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are peculiarities that may help us to decide the order of the dialogues, and chief of these is the hiatus which he attacks in minute detail and the examination of which constitutes the second and principal part of the paper.

The subject of hiatus in Plato had been touched on by Blass
before (A. B. II' 458) but Janell undertakes to go to the bottom
of this yaouwdia business and proceeds statistically. The Didot
page is taken as the standard, in conformity with Lutoslawski's
example, and the resulting tables bristle with decimals. I can
only give samples of the results. The higher averages are
found in

Parmenides 44.10
Euthydemus 45.10


and so downward to Phaedrus 23.90. What a gap between
Phaedrus and the next highest!
Laws V

Timaeus 1.17
Laws (average) 4.70


Philebus 3.70

Sophista .61
Laws VI (lowest) 2.36

Politicus .44

The late date of Politicus, Sophista, Critias and Timaeus is an article of faith with many Platonists; and whatever part the redoubtable Philippos of Opus may have played, the position of the Laws is not an open question. The Parmenides exhibit will not satisfy everybody; but one is inclined to respect the hiatus test; for the treatment of the hiatus gives us the registry of a fashionable fad and the disappearance of it ranks with the disappearance of the κρωβύλος and the ενερσις χρυσών τεττίγων at Athens.

The third chapter deals with kadátep and come to which Dittenberger called attention long ago (A. J. P. III 376). kadámep belongs to the sphere of legal language (cf. Ar. Av. 1041), and the large use of it in the Laws might be ascribed to that. But here also the avoidance of hiatus is the potent influence. What is sauce for come ought to be sauce for a spórw and it might be worth while to examine how far Plato's later usage was influenced by Isokrates in this regard also, (A. J. P. XV 521) Unfortunately there are no statistics at hand for Plato. But it is clear that in the period prior to the line drawn above Plato is indifferent to the hiatus produced by τρόπο. So we find Meno, 73 C; τω αυτώ τρόπο αγαθοί είσιν and τω αυτο αν τρόπω αγαθοί ήσαν and Conv. 176 Α: τίνα τρόπον ώς ραστα πιόμεθα; is followed by Β: τίνι τρόπω αν ως ραστα πίνοιμεν; a curious specimen of Plato's ποικιλία.

In the fourth chapter after a discussion of the question as to the genuineness of the Ion, JANELL sides with Eduard Meyer, who says 'Ich muss bekennen dass ich nicht verstehe wie man es über sich bringen kann, die geistreiche Schrift Plato abzusprechen;' and Fraccaroli in his introduction to Pindar has made the Ion the starting point of his theory of lyric poetry (A. J. P. XV 505). The hiatus test puts the Ion in the neighborhood of the Meno, the Meno average being 38.28, the Ion average 38.06. There are 13 conep's; and never a kabátep.


Mr. M. A. BAYFIELD has made himself responsible for a new edition of Sophokles' Elektra (Macmillan) in the preface to which after the inevitable compliment to Sir RICHARD JEBB's ‘incomparable editions' of the poet's works he adds ‘Kaibel's interesting edition of the play came into my hands only after this book had gone to press. For this laches there is no possible

KAIBEL's edition of the Elektra, which Mr. BAYFIELD deigns to find interesting appeared in 1896, and was reviewed in this Journal in 1897 (XVII 353-6). It is safe to say that all conscientious editors of the Elektra must deal seriously with Kaisel; and while the steadfast contemplation of one's own centre may be conducive to peace of mind, the óupalóguxou of classical philology will find little sympathy in this restless age, so that Mr. BAYFIELD must not be surprised if his edition suffers in repute as it has suffered otherwise for his having ignored KAIBEL's.

My attention has been called to the following curiosity of criticism, which goes far to reconcile me with any slips I myself may have made in the pages devoted to Brief Mention: <Es> muss hervorgehoben $184. The tenses express the werden, dass die Literatur der relations of time, embracing: vergleichenden Syntax nur in I) The stage of the action, ungenügendem Masze heran- duration in time, kind of time gezogen und ausgenützt ist. <Actionsart, Zeitart>. Besonders macht sich dies in 2) The period of the action, den auf das Verbum bezüglichen position in time, sphere of time Theilen unserer Schrift bemerk- <Zeitstufe>. bar, in denen die grundlegende The first tells, for example, Unterscheidung von “Zeitstu- whether the action is going on fen”und“Actionsarten”ungern or finished. vermisst wird.

The second tells whether the FR. STOLZ. action is past, present or future. In the Zeitschrift für die GildeRSLEEVE, Syntax of

oesterreichischen Gymnasien Classical Greek. LI 5 (Juni 1901) S.400.

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