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Literary and Scientific Intelligence.

451 volume will be inserted the triumphal song the tact and talent by which the chair was of the battle of Brunanburh, and the other filled, there existed a very grateful feeling metrical pieces in the Saxon Chronicle; and of respect for the noble Lord, who, himself also the funeral dirge over Brithdoth, who a literary man of the first eminence, and fell gloriously at the battle of Meldun.- ex officio the guardian of literary rights, The fifth, sixth, and seventh volumes will had made time amidst the almost endless contain the Rhythmical Chronicle of Bri- engagements of his high station to preside tain, supposed to have been written by a at the festival of a society the most congenial priest named Layamon, at the close of the perhaps with his present tastes and early as13th century. — The eighth, ninth, and sociation, of any charitable institution that tenth volumes are intended to make up an could be proposed to him. Nor should the Anglo-Saxon Homilarium, or mirror of the kindness of His Grace the Duke of Somerdivinity of our Anglo-Saxon preachers, who set, the President of the Institution, be forwere the great instructors of the new Chris- gotten on this occasiun—with a feeling that tian world. The work is to be printed by does honour to his rank and character, he subscription, in 8vo volumes of about 30 not only readily forevent his claim to the sheets, and a volume to be published about chair, but assisted in supporting the Lord every six months.

Chancellor in it; thus evincing, that the LITERARY FUND Society,

first object of his regard was the welfare of

the Society over which he has so long preMay 11. The forty-second anniversary of sided. this Institution was celebrated at Freemason's It is almost needless to recommend this Hall, where upwards of 200 gentlemen of Society to the notice of every man who the first respectability sat down to dinner. values the importance of Literature, and The Lord Chancellor was in the chair, and

can appreciate its moral, civil, and religious was supported amongst others by the fol

effect upon the national character. lowing noble and distinguished persons. His purpose is simply to afford pecuniary asGrace the Duke of Somerset; Lords Mahon, sistance to authors of merit in times of unSelkirk, and Portmore; the Attorney Gene- foreseen distress ; " to stand," as one of its ral, Right Hon. Robert Grant, Judge Hali- Registrars emphatically asserted in the lanburton (Nova Scotia); Sirs John Malcolm, guage of Holy Writ,“ between the living J. E. Swinburne, and W. Clayton ; the and the dead, that the plague may be President of the Royal Academy; Sir Jef- stayed;" to speak the language of hope fry Wyatville, Sir William Beechey, Henry and consolation, at the same moment that it Ellis, Esq. M.P., H. L. Bulwer, Esq. M.P.; administers substantial relief; and to do this Mr. Gurney the King's Counsel ; Drs. without offending the delicacy, or wounding Conolly, Arnot, Ainslie, and A. T. Thomp- the instinctive jealousy of the person reson; Professors Milman, M'Culloch, and lieved. Objects thus benevolently intended Nott; Puets Croly, Sotheby, Montgomery, have been amply realized; and although &c. &c. The body of the hall, we observed, more than forty years' experience of the vawas graced by the presence of almost every Jue of this Society could attest its usefulness, literary man in London. The spectacle was the pathetic statement made by the Rev. most gratifying, and it would be difficult to Mr. Croly, on this last anniversary meeting, assemble a more eplightened and intellectual would alone vindicate the claims of the Li. meeting than that which did honour to this

terary Fund upon public patronage, and festival. Here was the neutral ground on place it in the very highest rank of national which men of all parties had gathered in institutions. amicable parley-every distinction which

ROYAL SOCIETY. separates men of talent into sects and little communities was unknown--every feeling of April 28. The Duke of Sussex, President. selfish exclusiveness was banished the voice A paper was read, On the Anatomy and of faction or of political enmity was hushed. Physiology of the minute and capillary vesOne sentiment animated the whole, and it sels, by Marshal Hall, M.D. F.R.S.E.' The was a sentiment than which nothing tends list of the Council was filled up with the to elevate, to ennoble, and dignify our na- names of George Dollond, esq., John Fred. ture more—for it was connected with the Daniell, esq., and Charles König, esq. amenities of literature, the exercise of cha- May 5. H.R. H. the President in the rity, and the gratification of taste.


papers were read : “On the In proposing the toast of “ Prosperity to effects of Hot Water on the Batrachia," by the Literary Fund," the Lord Chancellor Dr. M. Hall; an account of a new method very eloquently advocated the objects of the of propelling Vessels, by Mr. W. Hale; and Society, and whilst he vindicated the inde- “ Additional thoughts on the use of the pendence of the literary character, he did Ganglions in furnishing Electricity for the not conceal the vicissitudes of the literary production of animal secretions, " by Sir career. His speech was listened to through- Everard Home, Bart. F.R.S. out with deep attention, interrupted only by May 12. H.R.H. the President in the vehement applause; for independently of chair.-Capt. Geo. Wm. Manby of Yar

