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Child's collection) with the French romance, Le Pèlerinage de Charlemagne. He reconstructs the outline of the fragmentary ballad, recalls the views of Gaston Paris, opposing the relation of the ballad and the romance, and thereupon develops his own views, maintaining a close connection between the two.

Pp: 352-54. George Hempl (University of Michigan) contributes in the article on Influence of Vowel Quantity some cases in Latin (fötus) foveo, mõtus (móveo, etc.) where a short vowel, by analogy, so affects the pronunciation of an associated form, that there results a vowel of similar quantity but long'.

Pp. 354-62. Gustaf E. Karsten (University of Indiana) reprints The Ballad of the Cruel Moor, one of the Sources of ‘Titus Andronicus,' which is taken from A Collection of Old Ballads, London, 1726, and adds some information concerning this collection of ballads, as it is not easily accessible.

Pp. 393-415. A. S. Jack (Lake Forest, III.), in The Autobiographical Elements in Piers the Plowman, maintains the thesis that the poem, as far as it concerns the outer life of the author, is not autobiographical, though it has autobiographical elements containing the opinions, hopes, fears and spiritual history of the poet. Jack collects the previous views concerning the author of the allegory and states the course of his investigation, which takes up first the statements of time, second the dreams, third the wander ings, fourth the account of the dreamer's social life and occupation, and fifth minor personal details'. The discussion of the first point leads to the result that these figures (of time) professedly relating to the author should be understood as the other passages not referring to William, as definite alliterative expressions for indefinitely long periods of time. Hence we have no basis for certainty, nor even for probability as to the date of the poet's birth, nor age at time of writing any of the texts, nor length of wandering'. The dreams are only a literary device and universally so considered by students of the poem. As to the wanderings the author sums up his discussion as follows: “Since (1) to have the hero wander about was in our poet's age, a common literary device, since (2) the incidents mentioned in connection with the wandering are not real incidents; since (3) to think of the poet's leading a'vagabond 'life is to think of him as doing that which he from beginning to end condemns, and finally since (4) the imaginative and allegorical interpretation is in harmony with the spirit of the whole poem and obviates many difficulties, the imaginative interpretation of the wandering is the true one." The

account of the dreamer's social life and occupation is also best explained in the same way as the account of his wanderings, allegorically. The remaining allusions are only of minor importance and may be true or not, though the author mentions a number of objections to their literal interpretation. However there are val. uable hints between the lines for drawing a rough sketch of the poet's life. He was a student, probably in the church as a priest, who led a quiet, meditative life, possibly in the country, away from the influences that helped to make Chaucer. He probably had an acquaintance with London; of more than that we cannot be sure. He sympathized with the common people. The fear of persecution or a dislike of publicity probably influenced him to remain silent and unknown. “Farther than this in sketching Langland's life, if such were his name, we cannot safely go.”

Pp. 415-31. Neil C. Brooks (University of Illinois). The Lamentations of Mary in the Frankfurt Group of Passion Plays. This article is a study of the scenes at the crucifixion and entombment, where Mary laments the fate of Christ,occurring in five passion plays, with an attempt to show the relations between these plays and other similar plays.

Pp. 492. F. G. G. Schmidt (University of Oregon) contributes a Bursenknechtlied of eight lines, found in a 15th century MS in the library at Maihingen, Bavaria.

Pp.493-97. Kuno Francke (Harvard University). A Romantic Element in the Prelude to Goethe's Faust. In Novalis' Die Lehrlinge zu Sais, written in 1797-98, though not published until 1802, there are some passages, which Francke here cites, bearing a striking similarity to the glorification of poetry in the Prelude to Goethe's Faust I. 138 ff. and anticipating the chief elements of Goethe's effusion. Francke thinks that Goethe knew Novalis' work in MS form and reproduced its sentiments in the Prelude.

Pp. 497-501. Frederick Klaeber (University of Minnesota) suggests as An Emendation in the Old English Version of Bede IV. 24, the separation of meaht into āht, making the passage read pū äht singan, the correct and required translation of the Latin mihi cantare habes.

A. S. Cook (Yale University) also contributes an appreciative In Memoriam to Professor Cosijn of Leyden, who died Aug. 26, 1899.

The third volume of the Journal contains the usual book-reviews covering some twenty-six different works in the various domains of Germanic philology. YALE UNIVERSITY.



