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Review.- Divarication of the New Testament. [May, text of Scripture is expressly forbidden. tician. We shall therefore extract bis Both these violations have been coin. Vindication of the Trinity, because it mitted in support of the Unitarian no- will tend to give our readers a comlions, and have been repeatedly exposed pleie notion of the mosle of argumenta, and confuled. Even Hume has ad. vion proper to the Transcendental mitled that there can exist no contra- school. diction, philosophically, 10 ihe doc

“ It is absolutely impossible for man to trine of the Trinity. We are taught, think of oneness-it is a complete nonentity, too, that all Scripture was written by consistiog neither of matter, form, por coninspiration of the Holy Spirit, because nexion of these two elements. Hence, when it should be deemed infallible.

the human inind cogitates, it must think of But the Unitarians say, that they something. But a thing which is composed will admit nothing which is not cog

neither of maller nor form, is positively nonizable by their own human reason? thing. Consequently, the word thing alAre the laws of Providence cognizable ways implies a compound of three eleinents by any human reason whatever? Does

in one—à triad of principles, or, in fact, a

TRINITY IN UNITY. Secoudly, if we think not the very principle of a reveuled

of a material object, it is quite evident that seligion imply inalters to which nu

it inust consist of matler, or parts, which man reason cannot reach? Is the cha.

fill up space, and occupy time, that is to racter of revealed religion to be tried

say, the thing must be an object of expeby that of natural religion ?

rience, and can only be known by its addressIn short, from this excellent confu- ing the senses ; for instance, a house, & talion, which we warmly recommend horse, a tree, and so on. The materials of to all Christians (properly so called), which the thing consists, as the bricks we hesitate not to affirin that the tenets which

compose the house, are the matter ; of the Unitarians tend to alienate the the arrangement of these parts of matter people fron belief in the sacred Scrip- coustitutes its shape, as round, square, or tures (see p. 295), and that

oval, and is the form of the house. But

this form could not be given to pothing; “ their principles only serve to shelter

hence the necessity of the matter; and and cover Deises and others, who arraying

neither of these can be annulled without themselves under the guise of Unitarianism, screen from public view and public odium parable condition

totally annihilating the thing, with this inse

- that these particular the indecencies of a more odious infidelity.

bricks constitute this identical house with There is nothing, indeed, in the system to

this determinate form. So that these two captivate the affections of the soul; all is

elements necessarily imply connexion a third ; cold and comfortless-composed of unsatis

and the three together, constitute the thing factory quibbles, gross distortions, and

called a bouse. This reasoning applies to crooked criticism, which, though the coin

the whole of nature, and quite exhausts the of an ingenious mint, is base and worthless; a system it is, that ovly flatters a false pride of au endless series of triads. Now, as

entire mundane system, which is composed of sophisin, at the expense of all that is

matter is divisible ad infinitum, it must conpious, all that is good iv philosophy."'- sist of an infinite number of parts; and no

one part, strictly speaking, can exist by it

self, otherwise the division would not be inDivarication of the New Testament into Doe- finite : the least number of parts that can

trine and History. By Thomas Wirg- be connected is two; but if these two parts man, Esq. Author of Principles of Tran

were not connected, there would not be a scendental Philosophy, and the articles

thing. The elements here are two parts, Kant, Logic, Metaphysics, Moral Philo

and their union; making three necessary elesophy, and Philosophy, in the Encyclo

ments, nove of which can be annulled. It pædia Londinensis. Part 1. The Four

is quite obvious, that every object of nature Gospels. 12mo, pp. 100.

which fills up time and space, conforins to THE Unitarian body has lately (to this law of a Trinity in Unily. Let us carry use a phrase of Shakspeare) “ been this parity of reasoning to mental things, punched full of deadly holes,” by the which exist in time only. Thus all mathe* Trial of the Unilarians,” and other matical figures equally conform to this law :

take a line for instance; it consists of parts works among them. This Cant with

in connexion, and is, in fact, a series of a C, certainly does not imply skill in

triads ; for the smallest possible part of a logic or metaphysics, but Kant with a

mental line must consist of two mathematiK, denotes the founder of a German

cal points and their union-a triangle must school of abstruse philosophy, whose consist of three lines, united at three points, hierophant in this country is Mr. Wirg. yet forming only one coaception. A circle inan, a very masterly and subtle dialec.

