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NEW CHURCHES.-All Saints, Poplar.
NEW CHURCHES.-No. XXXI. ALL SAINTS, POPLAR. Architect, Hollis.
THE first subject in the accompanying engraving (Plate I.) is a northwest view of the Church of the newlycreated parish of Poplar, the last of the numerous parishes to which the noted village of Stepney has given birth.
The plan is parallelogrammatic, the eastern angles cut off by quadrants of circles, and increased by the addition of a small chancel. It is divided into a tower and lobbies, a spacious area for the nave of the Church unbroken by pillars, and a chancel, which, although it is rectangular in its external lines, is internally rounded at the angles in the same manner as the main edifice. The Church is built of Portland stone, upon a plinth of granite. The western front is embellished with a hexastyle portico of the lonic order, crowned with its entablature and a pediment, within which is the principal entrance. The portico is approached by a flight of steps, which, with the landing and accompanying pedestals, are constructed of granite. The elevation is made into two stories by a string course, and crowned by an entablature, which is continued from the portico, and surmounted by a ballustrade. The steeple, situated on the roof at the rear of the portico, is a handsome composition in the style of Wren, and though inferior in the delicacy of its proportions, and the harmony of its parts, to the elegant steeple of the neighbouring Church of Shadwell (vide vol. xc. i. 201, is still a handsome and pleasing composition. Its constituent parts are a quadrilateral tower, forming the basement to a composition of great taste, consisting of an octagon basement, and circular temple in succession, crowned with an octangular obelisk. The first portion, the tower, consists of a rusticated stylobate pierced by semicircular windows, and crowned with a cornice. The superstructure is of the Corinthian order, and has an arched window in every face, between two engaged columns, with coupled antæ at each angle; the whole is crowned with an entablature and blocking course, and at the angles are cinerary urns ornamented with honeyGENT. MAG. June, 1831.
suckles. The next portion to be described is an irregular octagon, every alternate face being rounded off, in the larger faces are circular dials surmounted by a pendant wreath of foliage; to this succeeds an elegant little temple of the composite order, which is manifestly copied from the campanile towers of St. Paul's Cathedral; it consists of a circular stylobate with projections corresponding with the angles of the substructure: this sustains a peristyle of eight columns, broken into couples by pairs of columns in advance before the peristyle, and having the projections in the stylobate for their basement; the cella is pierced with windows. A small temple with circular apertures succeeds, forming the pedestal to the octagonal obelisk, which is crowned with a vane. The whole composition being 160 feet in height.
The flanks are distinguished by a portico, composed of a pair of columns with corresponding antæ at the western extremity, a style of decoration first introduced at St. Martin's, and since copied into St. Pancras and the present structure. These columns are crowned with their entablature. At
the eastern extremity are coupled antæ instead of a repetition of the portico, as at St. Martin's; the intermediate portion is made in height into two stories by a string course, the lower contains five rectangular windows, the upper the same number of arched openings bounded by architraves. This portion is finished with the frieze and cornice continued from the entablature, and is crowned with a ballustrade. The eastern front is on three portions; the curved ends of the Church form wings to the chancel, and have windows as before; in the centre of the chancel is an arched window, above which, in a large panel, is the following inscription:
"This parish Church of All Saints Poplar, Middlesex, was consecrated on the third day of July, MDCCCXXII. by the Right Reverend father in God, William Howley, D.D. (by Divine permission), Lord Bishop of London. The Reverend Samuel Hoole, A.M. Rector; James Mountague, Churchwardeu and Treasurer; James Carey, Churchwarden; Charles Hollis, Architect; Thomas Morris, Builder; Thomas Horne, Vestry Clerk."
The whole is finished as above; the
NEW CHURCHES.-All Saints, Poplar.
chancel is flanked by a porch and vestry corresponding in design.
The entire structure is surrounded by a spacious cemetery, enclosed with iron rails; and opposite to the west front, but separated by a street, is the residence of the Rector.