Beiträge zur Assyriologie, herausgegeben von FRIEDRICH DE

LITZSCH und Paul Haupt. Vierter Band, Heft 3 (pp. 279-422). Leipzig, J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung,

1901. The third Heft of the fourth volume of the Beiträge contains five articles, of which two are by J. A. Knudtzon on the El Amarna tablets (pp. 279-337 and 410-17).

1 For Band IV, Heft 2, see Prince, A. J. P. XXI, pp. 103-6.

The author divides his first treatise into nine sections, designated by the letters of the alphabet. He states at the outset that he has been obliged to deviate sharply from his former paper in BA. IV, Heft 1, pp. 101-54, and he corrects the present article again, with respect to a number of important points, in his second paper on the same subject in this third Heft (pp. 410-17). The most striking sections of Knudtzon's work are: A. On Sayce's supposed "Ionian" name (pp. 280–88); B. The arrangement of Rib-Addi's letters and of those of several other periods (pp. 288– 327); G. On tablets in Egyptian from Egypt (pp. 327-30); H. Tablets from the land of the Hatti (pp. 330-34).

In the year 1891 Sayce reported in the Academy, Vol. XL, p. 341, that he had found in one of the El Amarna tablets "the mention of an 'Ionian' who was connected in some way with the country of Tyre.” In order to correct Sayce's version amil Yivâna ‘Ionian,' which he reads as one word from Yi-i-ma a-na, Knudtzon cites and discusses four passages in which this combination occurs. He shows quite conclusively that in the phrase na-ad-nu . . . u amelût Yi-i-ma a-na a-na Suri ina lu-qi, Yi-zma is a distinct word from the preposition ana, which, as is frequently the case in the El Amarna letters, is written twice. He translates then :-'they gave ... and the Yi-z-ma people to the land of Suri as a surety. He considers that Yi-i-ma cannot be a proper name, but is probably to be read as Yi-i-wa (m=w), i. e. as an Egyptian plural form, denoting some sort of official. Sayce's idea that this is an allusion to an ‘Ionian' cannot stand. The word Yi-z-wa is found also in the form Yi-u as subject and as Yi-a, Yi-z-ma, Yi-e-ma as object. Knudtzon is inclined to connect this word tentatively with Eg. w'w'officer,' reading the sign pi, not as yi, but as wi; wi-i-ma. This would make the word identical with the form u-i-u = Eg. w'w 'officer,' which has long ago been known from the Jerusalem letters.

Knudtzon's arrangement of the letters of Rib-Addi (B.) is a valuable chronological study. In establishing the order of the letters, the author took into consideration not only the text and the historical situation, but also the appearance of the clay of the individual tablets. I will call attention merely to the following forms:

irtixat (p. 295; fem. 3 p. perm. I: of N rixi) ‘it remained. This form of rixt occurs also IVR. 54, 14 a :-murçu têxu (dilib)tum ališu irtext sickness, plague, affliction rest upon him. The word xam Adu something desirable' (p. 328) is clearly cognate with Heb. 7.1973 On p. 319, the intransitive form id-dilul from 'close, shut' is unusual in this stem. This is a present tense made like eppuš, errub. The pret. of édelu is edil.

Ernest Lindl follows Knudtzon's first article with a treatise on the list of dates of the first Babylonian dynasty with four plates and additional notes (pp. 338–402). The period of the so-called

1 See Prince, A. J. P. XX, p. 107.

first dynasty of Babylon has long been known to us through accounts dating from the reigns of the ancient kings. We may now, moreover, get an excellent idea of the civilization of this interesting epoch from newly found records which are highly instructive for the study of both the public and private life of these ancient times. The most important sources for the history of the first dynasty are undoubtedly the royal inscriptions of Hammurabi and Samsuiluna. Next to them should be classed the contract literature belonging to this epoch which, from the days of Loftus (1864) until the present time, has been constantly growing. In this article, which is part of Lindl's Dissertation for the Doctorate at Munich, the author has begun his investigations in this mass of literature which bears so directly on the ancient civilization. He pays especial attention in his study to the following four points :-1) The contents of the contracts. 2) The names of the witnesses, or that of the judge, in whose presence the contract was executed. 3) The date, day, month and year of the individual record. 4) The so-called form of oath.