consists of a ceatre, periphery, and radius

P. 293.

1831.) Review.-Bp. of Chester's Practical Exposition, &c. 437 three necessary elements, none of which can professional men make, without such be annulled. This law holds with all mental aids? operations, as substance and properties in The purport of this work is given in connection constitute a thing ; cause, effect, the ville; and it would be below its and the necessary dependence of the one on

merits to say that it is not as well exthe other; for that no cause which has

ecuted as intended. We shall take not produced an effect, and there can be no

our extract from a difficult text, that effect without a cause : so that all mental things obey this law. We have only to as

regarding subinission to injury, and recend one step higher in the scale of reason

turning evil for good. It shows the ing, and carry this notion of a trinity in imperious necessity of judicious comunity to the infinite, and the Christian doc- ments. trine will be fully displayed."

“ Public justice, public duty, and in “ Infiuite nothingness is a nonentity.

many cases, important private interests, Therefore, if the mind of man is to be oc

must of course make exceptions to the latter cupied with a rational thought, it must of those rules. Christ himself appealed to think of an infinite something; but this the law against the injustice with which he must consist of some infinite parts, or it

was smitten. One of the officers which would be an infinite nothing. Now the

stood by, struck Jesus with the palm of the least possible number of infinite parts that hand, saying, “ Answerest thou the High can be united is two, but unless these two

Priest so?' Jesus answered him, •16 I are connected by a third, they could not

have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil; constitute an infinite something. Hence, but, if well, why smitest thou me (John even in the infinite, the same process of rea

xviii. 22) ?' Aud St. Paul thought it not soning is required to constitute a thing, inconsistent with his Christian patience to namely, three elements united in one, or a ask, · Is it lawful for you to scourge a man Trinity in Unity."--pp. xxii.-xxv.

that is a Roman, and uncondemoed (Acts The plan of this work, from which xxii. 25) ?' So likewise with respect to the ierni “Divarication” is used, is alms-giving, the same Apostle proves to us to show, that

that this duty is iutended to have limits, “ by disencumbering the principles of the

and to be practised with such discretion, as Christian religion from historical facts, their

not to injure the morals of individuals, or universal adoption is facilitated;"

the welfare of the community; when he lays For the author says, by way of axiom, should“. eat his own bread;' and that if

down a general maxim, that every man that

any will not work, neither should he eat. “ Historical facts may be doubted, but “ Still it is certain, that impressions that true religion being of a spiritual nature, strong like these : resist not evil ; let thy must be independent of historical facts."

cloak be taken from thee : yield to those who compel you unjustly: give to him that asketh thee:-expressivns like these would

pot be used, if the danger were not the other Practical Exposition of the Gospels of St.

way, namely, that we should be too impaMatthew and St. Mark, in the form of tient, when suffering wrongfully, too eager Lectures, intended to assist the practice of to seek compensation, too tenacious in Domestic Instruction and Devolion, By maintaining supposed rights, and too apt to John-Bird Sumner, D.D. Lord Bishop of look about for reasons why we should not Chester. 8vo, pp. 622.

give lo him that asketh.IF things are hard to be understood, illustrations are indispensable ; and The Characters of Theophraslus illustrated by this is sufficient to show the utility of Physiognomical Sketches, to which are sulcomments. Indeed, no man who has joined Hints in the Individual Varieties of not an interest in concealinent of the Human Nature, and general Remarks. real meaning, will object to them, un- 12mo, pp. 154. less it be some conscientious person “ GOOD sense,” says Stuart, “conwho dreads the comment, lest it should sists in that temper of mind which be more regarded than the text. Hu- enables its possessor to view at all times man error may ihus, he thinks, super- with perfeci accuracy and coolness all the sede Divine authority. This is how- various circumstances of his situation, ever only a matter which may, but so that each of them may produce its does not necessarily mislead; and it due impression upon him, without any does not appear from Coke upon Lit- exaggeration arising from his own petleton, and similar works, that the culiar habits. But to a man of ill-reLaw of the land has ever been seriously gulated imagination, external circumperverted; and what blunders would stances only serve as hints to excite