At the west end is a spacious triple lobby. The central portion, formed within the tower, is groined with a circular opening for communication with the upper works; the lateral divisions contain the gallery stairs. The body of the Church is an unbroken area. The upright of the walls is relieved by pilasters on the piers between the windows, and is finished with a cornice, forming the impost to the ceiling, which is coved at the sides, and horizontal in the centre: the coved
portion is ornamented in a singular and inelegant style by broad ribs rising from above the pilasters. The horizontal part of the ceiling is enriched with three circular groups of flowers. The recess containing the chancel is bounded by two piers, which are surmounted by a frieze and cornice, the former charged with perpendicular leaves. The fore part is occupied by a handsome screen composed of two columns and two antæ of scagliola, in imitation of Sienna marble, with statuary capitals and entablature: on the cornice is placed the Royal arms. The back of the recess is composed of a stylobate in imitation of porphyry, the rest of the walls being veined marble; in the centre is an arched window between two pairs of antæ of verd antique, crowned with entablature and pediment, on each side of which are the customary inscriptions. The altar is, contrary to usual custom, solid; it is raised on a platform of five stairs in two flights, and is composed of a pedestal of bronze with a panel in the centre, charged with the sacred monogram, accompanied with cartouches, and covered with a slab of marble. The whole arrangement of the altar is highly creditable to the architect, and displays an excellent specimen of the Italian school of design. In the window is a painting on glass of our Saviour, of which little can be said in praise; it is cnclosed in a rich ornamented border, and below it, on the pedestal on which the figu nds, is the Lord's prayer.
A gallery surrounds the remainder of the Church; it is sustained on iron columns, which retire behind the line of the fronts, the first range of pews being supported by means of cantilivers; the galleries are sustained on iron trusses in the form of a low arch, with hollow spandrils. These trusses stretch from column to column, and from the columns to the side walls.
The pulpit and reading-desks are octangular. They are situated on opposite sides of the Church, and are of different altitudes; there is nothing remarkable in the design of either. The organ has a wainscot case, and occupies the centre of the western portion of the gallery; it is flanked by secondary galleries for the charity children, in addition to which, the upper part of the side galleries is raised and fronted with a balustrade, and appears like a second gallery; this is also appropriated to the children.
The font, situated below the western gallery, is a plain circular basin of marble, on a pillar of the same.
The Church is upon the whole very creditable to the architect. He has avoided the common place imitation of Grecian temples, which marks the works of his professional brethren, and has shown a considerable degree of judgment and taste in the construction of his steeple, and in the decorations of the altar, which particulars are perfectly orthodox, and are more pleasing decorations to a Church than the pepper-box towers of the pseudo Grecian school, and the plain miserable terminations to the altars of most of the new Churches.
The Church has been entirely built by the parishioners, the inhabitants of the ancient Hamlets of Poplar and Blackwall, formerly constituting one of the Tower Hamlets, and which were erected into a parish by an Act of Parliament of the 57th Geo. III. 1817. In the original contract the expense was estimated at 18,000l.; the cost of the whole edifice, with its appendages of parsonage-house, cemetery walls, &c. amounted to 33,0771. The expense of the Church was about 20,000l. The organ was built by Russell, and the steeple is furnished with a peal of ten bells.
The first stone was laid on the 29th of March, 1821, and the edifice consecrated on the 3d of July, 1823.
NEW CHURCHES.-West Hackney.
WEST HACKNEY CHURCH.
The second subject in our engraving represents the west front and north side of this Church. The plan gives a parallelogram for the body of the Church, subdivided into a nave and side aisles, with a portico and lobbies at one end.
The elevation is made into two dis
tinct portions, the first comprehends the portico, pronaos, and tower, and the other the naos or body of the Church. The portico is hexastyle, and composed of six fluted Grecian doric columns, two being situated in the flanks, giving additional depth to the portico, the whole surmounted by the entablature of the order, and a pediment. The architecture of the Parthenon appears to be the prototype, which under Mr. Smirke's pencil is rendered fitting for a Church or a play-house, as occasion requires. At the back of the portico are three entrances, with arched windows above them, peculiarly appropriate to Grecian architecture, in which the arch is not to be found. The entablature is continued along the flanks of the pronaos, and here the order ends, and the large meeting-house-like body commences. The tower commences with a stylobate, so low that there was no room for the dial, which to the great detriment of the design, is of necessity added to an upper portion of the elevation. Upon the stylobate is raised a circular temple, broken by antæ ; a part of the intervals between which is pierced.
An entablature set round with Grecian tile, and a dome (ribbed and surmounted by a cross), finishes the whole structure, which wants elevation.