452 Literary Intelligence.- Antiquarian Researches. [May, mouth, was elected Fellow.-A paper was the British government, took place in Jan. read, “On a peculiar class of Acoustic Fi- 1830. gures, and on certain forms assumed by The Landers, after having reached Youri, groups of particles upon vibrating elastic embarked in a cance on the Niger, or, as it substances," by Michael Faraday, Esq.F.R.S. is called there, the Quarra, and came down

May 19. J. W. Lubbock, Esq. VP. the stream until they reached the sea, in the and Treasurer in the Chair. The following Bight of Biafra. The branch by which they papers were read: An Experimental Exami- came to the coast is called the Nun, or nation of the Blood found in the Veoi Por- Brasse River, being the first river to the tæ, by Thackeray, esq., communicated eastward of Cape Formosa. Oo their way by Sir A. Cooper, Bart. V.P.R.S.; a Table, down the river, they were attacked by the facilitating the Computations relative to Hibboos, (a fierce nation that inhabit its Suspension Bridges, by Davies Gilbert, esq. baoks), and made prisoners, or rather capV.P.R.S.; Researches on Physical Astrono- tives ; but the King of Brasse happening my, relating to the Theory of the Moon, hy to be in that country buying slaves, gut J. W. Lubbock, esq. V. P. and Treas. R.S.; them released, by giving the price of six au Account of the Construction and Verifi- slaves for each of them. In the scuffle that cation of the Imperial Standard Yard, for ensued at the time they were taken, one of the Royal Society, by Capt. Kater, F.R.S. them lost his journal.

Whilst at Youri they got the Prayer-book AFRICAN EXPEDITION, AND Discovery

that belonged to Mr. Anderson, the brotherOF THE NIGER.

in-law and fellow-traveller of the celebrated The important geographical problem re- Mungo Park. They were upwards of a spectiog the termination of the Niger is at month at Fernando Po, whence they emlength solved by the discoveries of the barked, about ten days ago, in ao English Messrs. Lander, whose departure fruin merchant vessel bound to Rio Janeiro, on England to Africa, under the auspices of their way to Englaod.—Literary Gazelle,


slung at his back. His head is covered with April 28. H. Gurney, esq. V.P. a Phrygian bonnet, and his buskins remark

Sume observations on the definite article ably pointed. At his side sits a greyhound, The, by Richard Duppa, Esq. F.S.A. were turning round his head to look in his inase read. He remarked that the Latin language ter's face. At the back, is slightly carved has no article ; the hic, hæc, hoc of the in outline what is supposed to be a harp, grammar being clearly a pronominal adjec- and the two sides are ornamented with long tive, signifying this. “The,” whenever slips of laurel. See p. 390. fully uttered, has a similar import. Dr. Henry Ellis, Esy. Sec. communicated a Jolinson has censured the practice of sink- Declaration of all such fees and allowances ing the final e in poetical versification; but, as were lawfully allowed in the Court of Exas maintaioed by Mr. Duppa, it is only chequer in the time of Elizabeth. when that letter is so dropped in pronuncia- A further portion was also read of the tion, that th' is really an article,.-in which Rev. John Skinner's letters on Camelorespect the modern English agrees with its dunum. Saxou original. It was added, that it is May 12. Mr. Gurney, V. P. in the chair. evident, from a comparison of several lan- Audrew Fountaine, Esq. exhibited a feguages, that genders have been generally male bust in bronze, froni the collection of adopted from euphony; and that it is not a his ancestor Sir A. Fountaine. philosophical opinion to suppose them con- Mr. Ellis, by permission of the Bishop of nected with any presumed natural analogy. Llandaff, laid before the Society three let.