P. xl,

438

Review.-Godwin's Thoughts on Mar. (May, his own thoughts; and the conduct he like man, that there should not be pursues has in general far less reference both impulses and motives, and neither io his real situation, than to some iina- Liberty or Necessity, properly speaking, ginary one in which he conceives him. apply to the case. Suppose, as in that self placed : in consequence of which, before us, a man inclined 10 commit a while he appears to himself to be acting robbery, but not doing it from fear, it with the most perfect wisdom and con- is plain that there exists a collision of sistency, he may frequently exhibit to molives; and that there must be a others all the appearances of folly." power of choosing between these mo

Thus Stuari, who here clearly illus. iives is also plain, from one man como trates the moral causes of most of those mitting theli, and another avoiding it. particularities of character which Admitting then, that there must be a Theophrastus describes as obtaining in mnotive, it is not a necessary one, beGreece in his day, and which mutatis cause necessity admits of no choice mutandis may be substantially found whatever; if it did, it is no longer nein our own. "The valuable part of this cessity, and the dispute, in our judgment work is however the lighi which it is, as io man, a mere inapplicable lothrows upon Greek manners and cus- gomachy. Besides, we doubt, with toms, and modes of thinking. If the Dr. Wheeler, * whether a ralional noies of Casaubon are much valued by being can be otherwise than so constius, who use his edition, those of the tuted as to have a will to choose right present translation are better suited to

or wrong; and if he does so by one an English public.

motive superseding another, that is a The book is embellished with cu- question merely implying a mode of rious caricatures; and all the matter is agency. novel and curious.

Another passage (by the way with

out acknowledgment from Voltaire) is Thoughts on Man, his Nature, Productions, this: and Discoveries, interspersed with some

“ Either God, according to our ideas of particulars respecting the Author. By benevolence, would remove evil out of the William Godwin. 8vo, pp. 471,

world, and cannot ; or he can, and will not. MR. GODWIN is unquestionably If he has the will, and not the power, this a man of geojus, and as such, an idio- argues weakness ; if he has the power and syncratic. In the works of such men, not the will, this seems to be malevolence." we expect both real light and mere phosphorescence, both reason and pa- That God can, if he will, is a posturadox. There are all the characteristics late not to be disputed; but arguments of these in the work before us, but the drawn from power, can never be conmost sleepy reader cannot peruse it clusive, because there may be reasons without desiring at least to keep awake; why that power is not thought fit to for he will be sure in the end to see be exercised. Matter, as matter, can far better into the nature of man, than have only communicated properties. he did before. Upon certain subule According to Scripture, and analogous metaphysical points, we do not how. testimony, man had originally the ever think that Mr. Godwin has been

utmost moral perfectibility of which successful. These points are Liberty and his conformation was susceptible, was Necessity, and ihe existence of Evil. a guileless adult infant, and if there be

Mr. Godwin is a necessarian, be- particular conformations, the commucause he says (p. 226), that as every nicated properties must be adapted to event requires a cause, the human will them, a'rule which nature seems to is guided by, motives, and therefore is have observed in regard to all beings not free. Now the question is not whatever. And can malevolence exist whether the acts are free, only whether in God? Certainly not, because there the motives are so; but it is certain is no such thing as evil; and the blunthat one motive may be made to super- der of Voltaire originated in his igo sede another, as e. g. a man does not norance that evil is merely a privative commit a robbery, because he is afraid of good, and that privatives have only of being hanged for it. Wherever a nominal being. The inattention to there are passions, there must be im. a like distinction, that life may undergo pulses; wherever ihere is reason, there different material exbibitions, but canmust be choice. It is utterly incon. sistent with the existence of an animal * Theologic. Lectures, i. 126.

-P. 417.

1831.]
Review.-Godwin's Thoughts on Man.

439 not be extinguished, and that death is stood in need of a protector and champion. only the privative, seems to have led The Knights, on the other hand, were Mr. Godwin into a manifest error in p. taught to derive their fame and their honour 419, vir that the immortality of the from the suffrages of the ladies. Each sex soul, and the doctrine of future retribu

stood in need of the other, and the basis of

their union was mutual esteem. tion, is mere assumption.