The body of the Church has in the western front an arched window on each side of the pronaos. The flanks are made by breaks into three divisions, each containing six windows in two tiers, the upper arched and the lower nearly square; the height of the elevation being divided into two stories by a string course, and finished by an architrave, cornice, and blocking
course. The eastern front has a cen
tral window, square, and made by antæ into three lights; the elevation is divided and finished as before, and the lower story has two entrances. THE INTERIOR is approached by lobbies formed in the
pronaos, and communicating with the body of the Church, which is made in breadth into a nave and side aisles, and in length into nine divisions. The upright is in two stories; the first consists of square piers, sustaining an architrave cornice and an attic. The second story is a colonnade of a spurious doric, crowned with a mean entablature, and surmounted with a low attic; upon this rests the ceiling, which is horizontal and pannelled. The first division from the west is occupied by a vestibule covered with a gallery, extending into the Church to a breadth equal to another division; the remainder constitutes the part appropriated to the congregation. A portion of the eastern end of both the aisles is portioned off for vestries.
The mouldings of the higher and lower attic of the lateral colonnades, are continued along the east wall, dividing the elevation into two stories; the first is occupied by the altar screen. This is a handsome design, composed of Scagliola, and executed by Messrs. Croggan and Co. of Lambeth, in imitation of statuary, porphyry, and yellow antique marbles. The screen is in three divisions; the pilasters of yellow. The tablets, with the decalogue, &c. on the side divisions, are of porphyry, and in the centre is a large table of porphyry, with the sacred monogram and cross in a splendid irradiation of ormolu ; the entablature of statuary. The whole is crowned with an attic; the face ornamented with honeysuckles in gold, dispersed in bunches, with circles between, inclosing passion flowers, being the same style of ornament as the architect has introduced in Covent Garden Theatre, the passion-flower supplying the place of the national emblematic flowers; and indeed in almost every building of Mr. Smirke's, is the same style of decoration to be found. It is to be regretted that such mannerism should be the peculiar and distinguishing feature of the works of so many of our celebrated architects.
The interior bears a striking and servile resemblance to the architect's other Churches at Wandsworth,* and
Bryanstone-square;† the exterior dif
fers but little from either of those
Churches, and the body in fact is the same in all. It has an universality of
Described in vol. xcix. pt. ii. p. 577. + Described in vol. xcvi. pt. ii. p. 9.
character, and will suit any portico of any order.
The pulpit and desks, on opposite sides of the centre division, are alike in design, but the reading-desk is not so high as the pulpit. They are each sustained in square pedestals, ornamented with antæ.
The Inscriptions on the Monument.
THAT the inscriptions engraved on the Monument on Fish-street Hill, spoke the language of the times in which they were set up, Mr. Thornhill (p. 311) does not deny; so far they were original, and so far they were valuable. The sentiments contained in them, whether just or unjust, had become perfectly harmless; they of fended the feelings of no one, and they kept up no national prejudice. The only light in which they could now be regarded, was in that of an historical memorial, speaking the language of times past, and affording evidence of the universal belief of a plot, the absurdity of which is so great, that at the present day we can scarce believe an enlightened nation could have credited it.
The destruction of any historical memorial is a vile and useless act; witness the democratic violence recently exercised against the fleurs-de-lis on the French monuments, by the Paris revolutionists; and as to the specious plea of restoration, I do not see how it can be said with any degree of propriety, that setting a labourer to cut several deep channels in the most conspicuous part of an ancient monument, is restoring it. Heaven defend our antiquities from
such restorations and such restorers. The ancient brasses, with the "orate, &c." chiselled out, are parallel cases, and I fear a feeling as irrational dictated those injurious obliterations. In this instance nothing can be more fallacious than the plea of restoration. Mr. Thornhill professes to be an admirer of our national antiquities; let us see to what his apology would lead if universally adopted. A Saxon Church exists, having an inscription on one of its pillars recording the consecration of the Church by such a Bishop at a given date, say, sometime in the twelfth century; here then is an inscription which at first sight ap pears to be at variance with truth. It is manifestly not original, and ought, in accordance with Mr. Thornhill's ideas of restoration, to be erased; yet would any person, would Mr. Thornhill himself, urge the destruction of it upon such a ground? I feel certain that all who profess the least esteem for the antiquities of the country, would exert themselves for its preservation. Yet if originality alone gives value to an inscription, it ought to be erased, as well as those on the monument. The plea of restoration specified, affords no apology for the erasure of these inscriptions, and I fear Mr. Thornhill, with all his sagacity, will be unable to justify the act. The thanks of your readers are due to him for the valuable historical documents he has brought forward; but in my humble opinion, by so doing he has added to the value of the inscriptions, by proving the existence of the feeling which gave rise to them, and at the same time showing that they were genuine and authentic, inasmuch as they were set up to record the belief of the majority of the nation on the subject; and being so genuine and authentic, ought to have been suffered to remain. E. 1. C.
