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The Outlook


The Spirit of San Francisco A Telegraphic Pen Picture by Benjamin Ide Wheeler T" THE

President of the University of California
HE population of a great city suddenly robbed of the entire shelter and equip-

ment of civilized life is left standing bare under the stars. No roofs, light,

food, water, furniture, or tools; one suit for each person, or scarcely that, No cars; only automobiles, bicycles, and wagons, the movement is mostly on foot around a fourteen-mile hem of desolation. The banks have their money locked in heated vaults. There is nothing to buyno shops, the largest department store advertises to open in small dwelling here. No paper, no printing-press, no telephones or telegraph. City engineers without level or compass, without records of streets or pipes. Every library burned. - Public, Mechanics', Mercantile, Sutro, Law; only the unique Bancroft Library of Original Documents preserved, and now rendered priceless. It will be transported directly to Berkeley as the property of the State University. No courts or governmental buildings. The externals of life are reduced to

. a condition of primitive savagery. Unerringly self-government springs anew from root without resort to military laws; the ablest men come to the front, the people welcome leadership of intelligence and integrity. The government is practically in the hands of the excellent Citizens' Committee, with the Mayor presiding. Hundreds of car-loads of provisions, especially of cooked food, rushed in from coast cities, averted the danger of famine. Superb order from the first. People brave, unrepining,

, "game;" half population now camping at Oakland and Berkeley, or departed into country. First outlook for the future dark. It is resolved to rebuild. Determination unhesitating. Confidence restored. Mr. Harriman's coming had an excellent effect. City certainly to arise immediately finer than old. The experience of the earthquake proves steel-cage construction absolutely secure. The taller the building's the better ; six modern steel buildings which were burned out will be in use again inside ninety days. Scientific commission studying effects of earthquake. Professors Lawson, Gilbert, and Branner say that it is evident that the earth-shivering attains greatly enhanced amplitude in passing into the soft soil and the alluvial sand. Same shock all along the line of the old geologic fault from Russian River to Salinas, but the destruction of buildings was only on soft or new-made soil. The lesson is that of varying construction for varying soil. Money needed to feed a hundred thousand people for thirty days, fifty thousand another thirty. Then fund needed to help deserving men to get on their feet. So we can use large amounts advantageously now.



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In response to a request some of the militia were shooting reckThe Situation

from The Outlook, Dr. lessly appears to have been exaggerated, in San Francisco

Benjamin Ide Wheeler, although the death of Mr. H. C. Tilden, President of the University of California, a member of the relief committee, by at Berkeley, at the end of last week sent such reckless shooting is one of the most the despatch printed on the preceding deplorable incidents of the calamity. At page, which gives what seems to us an the suggestion of President Roosevelt, extremely valuable bird's-eye view of coalition has been made between the the situation in San Francisco, of the Red Cross Association and the San special needs of the people, and of the Francisco Citizens' Committee. Exefforts on foot for reconstruction. The Mayor James D. Phelan has been made message has special force as coming from chairman of the finance committee of the a man of National reputation and of Citizens' Committee, and all contribuproved judgmentand wisdom. Elsewhere tions, including those from the Red Cross in this issue of The Outlook will be fund, will be disbursed on his order. Mr. found some personal impressions of the Phelan is a public-spirited citizen in Spectator on the day of the calamity. whom every one has entire confidence. It may be added that a member of Dr. Devine, the special representative of the editorial staff of The Outlook left the Red Cross, arrived in San Francisco for San Francisco on receipt of the early last week, and has co-operated with news of the disaster, is now in that the Citizens' Committee to establish city, and will, at the earliest day con- scientific and economical methods of sistent with the general purpose of his distribution. The homeless citizens have mission, tell the readers of The Outlook in large numbers been received into with some fullness about the actual state houses still standing in San Francisco, of affairs existing there, the plans for or have been hospitably welcomed by reconstruction, the administration of the the people of near-by towns, but the greatest relief fund this country has ever camps still contain many thousands who gathered together, the conduct and cour- must be cared for as to food, shelter, and age of the people under their affliction, sanitation. Electric cars are beginning the human and dramatic phases of the to run.