“ The effect of this was to give a tone of To relieve these unpleasant differ

imagination to all their intercourse. A man ences of opinion, we extract the fol

was no longer merely a man, nor a woman lowing philosophical and beautiful il

merely a woman. They were taught mutual lustration of the effects of “ Chivalry;" deference. The woman regarded her proas the best known to us.

tector as something illustrious and admi“ Its principle was built upon a theory of rable; and the man considered the smiles the sexes giving to each a relative iin- and approbation of beauty as the adequate portance, and assigoing to both functions reward of his coils and his dangers. These full of honour and grace. The Knights modes of thinking iutroduced a nameless (and every gentleman during that period in grace into all the commerce of society. It due time became a Knight) were taught, as was the poetry of life. Hence originated the main features of their vocation, the the delightful narratives and fictions of ro• love of God and the ladies.' The ladies, mance; and human existence was no longer in return, were regarded as the genuine cen- the bare naked train of vulgar incidents, sors of the deeds of Knighthood. From which for so many ages of the world it had these principles arose a thousand lessons of been accustomed to be. It was clothed in humanity. The ladies regarded it as their resplendent hues, and wore all the tints of glory to assist their champions to arm and the rainbow. Equality fled and was no to disarm, to perforia for them even menial more; and love, almighty, and perdurable services, to atteod them in sickness, and to Love, came to supply its place. dress their wounds. They bestowed on them “ By means of this state of things, the their colours, and sent them forth to the vulgar impulse of the sexes towards each field hallowed with their benedictions. The other, which alone was known to the former Knights, on the other hand, considered any ages of the world, was transformed into slight towards the fair sex as an indelible son.ewhat of a totally different nature. It stain to their order; they contemplated the became a kind of worship. The fair sex graceful patronesses of their valour with a looked upon their protectors, their fathers, feeling that partook of religious homage and their husbands, and the whole train of their veneration, and esteemed it as perhaps the chivalry, as something more than human. first duty of their profession, to relieve the There was a grace in their motions, a galwrongs and avenge the injuries of the less lantry in their bearing, and a generosity in powerful sex.

their spirit of enterprise, that the softness “ This simple outline, us to the relative of the female heart found irresistible. Nor position of the one sex and the other, gave a less, on the other hand, did the Knights renew face to the whole scheme and arrange- gard the sex, to whose service and defence ments of civil society. It is like those aida they were sworn as the objects of their permirable principles in the order of the mate- petual deference. They approached them rial universe, or those grand discoveries with a sort of gallant timidity, listened to brought to light from time to time by supes their behests with submission, and thought rior genius, so obvious and simple, that we the longest courtship and devotion nobly wonder the most common understanding recompensed by the final acceptance of the could have missed them, yet so pregnant

fair. with results, that they seem at once to put a

“ The romance and exaggeration chanew life, and inspire a new character into racteristic of these modes of tbinking, have every part of a mighty and all-comprehen- gradually worn away in modern times; but sive mass.

much of what was most valuable in them “The passion between the sexes, in its has remainerl. Love has iu later ages never grosser sense, is a momentary impulse been divested of the tenderness and consideinerely; and there was danger that, when ration which were thus rendered some of its the fit and violence of the passion was over, most estimable features. A certain desire the whole would subside into inconstancy in each party to exalt the other, and regard and a roving disposition, or at least into in- it as worthy of admiration, became inexdifference aud almost brutal neglect. But tricably interwoven with the simple passion. the institutions of chivalry immediately gave A sense of the honour that was borne by a new face to this. Either sex conceived a the one to the other, had the happiest deep and permanent interest in the other. effect in qualifying the familiarity and unrelo the unsettled state of society, which cha- serve in the communion of feelings and senracterized the period when these institutions timents, without which the attachment of arose, the defenceless were liable to assaults the sexes cannot subsist. It is something of multiplied kinds, and the fair perpetually like what the mystic divines describe of the

Pp. 958.