⚫ Vide the 4th Report of the Commissioners.
CHURCH OF STOw, co. LINCOLN. (Concluded from p. 416.)
IN viewing the interior of the once fine Church of Stow, there is one feeling which cannot fail to impress the mind of every observer, and that is, commiseration for the ruinous state in which it is suffered to remain. The nave appears never to have been pew
* External and internal Views of this Church are engraved in Howlett's Lincolnshire Views.
ed, for the floor is almost wholly covered with inscribed stones of memorials for the dead, but they are too numerous and common place for introduction here. Amongst them appear many broken fragments of slabs, with mutilated inscriptions in church text, which bespeak their antiquity; and two coffin-shaped stones, uninscribed, the one with a head sculptured in relief, within a hollow circular excavation at the broad end of the stone; and the other containing a cross fitchée botony. On the east side of the north door is a small pointed recess in the wall, but no appearance remains of a bason for consecrated water.
Church of Stow, co. Lincoln.
The Font occupies its legitimate place in this part of the Church, being situated in the centre of the nave, between the north and south doors of entrance. It consists of a square basement of solid masonry, supporting a smaller square, which forms the actual pedestal of the font. The bason is octagonal, with ornamented faces, and is placed on a large central cylinder surrounded by eight smaller ones, the weight of which appears to crush a serpent or dragon, which is sculptured as writhing underneath it; an emblematical device, characteristic of the enemy of mankind, overpowered and vanquished by the powerful efficacy of Christian baptism. The devices on the several faces of the font are these: 1. Two fleurs-de-lis. 2. One ditto. 3. A lily. 4. A rose. A serpent. 6. Two fleurs-de-lis. 7. A human head, with flowers issuing from each side of the mouth. 8. The triple triangle, composed of five lines returning into itself; which was another emblematical device, termed by the ancients Hygeia (vyela), and in this situation denoted the HEALTH flowing to the soul from the authorized use of the baptismal waters.
The transept is fitted up with pews for divine service, but they are in a very dilapidated state. It has a round
plain window in each end of the gable, besides those which have been already described. On the east side of the north transept is a doorway, over which is a slab or bracket, supported by two monstrous figures; and in the south transept is a similar bracket, placed on the back of a triple animal; the remains of ornamental details, which were probably more numerous when this fine Church was in the zenith of its prosperity and glory. The steps which led to the rood loft remain; but that erection, so indispensable to the ceremonies of the Romish Church, has long been taken away. The last fragment of the main beam which supported it, fell from the wall a few days before I visited the Church in the month of October last. It is of carved oak, but completely decayed by the operation of the dry rot.
There formerly existed three carved screens, which were placed at the entrance of the chancel, amid the transepts, fragments of which still remain in a lumber-room at the end of the north transept. The upper part of each division terminated in ogees within obtuse pointed arches, filled in with alternate decorated and perpendicular tracery, and enriched with festoons of flowers. They were probably introduced into the church a short time previous to the Reformation.
The oaken pulpit is hexagonal, with ornamental carvings on each face. The canopy is sculptured in compartments, and the back is flanked by carved eagles. On the north pier, at the entrance of the chancel, immediately behind the pulpit, is a brass plate, with this inscription :
"Aspice, Respice, Prospice. "In this chauncell lyeth buried ye bodies of Richard Burgh, of Stowe Hall, Esq. and Amy his wife, which said Richard was descended from ye noble and ancient familie of the Lord Burgh, baron of Gainesborough, and next heyre of that familie, and ye said
The following notices of this family are extracted from Nicolas's "Testamenta Vetusta, a work of great utility to all who are engaged in topographical or genealogical researches. Sir Thomas Burgh, Knight of the Garter, was created a Baron, 29 Sept. 3 Henry VII. His wife was Margaret daughter of Thomas Lord Roos of Kendal, and widow of Sir Thomas Botreaux, Knt. Saints at Gainsborough, in which I will that a tomb be made at the north end of the "Buried in my new chapel in the Church of All altar, with two images or figures thereon, viz. of me in armour, and of my wife, with our and the days of our obits; and I will that the image of me have my mantle of the Garter, and the Garter about my leg." In the same will he established a perpetual chantry in the same chapel, of one priest to pray for his soul, and those of his ancestors, &c. with an annual rent of 101. out of his manor of Tunstall. He also founded a hospital for five bedemen.