The railroads have shown great period of endurance, and whatever else generosity in giving free transportation may seem to be of permanent rather to those who wish to leave for any point than of temporary interest. During last west of Chicago. The bounty of the week progress was made in systematiz- country at large continued to be poured ing the plans for relief and the methods forth during the week with astonishing of applying this relief with as little waste liberality—the fund is now about $20,as possible. Secretary Metcalf, of the 000,000, and New York City alone has

, Department of Commerce and Labor, given about $4,000,000. The financial reported to the President from San situation is a difficult one because of the Francisco that his estimate of the loss of destruction of the banks and the burying life in that city was not far from three beneath the ruins of immense funds hundred, with a thousand injured. Other which have not yet been recovered, and estimates place the loss of life somewhat, the instant need of ready money for the in excess of this. Secretary Metcalf de- rebuilding of the city. It is said that clares, however, that the industrial and Congress may be asked to guarantee a commercial losses are appalling and long-time low interest bond loan by San demand financial planning on a very

Francisco. The President has asked large scale.

He found little suffering Congress to appropriate money for work from lack of provisions or water, no at the Mare Island Navy-Yard to give epidemics, and on the whole the health needed employment. It is recognized of the people excellent, all things con- that the opportunity to make San Fransidered. The sale of liquor in San Fran- cisco one of the most beautiful cities cisco, Oakland, and near-by places has of the world is not to be neglected, been strictly prohibited ; looting has and it is quite probable that an adaptabeen sternly suppressed; the report that tion of the plans made tentatively some

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time ago by Mr. Burnham, the architect, “ it will not be seriously contended that will be followed, including a beautiful any man who receives less than two dolcivic center with radiating boulevards lars per day can support and educate and a fine outer boulevard encircling the his family in a manner at all conformcity along the bay and ocean. The able to American siardards, especially business section will doubtless shift in the mining industry, where men are somewhat its position. General Greely not given the opportunity to work more has assumed command of the military than two hundred and twenty-five days situation, and has brought in more troops in any one year.” And yet, it claims, there to aid in preserving discipline and to are thousands upon thousands of miners, afford rest to the overworked soldiers with families to support, who receive : of the regular army.

From every quar

between $1.17 and $1.75 per day. The ter comes the highest praise for the way committee also refers to the great hazard in which the military situation has been incident to employment in the anthracite handled by General Funston and later mines and to the skill and experience reby General Greely. A few comparative- quired by contract miners, and contends ly slight earthquake tremors were felt on that the support and maintenance of the the Pacific Coast during the week. The injured as well as of large numbers of loss at San José is reckoned at not less widows and orphans throughout the than $8,000,000 ; that at Stanford Uni- region is borne in a large measure by versity as perhaps $400,000.

those who depend upon the mining industry for their livelihood. The opera

tors, in rejecting the propositions, reiterIn the hope of reach- ate their plan for a limited arbitration Efforts to Avert

of new issues and a three-year agreement, a Hard-Coal Strike ing a basis upon

which the present sus- and quote the award of the Anthracite pension of anthracite coal mining could Coal Strike Commission on the subject be declared at an end, two entirely new of wages in the hard-coal industry. The propositions were presented last week to reply of the operators goes somewhat the hard-coal operators by the anthra- into detail as to the increase in the cost cite mine employees. On April 27, the of labor if either of the mine workers' ,

, day following, they were rejected by the propositions were granted, stating that the representatives of the anthracite-carrying operators cannot afford to pay this large railroad companies. These proposals annual increase (estimated at $6,100,000 from the mine workers' committee in for the entire industry) without imposeffect abandon all the various demands ing additional burdens upon the coalpreviously made and rejected by the consuming public, and claiming that operators, except as to a wage in- there has been no increase in the profits

The first proposal groups the of the business upon which could be employees about the collieries into five based any claim for increased wages. different classes, according to the wages The operators' letter closes as follows: paid, and asks for a sliding scale increase “ In view of all the circumstances, we in wages by groups, the increase ranging are satisfied that the true course was from fifteen per cent. for those receiving indicated in our original proposition. one dollar or less a day, to five per cent. This was that existing conditions should for the best-paid employees. In case be continued for a period of three years. this plan were refused by the operators, We trust that on Thursday next the it was requested by the committee that deliberate judgment of the anthracite the operators grant an advance in wages workers will result in an acceptance of equal to ten cents per ton upon the total that proposal; but if not, that they will production. In case either proposicion join with us in the arbitration we have were accepted, the committee claims that offered. Failing to meet us on either the increase in the labor cost of the proposition, the responsibility of a strike domestic sizes of anthracite would not must rest upon you." It will be rememexceed sixteen cents a ton. In support bered that the arbitration offered by the of the demand the committee states that operators excludes, according to the



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