440
Review.-State Papers, Vol. I.

[May, beatific visions, where entire wonder and cretary are co-ordinate, and the division adoration are not judged to be incompatible of July is merely matter of arrangewith the most ardent affection, and all ment, for the more convenient despatch meaner and selfish regards are annihilaced.” of husiness.

“ It will be readily conceived how rapidly Slale Papers published under the authority of mulated in the office of the Secretary of

the mass of correspondence must have accuHis Majesty's Commission, Vol. 1: King State, after the revival of letters in the sixHenry the Eighth, Parts I. and II. 4lo.

teenth century; yet no provision was, for

some time, made, for its being received into THIS is the first publication of the any certain depository. Each succeeding Commissioners appointed in 1825 10 Secretary had it in his own custojy; thre edit such of the documents deposited apartments provided for him were extremely in the State Paper Office, as they confined ; and the fucure destination of his should consider « may be fitly prinied official papers depended, in great measure, and published, with advantage to the upoo accident, upon the care or the negliPublic, and without prejudice to the gence of the individual, or his clerks, and, Royal service.” It is very evident that

above all, upon the good or evil fate which the latter condition can only apply to

awaited the Secretary when he resigned bis papers of recent date; the sole requi- cil (the vffice, in which, in those days, and

seals. Even in the office of the Privy Counsites therefore with regard 10 early pe

until the Revolution, all the affairs of the riods of our history, are judgment in ihe

realm were debated and resolved on), no selection, accuracy in the transcription, written record of the proceedings was preand skill in the arrangement. The served until 1540, when it was ordered that professional inerits of Mr. Lemon, the a regular register should be kept, and two Deputy Keeper of State Papers, and clerks (Paget and Petre) were appointed to editor of the present volume, are per. keep it. This register commences on the fecily well known; and we have only 18th of August in that year. The necessity lo regret that State-paper work, like

of a repository for State Papers, began svou Church work, moves on so slowly.

afterwards to be felt; and, in 1578, an In the preface the history of the

office for keeping papers and records conState Paper Office is concisely detailed, cerning matters of state and council, was including that of the post of Secretary established, and Dr. Thomas Wilson (who

was then master of requests, and afterwards of State, 10 whose control it has malu.

became one of the Secretaries of State), rally devolved. The Secretaryship was

was appointed the keeper and register of formerly not a parent office, but con- those papers. Before this establishment ferred by the mere delivery of the was formed, it is not surprising that que King's signet; the names of the pero merous papers of great importance should sons who filled it are therefore only to have been entirely lost, and others have be incidentally gleaned among our an- fallen into the possession of private persons. cient records. There was only one

Sir Robert Cotion, in the reign of James Secretary of State until the disgrace of the First, and Sir Joseph Williamson, in Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex;

that of Charles the Second, were most assiwhen Henry the Eighth, whose royal scattered papers. The collections of the

dnous and successful collectors of those power had been almost ierged in ihe influence of that niinister and his great

former now form a portion of the library of

the British Museum. Sir Joseph William. predecessor Wolsey, appears to have

sov placed his collections in the State Paper considered that he should ensure more Office, where they still remain. Another independence for the future, by ap- mass of papers, consisting principally of letpointing iwo Secretaries. Iu 1708 a ters addressed to Cardinal Wolsey, and to ihird was established for the affairs of Cromwell Earl of Essex, remained in the Scotland; but was discontinued in 1746. custody of the Crown; but, instead of being In 1768 a third was again appointed deposited in the proper place, found its way as Secretary for the Colonies; but was into the Chapter House at Westminster, suppressed by Mr. Burke's Act in 1782. and is there preserved. The three great reIn 1794 the Duke of Poriland became ceptacles, therefore, of State Papers, antea third Secretary; and the arrangement

cedent to the year 1540, and partially down then established has since been undis

to the year 1578, are the State Paper Office,

the Chapter House, and the Coitonian LiTurbed. From an early period 10.1782, brary. And so entirely accidental seems to the two departments were denominated have been the preservation of many of the The Northern and Southern ; and sub- papers, that, of a series relative to the same sequently to that year the Home and subject, a part will frequently be found in Foreign; but the powers of each Se- each of these three libraries. Nay, of two

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