he speaks out honestly and -on paper. Insult and indignity were fearlessly; he throws off the trainmels the rewards of Sir Christopher Wren; of prepossession and prejudices, and he was ignominously dismissed froní like the giant tears off' like wishes ? his employments in the 86th year of the fetters that would enthral the freehis age, through the intrigues of a fac- dom of his inind; he sustains his opition, and the dullness of the first nions with the manly independence of sovereign of the House of Brunswick. unbiassed intellect, and sees with bis
Castle Howard and Blenheim are own eyes; hence his remarks, whether the trophies of Vanbrugh, whose life of blame or praise, are valuable, as well is next upon the record. Mr. C. has from the conviction we feel of their spoken a volume against the writings sincerity, as from the talent with which of this licentious dramatist, when he they are enforced. expresses a hope that they are for ever closed to our countrywomen. His Allempts in Verse, by John Jones, an old character and merits are well summed Servant, with some account of the writer, up in the closing passage of his bio. wrillen by himself ; and an Introduclory graphy.
Essay on the Lives and Works of our unIt may be sufficient lo say of Gibbs educated Poets. By Robert Southey, Esq. that he was the architect of St. Mar- Poel Laureate. Murray. tin's Church, the chief beauty of MR. SOUTHEY has furnished which, amongst many beauties, is the about one half of this volume, aud we portico
“His lines,” if we may be al- need hardly say by far the most intelowed the expression, fell on plea- resting portion. The attempts" of santer places” than those of Jones and the servant are introduced by an Essay Wren; he was largely employed, and from a master, in which the lives of was a liberal and charitable man. some half dozen of the great “unedu
Of Kent it is said, that he enjoyed cated” are traced, and their works cris the rare felicity of maintaining his fame ticised, in a tone of feeling honourable in painting, sculpture, architecture, to him who leads the van of the eru
331 dite. His own “healthy understand- over, I considered that, as the Age of Reaing,' his own “
generous spirit,” and son had commenced, and we were advancing the goodness of his own heart, are with quick step in the March of lotellect, conspicuous in every page of the vo
Mr. Jones would in all likelihoud be the lume; they have buoyed up the fragile last versifyer of his class; something might bark of poor Jones, and they will bear properly be said of his predecessors, the it down the stream of time, unscathed
poets in low life, who with more or less by the rocks, or, to be poetical, un
good fortune had obtained notice in their harmed by the Scylla of criticism, or
day; and here would be matter for an inthe Charybdis of neglect.
troductory essay, not uninteresting in itself,
and contributing something towards our The introduction of Jones to Mr. literary history. And if I could thus render Southey was accidental; a visit of the
some little service to a man of more than latter to Harrowgate, which had been ordinary worth (for such upon the best tesnoticed in a Leeds paper, induced the timony Mr. Jones appeared to be), it would poet, who was resident in a family, to be something not to be repented of, even address a letter to Mr. S., with a speci- though I should foil in the hope (which men of his poetry; a circumstance by failure, however, I did not apprehend) of no means uncommon, for as offers of affording, some gratification to “gentle tortoise-shell tom-cats had been the
readers : " for readers there still are, who, plague of Sir Joseph Banks's life, the having escaped the epidemic disease of critiMSS. of poets had been the annoyance
cism, are willing to be pleased, and grateful of Mr. Southey's. The odds were
to those from whose writings they derive
amusement or instruction." against poor Jones; but the letter was perused, and the incipient displeasure sketches of the lives of Taylor the Wa
We have then very interesting dispelled. Whether the fortuitous circumstances of Harrowgate leisure and
ter Poet, Stephen Duck, James WoodHarrowgate waters, had any share in house, John Bennet, Anne Yearsley, the business, we are not told; but the
and Bryant. We are happy to find result was certainly the volume be
that it is Mr. Southey's intention to do
honour to the memory of Bloomfield by “Upon perusing the poems,” says Mr.S.,
a separate work. “ It is little to the cre“I wished they had been either better or
dit of the age,” says Mr. S., “ that the worse. Had I consulted my own convenience, latter days of a man whose name was at or been fearful of exposing myself to misre- one time so deservedly popular should presentation and censure, I should have told have been passed in poverty, and perhaps my humble applicant that although his shortened by distress, that distress havverses contained abundant proof of a talent ing been brought on by no misconduct for poetry, which, if it had been cultivated,
or imprudence of his own." This is might have produced good fruit, they would not be deemed worthy of publication in these
true; and we happen to know that
this distress would have been aggratimes. But on the other hand, there were in them such indications of a kind and happy sionate kindness of the Literary Fund.
vated but for the frequent and compasdisposition, so much observation of natural objects, such a relish of the innocent plea: In a simple narrative written by him.
But we must speak of Mr. Jones. sures offered by nature to the eye, and ear, and heart, which are not closed against them, self, he tells in a natural manner of his and so pleasing an example of the moral be- early difficulties, his limited means of nefit derived from those pleasures, when acquiring the most ordinary education, they are received by a thankful and thought- and the first stirrings of the poetical spirit ful mind, that I persuaded myself there were within hiin; his propensity to poetry many persons who would partake, in perus
does not appear to have excited his vaing them, the same kind of gratification nity or impaired his usefulness; he is which I had felt. There were many, I thought, who would be pleased at seeing know him.
still in service, respected by all who
His letter thus conhow much intellectual enjoyment had been
cludes: attained in humble life, and in very unfavourable circumstances; and that this exer- “ I therefore hope, Sir, that if some of cise of the mind, instead of rendering the in- the fruits of my humble muse be destined to dividual discontented with his station, had see the light, and should not be thought conduced greatly to his happiness, and if it worthy of commendation, no person of a behad not made him a good man, had contri
neficent disposition will regret any little enbuted to keep him so. This pleasure should couragement given to an old servant under in itself, methought, be sufficient to con
such circumstances ; but above all, Sir, I tent those subscribers who might kindly pa: hope there will be found no person so illtronize a little volume of his verses. More- natured as to upbraid you for the part you