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as it is devoted to a criticism of the three opposing theories: A. Poeninus, requiring but two pages (42-44); B. Little St. Bernhard, more (45-64); C. Genèvre, most (65-86), probably from its coming into such prominence in recent years. To these three routes he adds, as deserving honorable mention, Monte Viso (87-88). The third chapter is the main part of the work (107 pp.) and has four subdivisions; A. Introductory Marches (91-102) from the Ebro to the Rhone, via Nemausus to St. Esprit, where he crosses, then along the left bank of the river to Valentia, followed by a march along the valley of the Isara. B. Passage of the Alps (102-169) divided into 4 parts; I First 4 days; from beginning of the ascent to the rest near Garocelum ; II From 5th to 8th day; from G. to Leucopetron; III 9th and 10th day; heights of Mt. Cenis reached and halt on the plain of Medulina. Here arises the cardinal question: from what Mt. can a view of the plains about the Po be obtained ? Mt. Cenis alone stands the test. From the statements of both Livy and Polybius this is a requisite. Osiander quotes Marindin : " In fact, of all the competing passes, the Cenis is the only one from the top (O. reads 'op') of which any Italian view can be seen”. O. corroborates this statement and emphasizes its importance. IV with to 15th day: Descent to Ocelum. Osiander claims that the slopes of the Cenis both for the ascent and for the descent best meet the requirements of the accounts of Livy and Polybius, substantiating his statement by quotations from other travellers who had made a study of the topography of the Alps. Then follows C. Refutation of the arguments usually brought against the Cenis theory (170-188), and D. Testimony of Antiquity for the Cenis Route. Osiander introduces his own investigation of this Route by recounting the advocates of this view from two Italian scholars of the 16th century who first brought it into prominence, Maccaneo and Giovio, and the Swedish, German and French scholars, to Robinson Ellis and Colonel Perrin. The book concludes with “ Nachträge" (203-204) made at Grenoble, August, 1900.

The writer feels at brief summary has done but scant justice to the thoroughgoing investigation of Osiander, and the many important points that have been incidentally illuminated in the course of his work. The book as a whole deserves the highest praise.

EMORY B. LEASE.

THB COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK,

1 With Osiander's view that the Cremonis iugum of Coelius=the Little St. Bernhard, compare Sanders (Die Quellen contamination im 21. u. 22. Buche des Livius, Berlin (1898, p. 101). S. maintains, however, that Han. crossed by this route.

· Osiander might well have cited also the eminent Russian scholar and military authority, N. S. Galitzin (cf. Allgem. Kriegsgesch. d. Alt. (1875), vol. III,

P. 34).

REPORTS.

THE JOURNAL OF GERMANIC PHILOLOGY, Vol. III, 1900–1901.

Pp. 1-14. F. A. Blackburn (University of Chicago). The Husband's Message and Accompanying Riddles of the Exeter Book. Thorpe, in his edition of the Exeter Codex (pp. 470-75), printed four short pieces, the first three under the heading Riddles,' the fourth with the title 'Fragment. Grein's arrangement of these in his Bibliothek, where he prints the first and second as riddles but joins the third and fourth, calling the whole Botschaft des Gemahls an seine Frau, has been hitherto generally accepted. Blackburn essays to prove that the second piece, like the third, is a part of a poem which is continued in what follows in the MS. He maintains his claim by a study of the subject-matter of the pieces in question, showing the appropriate and close connection in sense of the second part with the remainder. The whole reconstructed poem ought to be entitled 'A Love-letter' of a banished knight to his lady-love. Blackburn satisfactorily accounts for the pres, ence of the first piece, which he also considers to be a riddle, and gives a reprint and connected translation of all four pieces, supplying by conjecture the illegible parts of the MS.

Pp. 14-24. Arthur C. L. Brown (Harvard University). The Source of a Guy of Warwick Chap-Book. The author shows by parallel columns and a general comparison that the best known of the Guy of Warwick chap-books, first printed in London, 1706, and reprinted frequently since, even to the present day, is a prose version of Samuel Rowland's Famous History of Guy Earle of Warwick. a popular epic of the 17th century, with three added episodes. Of these episodes two are popular tales, and the third, the * Tale of the Dun Cow', is a local tradition handed down orally and found also in earlier Guy of Warwick chap-books.