Mr. Grover's dissertation on Classical ters, addressed to Sir William Morice, SeChronology was afterwards continued. cretary of State to King Charles the Second,

May 5. H. Hallam, Esq. V.P.-John and M.P. for Cornwall.-1. From Mr. Quin, Amery, of Birmingham, esq.; and Williain Knight of the Shire for Devon, in CromWatkin Edward Wynne, Esq. of Peniorth, well's Parliament of 1654 ; relative to an co. Merioneth, aud of Old Cavendish-street, interview with the Protector. Mr. Quin, were elected Fellows.

after having consulted with a learned and Mr. Hardwick, the architect, exhibited a conscientious divine, had come to the deterRoman altar, found about fifteen feet below mination that to take an unlawful oath was the surface, in digging the foundations of pot sinful, inasipuch as the sin must lie at the new Goldsmiths' Hall, in Foster-lane. the door of the imposer-the miserable cant It is about 2 feet high; on its front is epitomised in those lines of Butler, carved a very graceful figure of a huntsman, standing erect, holding in his left hand a

“ 'Tis he that gives an oath that breaks it, bow, and his right hand raised over his right

Not he who by compulsion takes it.” shoulder to draw an arrow from the quiver Mr. Quin concludes by persuading his friend

Antiquarian Researches.

453 to take the said oath, having scriptural au

OFFERTORY Dishes. thority for enfurcing his example, in the At the meeting of the Hull Literary and text When thou art converted thyself, Philosophical Society, April 22, Mr. Wm. strengthen thy brother!' 2. From Dr. Du Bell read a paper on Offertory Dishes," Moulin, after the restoration, laying on the illustrative of three in Hull, one presented Jesuits the blame of Charles the First's de- to the society by Mr. Joseph Eglin, ancapitation, and tracing it to secret machina- other belonging to Mr. Cobb, curator of the nations for the restoration of Popery. The Exchange, and a third from the museum of doctor, it was observed, was forbidden by Mr. Wallis - wbich, in deference to Dr. Charles II. to write more, on the under- Nash and other Euglish antiquaries, who standing that as English was not his native have accidentally met with them, he called language, he might mar the cause he meant Offertory Dishes, though amongst the conto aid “ by writing what he would not. tinental literati they are more generally The doctor had already written a book de- named Taufbecken, or Baptismal Dishes. fending Protestantism from a charge of dis- Mr. B. then read the opinions of Dr. Nash affection to monarchy. 3. From James, in his History of Worcestershire, of Thos. Duke of Courland, in Livonia, offering Sir Hearne in his preface to Leland's CollectaWilliam Morice ten thousand forins, by nea, and of sundry anonymous contributors way of a bribe for his services in the Privy to the Gentleman's Magazine, respecting Council, in the management of a West India the meaning of the inscriptions which surmatter affecting the interest of the Duke. round the dishes, as well as the conjectures

May 19. H. Gurney, esq. V. P. in the of various German literati concerning them: chair.

of the latter, Von Hammer, the famed OrienA curious paper, on the ancient history talist of Vienna, and formerly secretary to of Hats, communicated by J. A. Repton, the Austrian Internuncio at Constantinople, esq. was read. It was accompanied by eight was the most important, both from the sheets of drawings of hats and caps, in an weight due to his opinion and the peculiarity infinity of shapes and fashions, from the of his views; having considered them as time of Richard II. up to 1784. He ob- deeply connected with the gnosticism and served, the name hat was derived from a ophitism which he fancied to have discoverSaxon word meaning a covering for the head,

ed in the tenets and doctrines of the Koights in which general sense it had been used by Templars before the forced subversion of early authors, and applied to helmets of their order. Mr. Bell, too, was enabled, steel. Hats and caps were anciently made

by his researches abroad, to exhibit drawings of felt, woollen, silk, straw, and various of similar dishes found in Iceland, in various other materials, and were as diversified in parts of Germany, France, and Italy. He their colours. In the time of Elizabeth also read a letter from Mr. Holmes, F.S.A. the common people generally wore woollen of Retford, describing one exactly similar to caps; and some acts were passed in her that in possession of Mr. Wallis, and which reign to encourage the manufacture of them. again was identical with one fixed to the The broad brims were introduced by the door-post of a very old church at Valle or cardinals to their scarlet hats, and followed Valte in Iceland. Mr. Bell differed in his by the clergy. The inconvenience of the reading of the various inscriptions from all broad brim all round caused the turning of the authorities adduced, and found in them one side up; then two sides were turned either simple invocations to Christ and Maria, up; and at last turning up three sides intro- as the immaculate virgin, either in old Gerduced the cocked hat. The high-crowned

man or Latin of a very early age-or in hat was first worn in the time of Elizabeth, other instances short pithy sentences of moand declined in the reign of Charles Il. rality. The age of them could not be traced Mr. Repton then noticed the ornaments of by any appearance of a date, but the style of hats, such as feathers, broaches, and bands.

letters (which were evidently sunk by a die), Henry VIII, is described on his entry into on a comparison with the great seal of the Calais as wearing feathers from India, four

Realm, seemed to be fixed at, or some time feet long; and men wore feathers in their succeeding, the accession of Edw. III. 1327, bats as late as the reign of Queen Anne.

to which they most approximate. One was Yew is mentioned as placed in the hat to noticed as existing at Aldborongh near Bodenote mourning for a deceased relative or roughbridge, differing in the inscription from friend.* The paper contained numerous any other, of which a copy exists in Gough's curious and amusing quotations on the sub- Camden's Britannia, vol. iii, but too imperject from a great variety of authors.

fect to ascertain its meaning. On account of Whitsun week, the meet

William CANYNGES. ings were adjourned to the 2d of June.