The author's object is to confirm and fill out when necessary the data of the valuable "London List" (in Sumerian) which, in so far as it has come down to us unmutilated, gives in exact chronological order the dates of the kings of the first Babylonian dynasty from Sumuabu to Samsuiluna (published by Pinches, Cuneiform Texts, VI, pp. 9-10). This list makes it possible for us to register the contracts themselves within a period of not less than 183 years. These private documents are moreover of great chronological value, in that they do not merely give the year number of the king's reign in which they were executed, but, following an unusual system, they mention the chief occurrence of the year immediately preceding their own year. The most striking feature of Lindl's work is his publication of plates and texts of a hitherto unnoticed Hammurabi inscription (Sumerian) which is part of Scheil's excavations in Sippar-Abu-Habba in 1893. Lindl found these in the Museum at Constantinople, where he copied them with the permission of the Librarian (p. 342). He follows the publication of this text with a complete transliteration and translation with commentary of the “ London List,” which he has filled out by means of the Constantinople fragment and of the Contracts (pp. 343–88), of which he gives (pp. 389– 90) a complete list.

Friedrich Delitzsch follows this treatise with a number of "marginal remarks" on Lindl's work (pp. 403-9). It is interesting to notice that Delitzsch calls attention (p. 409) to Hommel's unfortunate identification of Marduk with Uru-ki the moon-god (Gesch. p. 416) which has attracted the notice of others who have used Hommel's extensive history.

The Heft ends with a few entertaining pages by Bruno

Jensen and Winckler, KB. III, i, pp. 106-27; 130–33.

Meissner on falconry among the Babylonians and Assyrians (PP. 418-22), wherein he shows that the ars venandi cum avibus can be followed back to a much more ancient period than has hitherto been thought. According to certain texts published by Pinches and Delitzsch, the Assyrians had a bird called surda, clearly a species of falcon, which hunted game for its (royal) master. A synonym is given IIR 37, 152 ; 64a kastsu, besides which there are other names. Meissner believes that iççur xurri=buçu was also a term for falcon, possibly cognate with Ar. têr el þurr, which may itself be a literal translation of iççur xurri. The texts quoted by Meissner are all from the Aššurbânipal library and date from the middle of the seventh century B. C. It is highly probable, however, that falconry in Mesopotamia is much older than this date. Meissner does not insist that this form of venery had its origin in Mesopotamia. Persians and Koords still practice it, and it is quite possible that the early Babylonians and Assyrians first learned it from the mountaineers who were their eastern neighbours. It is still followed in Iraq, especially in the neighbourhood of Bagdad, where the writer of this report has frequently heard it described, although he has never had the good fortune to see a hunt with falcons. New York UNIVERSITY.



Pp. 321–32. F. Buecheler. Coniectanea. Notes on Plutarch, Quaest. Conviv. VIII 6; on certain passages in the Latin grammarians Martyrius and Caper; on some of the papyri recently published by Messrs. Hunt, Grenfell and Hogarth, etc.

Pp. 333-9. R. Kunze. Zu griechischen Geographen. Notes on Strabo, XV p. 730 Cas. (read kai tñs 'Asias Baouleuoas); XVI p. 770 ; III p. 167; VII p. 315; XVI p. 779; XVII p. 835; Eustathius, p. 395, 21 M.; p. 315, 44; p. 273, 34; p. 322, 34.

Pp. 340-68. R. Helm. Vindiciae Ovidianae. Textual notes on various passages in the Metamorphoses : IV 446, 766; VII 186–7, 762; VIII 87; XII 230 sqq., 434-9; XIII 399-400, 846–7; III 249 sqq., 400-1 ; VI 294; XI 293; XIII 332–3, 404-11, 457–63; XIV 385, 739; XV 49 sqq., 426–30.

Pp. 369-91. F. Reuss. Zu Arrian's repíndous Dóvrov Eůscivov. The Periplus is probably the genuine work of Arrian, not "a forgery composed in the late Byzantine period” (see C. G. Brandis, Rh. Mus. LI, pp. 109–26).

Pp. 392–403. R. Wünsch. Zu Ovids Fasten Buch I und II. Textual notes on F. I 6, 26, 161, 652, 705–8, 701–2; II 23, 575. The passage in F. I 479-96, may be regarded as a type of the rhetorical "consolatio.

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