Pp. 24-35. John McLaren McBryde (Hollins Institute, Va.) contributes the second part, Metre of the Davideis, of his Study of Cowley's Davideis begun in Vol. II, of the Journ. of Ger. Phil. He discusses Cowley's use of the hemistich, which was founded upon a doubtful conception of Virgil's metre and the use of which has persisted down to our day. In his discussion of the triplet, which Cowley used only in his Anacreontics, McBryde gives some interesting new information concerning the use of this poetical device in Middle English. He further treats of the poet's use of the alexandrine, of feminine rhymes, and of run-on lines and run-on couplets with tables of percentages, showing that Cowley's verse, as he grows older and more skilled, tends to become more correct'.

Pp. 35-92 and 431-92. Philip S. Allen (University of Chicago). Wilhelm Müller and the German Volkslied II and III. In a previous article Allen had defined Volkslied, had shown how every poet at the beginning of the 19th century was permeated with its spirit, and especially how Müller had never departed from this spirit in any of his songs. This is so true, that many of the poet's songs have since become Volkslieder. In the first part of his second contribution the author takes up Nature-Sense in the Volkslied and Müller. Uhland was the first to lay stress upon the fact that the lively sense for surrounding and sympathizing nature, which is evident in the Volkslied, lies at its very roots. In this feature Müller follows the Volkslied very closely. Allen gives a detailed comparison of analogies between the poet and the Volkslied in their sense for nature. Under various subheadings (flowers, trees, birds, animals, water, sun, moon and stars, natural phenomena) the author shows by many examples Müller's agreement with and divergence from popular poetry. He establishes clearly that, on the whole, the poet is on the same level with the Volkslied as regards appreciation of nature, though he shows a tendency towards sentimentality and romanticism, and frequently goes far beyond the Volkslied in detailed parallelism as well as in his fondness for the sea and the forest. Müller essentially differs from the Volkslied only in his didactic poems.

In the chapter, Reminiscences of the Volkslied in Müller, Allen traces the development of Müller's poetic technique from its first shallow imitation of the Volkslied to its later mastery of the principles of art. Numerous parallelisms make clear the dependence of the poet upon his models. The foreign songs show the influences only indirectly and to a limited extent. The anacreontics have lost the sturdiness and directness of the Volkslied, and are weak and trivial. The drinking songs, though popular in metre, treatment and language, are without direct correspondence in the Volkslied.

In the third main division of this study, Allen presents an exhaustive treatment of the Diction of the Volkslied and of Müller. In sub-paragraphs the general characteristics of the Volkslied style (terseness, vagueness, mention of authorship), the figures of rhetoric (metaphor and simile, personification and apostrophe), the figures of syntax (repetition in its varying forms of epizeuxis, epibole, epistrophe, refrain, epanadiplosis, inverted and climactic repetition, parallelism, polysyndeton), popular speech-words (use of diminutive, noun, adjective, adverb, verb), syntax (position of words in the sentence, tautology, omission of the article and of the personal pronoun, use of the impersonal es) are analyzed, defined and traced in the Volkslied and paralleled in complete lists from Müller's poems. The results prove, as conclusively as is possible by 'mechanical' and 'tangible' examples, Allen's claim of Müller's complete dependence upon the Volkslied. In conclusion some scattering observations are appended and the author pleads warmly for a fairer estimate of Müller as a poet and for a reintroduction of his poetry to Germany, which can be done only by an adequate edition of his verse.

Pp. 92-100. E. W. Fay (Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va.). The Primitive Aryan Name of the Tongue. The author (in Mod. Lang. Notes, May, 1894) had deduced 'all the Protean forms of the word for the tongue from a primitive root *gligh- with alternative forms *ligh- and *gigh- due to sentence euphony.' Collitz the same year claimed as the common base for 'tongue' *dleńĝh- with alternatives *leîĝh- and dengh-. Fay in this article makes a restatement, with some modifications, of his theory, together with a table of words used for comparison and the reasons for his views.