April 28. A very interesting paper was

read at the Bristol İustitution, on the 28th * lo the West of England, in dressing April, on “ the Life and Times of William the houses with holly and other evergreens Canynges, founder of St. Mary Redcliff at Christmas, we have observed the picture church.” It was written by the Rev. James of a deceased relative adorned with the yew Dallaway, F.S.A., and very amply illusalone.





and imprisonment for alleged political of

fences; the destitution of the judges who The King of France has undertaken a tour through the Provinces, and appears to

condemned them; and damages of 500,000 be every where enthusiastically received.

francs to be paid to the two prisoners; the At St. Germain, Poissy, Nantes, Dieppe, satisfaction to be inserted in the Lisbon

Gazelle. &c., his Majesty reviewed different bodies of the National Guards, amid the acclama

RUSSIA AND POLAND. tious of the populace, who, it is added,

In our last we detailed the successes of from St. Cloud to the limits of the depart- the Poles over the corps of Generals Geisment of the Seine and Oize, formed a line on each side of the high road, with banners,

mar and Rosen, and the consequent retreat

of the Russian forces. On the 10th of tri-coloured flags, and branches of trees. A medal was lately decreed to be struck head-quarters to Siedlec, fifty-five miles

April General Diebitsch transferred his and given to those who most distinguished

east of Warsaw, where he was some time themselves in July last. In carrying this decree into execution, the present Ministry Russian commander at length determined

beld in check by the Polish troops. The designated it as given by the King," in

on coming to an engagement; but Skrzystead of the “ Nation," and red an

uecki thought it most prudent to decline oath to King Philip and the Charter. Out

it. As soon as the first movement from of 1528 persons to whom the medal was

Siedlec denoted an intention on the part of assigned, upwards of 1000 refused to accept the Russiaus to advance, he dispatched it on these terms.

couriers to Warsaw, to prepare them for a PORTUGAL.

retreat of the army, and to desire that the A British squadron, consisting of a 74-gun place might be put in a condition to susship, two frigates, four corvettes, and three tain a siege, in case the fortune of war brigs, lately arrived in the Tagus, and, on should be against the cause in a general enthe 25th of April, demanded a categorical gagement. The retreat, in the mean time, answer to the demands of the British Govern- continued, the Poles every where carrying ment, all pegociations on the subject being with them the inhabitants of the country, expressly prohibited. The demands were and every description of provision which compensation for English vessels captured could serve as subsistence for the enemy, at Terceira, with demurrage and all expences Upon the 27th, Skrzynecki had reached the up to the date of such compensation ; the capital, and fixed his head-quarters there ; dismissal of the captain of the Portuguese the bulk of his army was at Milosna, frigate Diana, by whom these captures were dozen miles distant. In their retreat they made ; the dismissal of three judges who appear to have been greatly harassed by had sentenced to imprisonment the clerks the Russians, and at Minsk an action took of English merchants; and compensation to place. Arrived at Dembe-Wielki, the Russuch clerks for the injuries by them sus- sians found that they could not procure tained, and an ample apology for the insult even a little straw for their horses," and offered their employers. These demands to the Fieid-Marshal had, therefore, no alterbe published in the Lisbon Gazelle; and if native but again to sound a retreat, in which no redress were given within three days, the he has been pursued by the Poles beyond English consul to go on board the squadron, Siedlec. On the 29th of April, the whole and the capture of all Portuguese vessels Polish army had again advanced, and reimmediately to take place. The Portuguese sumed its former positions at Kostrzyn, and Government, terrified by the appearance of beyond Siennica. On the 30th, the Polish the squadron, promptly acceeded to every army advanced, and the vanguard was in demand. A French fleet had proceeded to the morning at Kaluszyo. the Tagus for the bombardment of Lisbon, The Polish General has published a Proand three American frigates had also arrived, clamation, wherein he states that the Polish the latter to demand satisfaction for the in- army, which did not at the first amount to sults offered to the United States; several more than 30,000, had taken 16,000 priAmerican citizens having been sent from St. soners, caused the Russians a loss of 50,000 Michael's and the adjacent islands in irons. men in all, captured 11 standards, 15 or The demand made on Don Miguel by the 16,000 stand of arms, 30 cannon, &c. French Government was the revocation of In other respects the Poles have suffered the sentence pronounced against Sauvinet materially. On the 21st of April Skrzy. and Bonhomine, two French subjects, who necki sent a report to the Government of had been sentenced to corporal punishment Warsaw, stating that a corps of 6,000 men,