Pp. 127-38. Oliver Farrar Emerson (Western Reserve University). Transverse Alliteration in Teutonic Poetry. After a résumé of the previous discussions of the subject, the article inquires into the mathematical method of chances which Frucht (Metrisches und Sprachliches zu Cynewulfs Elene, Juliana und Crist, 1887) had employed to substantiate his theory, that transverse alliteration is due to chance and not design. Emerson takes exception to the different proportions of chance derived by Frucht and, after showing the errors in the latter's calculations, reaches the conclusion, that the mathematical doctrine of probabilities is absolutely inapplicable to the problem in hand' and the proof of any theory regarding transverse alliteration must not rely on the exactness of mathematical science, but on the less conclusive, psychological argument from the numerous examples.'

Pp. 138-43. Frederic Ives Carpenter (University of Chicago). Notes on the Anonymous ‘Richard II'. Notes to the text of the play published in the current volume of the Jahrbuch der Deutschen Shakespeare Gesellschaft.

Pp. 143-238. Herbert Z. Kip (Stanford University, Cal.). Zur Geschichte der Steigerungs adverbien in der Deutschen Geistlichen Dichtung des 11. und 12. Jahrhunderts.

This study gives an exhaustive treatment, with exemplifications and general discussion of form and origin, of the various intensifying adverbs during the transition period from Old to Middle High German. The article is supplemented by a bibliography and index.

Pp. 238-48. W. Kurrelmeyer (Johns Hopkins University). The Genealogy of the Pre-Lutheran Bibles. of the fourteen editions of the German bible antedating that of Luther, exclusive of the three Low German editions, the genealogy of the first five has been determined with some degree of certainty. The object of this article is to set forth the exact position of the later editions by a comparison of the errors and changes peculiar to the different editions. The comparisons and the relation between the editions are shown in clear tabulations.

Pp. 277-335. Ora P. Seward (University of Utah). The Strengthened Negative in Middle High German. The purpose of Seward's dissertation is to test the conclusions of I. V.Zingerle's article (published in the S. B. Wien, XXXIX, 417-477, 1862) on the strengthened negative by a study of the Middle High German texts since published. Upon the basis of these investigations the author objects to certain of Zingerle's statements in regard to (1) the decrease in the frequency of these negatives after the first half of the 13th century, and (2) the frequency of use in the different dialects and also in regard to some minor points. The one general conclusion to be drawn is that 'between 1200 and 1500 A. D. the frequency of occurrence of the strengthened negative is not affected by date or locality, but is affected somewhat by the character of the composition and more yet by the preference of the individual author. Insufficient data in Old French and Middle English do not permit of comparison of their usage with that in Middle High German. Nor can satisfactory conclusions be drawn as to whether the strengthened negative is of popular origin and character, or whether it is due to French influence. The summaries, with citations of examples, are arranged according to periods, authors, literary character of the different works and geographical distribution. There are also lists of the usage in Middle Low German authors and in Old High German, and an appendixincluding a number of implied negatives and of those strengthened by specifying things not of small size or value. The dissertation contains the usual bibliography and a general index.

Pp. 335-42. G. L. Kittredge (Harvard University). The 'Misogonus' and Laurence Johnson. In a letter to The Nation, March 16, 1899, Kittredge had suggested, and given reasons in support of his view, that the author of the 'Misogonus,' the recently published English university comedy, was Laurence Johnson who had concealed his identity under the name Laurentius Bariwna in the MS of the play. Johnson, after graduating from Oxford, had entered the Romish church and was hanged for treason in 1582. This same name appears as the name of the author of a 'Cometographia, London, 1578,' an account of the comet of 1577. Since the letter was written Kittredge has seen a copy of the Cometographia' and in this article expresses the positive opinion that Laurence Johnson, the Martyr, was not the Laurentius Bariwna of the Misogonus MS. Laurentius Bariwna of the MS is, however, the same as the author of the 'Cometographia' and a graduate of Cambridge. This identity does not settle the question of the authorship of the Misogonus, though Kittredge thinks there is no reason, not even of chronology, which opposes the ascription of the comedy to Laurence Johnson the author of the Cometographia.'

Pp. 342-51. William Dinsmore Briggs in an article, King Arthur and King Cornwall, connects this ballad (No. 30 in

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