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Foreign News.-Domestic Occurrences.

under General Sierawski, had been defeated Government, with a view to counteract the
by the Russians under General Kreutz, effect of this severe edict, in pursuance of
consisting of 24,000 men, whom he had which several Polish prisoners had been
imprudently attacked. The Poles were com- shot at Wilna, had sent a notification to the
pelled to cross the Vistula precipitately, Russian Government, that reprisals would
with a loss of 2,000 men, and two Lieute- be made by the Poles upon any prisoners
nant-Colonels, one of whom was drowned. who might fall into their hands.
-The gallant Dwernicki who, with all the
boldness though without the fortune of a

TURKEY. Scipio, had carried war into Volhynia, the The accounts from Turkey present a very invader's own territory, found himself, after menacing aspect, as respects the public a series of successful exploits, overwhelmed tranquillity in the East. An extended inby the accumulated masses brought to bear surrection had broken out, fomented, as it against him. General Roth, after the de- would appear, by agents from Russia. It feat of Sierawski, was enabled to effect a is stated that the insurgents were masters of junction with General Rudiger, while on Sophia, and it is supposed that they would the other side a formidable Russian force shortly reach Constantinople. The Divan was brought up from Moldavia to the scene were active in endeavouring to resist the of action. Thus assailed from all quarters, rebels. The grand objection taken by the Dwernicki retreated across the Galician revolters, is to the measures of the Grand frontier near Zlarasz. The Russians having Signior, who, in introducing the military pursued, and a conflict having commenced, innovatious of Europe, has offended the the Austrian troops interposed between the Mussulmans. combatants, and demanded that respect The Pacha of Scutari, whose army should be had to the neutrality of their ter- amounts to 40,000 men, has issued a proritory. The Russians consequently drew clamation in which he anuounces his plan off, and the whole of Dweroicki's corps, to restore the ancient order of things, and diminished by repeated contests to about the occasion of it-exhorts those under bim 5,000 men, surrendered their arms to observe the strictest order and good the Austrians, and have been sent across conduct towards those who take no part in Transylvania into Hungary.

the affairs of the war, and especially recomThe Russian Autocrat has fulminated an mends them to respect property. angry denunciation against the revolted The revolt is daily spreading. Farascisnobles and people of Lithuania. All those cade Ali Bey, one of the principal Albanese who offer any armed resistance to the Rus- Chiefs, entered Sophia with 8,000 inen on sian authorities are to be tried by a court- the 20th April, and established his headmartial according to military laws, and to be quarters there. instantly shot. Persons of inferior rank, Letters from Belgrade, of May 1, say taken with arms in their hands, are to be that the Grand Vizier, who was invested in draughted into the Siberian regiments, and Bitoglia by the insurgents, had been obliged to suffer all the evils of exile. The Polish to surrender for want of provisions.




having been complied with, a proclamation The Irish papers present, in a Inng cata

has been issued laying the entire county of Ingue of outrages, a frightful picture of the

Clare under the Insurrection Act.
state of society in the counties of Clare and In a speech delivered at a recent reforın
Limerick ; and we are sorry to find that the meeting in the county of Roscommon, by
Committee which had been formed at Ennis Sir John Lillie, he expressed his surprise
for the purpose of endeavouring to restore that in that county, and in other parts of
tranquillity, have, in the utter hopelessness Ireland, lands were let to the poor at 9l.
of being able to effect that object, dissolved and 101. per acre, which was a higher rent
themselves. This Committee, of which all than what was exacted during the war! He
the Roman Catholic Priests were members, added, “the poor cannot pay it, and is it
have published Resolutions, declaring that to be wondered at that, svoner than starve,
no effort within the power of the well-dis- they have recourse to violence in opposing
posed part of the inhabitants can restrain or

the exaction?"
put an end to the continual system of out-
rage and insurbordination which disgraces


PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. The Lord Lieutenant's Proclamation to By the Act of last Session it is directed the people of Clare, calling upon them to that the census of the population should be to resiga their arms by the 10th April, not taken throughout England on the 30th of

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