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then, that scientific management consists in something more than the scientific study of operations and the establishment of a planning department. Something must be done to make it apparent to the workers that it is to their interest to acquiesce in the change. What is that something?

It must be an assurance, in a tangible and permanent form presented automatically to each worker, first, that the instructions he receives are within his capacity, and, second, that if he follows those instructions he will receive his share of the increased product. In most cases that have come to my knowledge this assurance has been given by a stipulation that a bonus shall be received by every worker who attains a definitely set standard. When a scientific study of operations has been made, such a standard is perfectly ascertainable. For example, a minute analysis of such a delicate operation as laying gold-leaf on a bookbinding has shown just what are the factors in the operation. Each modification of the operation is simply a rearrangement of those known factors; and as the time consumed by each factor is known, a simple sum in addition will tell what time is needed for the whole operation. When a percentage (also scientifically determined) is added as a margin, the standard is set. If there is doubt in the mind of the worker, the foreman explains just what the operations are, and, if necessary, performs them in the given time. bonus for reaching this standard is an addition to the regular wages or salary. For each foreman a bonus is given for each bonus earned by a subordinate. If the worker fails at any time to earn a bonus, there must be a definitely ascertainable reason for it. If it is the fault or defect of the worker, the boss or foreman is at once as interested as the worker is to see that the fault or defect is remedied; if it exists elsewhere, both are at once interested to see that the reason is discovered. If the preliminary study on which the standard is based has been properly done, there is in addition to the bonus a reward in greater ease of work, release from distraction and confusion, and consequent freedom from fatigue.


It thus appears that through scientific

management greater profits are secured through an increase in wages. Or, to put it conversely, an increase of wages is secured through greater profits. Under the traditional methods there was supposed to be a predetermined amount to be divided between the employer and employee. If the employer got an increased share, the employee found his share diminished; and vice versa. In other words, the relation between employer and employee was on a war basis. Of course the employees combined in self-defense; of course they insisted on collective bargaining, and they were right in doing so ; of course when they found the employer weak they struck or gained their ends by threatening to strike. On the other hand, of course the managers, being responsible for dividends, did what they could to keep wages down, and, when they could not do that, tried to raise the price of their product to the consumer. With the introduction of scientific management, on the other hand, the relation between employer and employee is transformed. Their interests become identical. And their interests are likewise the same as the interest of the consumer. All are interested in the reduction of cost; and all share the benefit. It is impossible to put scientific management into operation until this is recognized. It is the essence of scientific management to see that the benefits are fairly distributed. In fact, the distribution of these benefits becomes of itself a means of production.

More than that, the employee finds congenial work. If for reason of unfitness he cannot reach the standard scientifically determined, he becomes a subject for study by the management, and, if he has ability in any direction, he is soon assigned to work that he can do. For example, among the men who had been handling pig iron at Bethlehem, seven out of eight had not the strength or the stolid temperament that fitted them to reach the standard set. They were assigned to other work, and many of them were soon earning higher wages than they could have earned by handling pig iron. The very process which revealed their unfitness for the lower kind of labor revealed qualities that fitted them for a higher kind of labor. Moreover, those

who show proficiency in their tasks are by that very fact started on the road to promotion. The machinist who is especially skillful at the lathe is soon chosen to be one of the bosses; for under scientific management the boss is not chosen because he is a driver, but because he is so adept that he can become a teacher of others. In one machine-shop I noticed a young man, scarcely more than a boy, at work at a desk in the planning depart ment. "What is he doing?" I inquired. "He is selecting the tools to be used by the mechanics," was the answer. "What, that boy!" "Yes." "But I should think he ought to have expert knowledge of the tools and experience in the use of them." He has. That is why he is in the planning department. He started He started in as an apprentice; he showed aptitude; he quickly became a regular mechanic; and in his work he showed such skill that he was put at work on his present job." Scientific management thus necessarily involves the scientific selection of the workman.

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This instance of the boy in the planning department illustrates another feature of scientific management. I mean what is called functional foremanship. It is necessary that the boss should know more than the workman, and the foreman should know more than the boss. But no one man can have a specialist's knowledge in all departments of work. Consequently the work of the bosses is apportioned according to functions. One boss has charge of the preparation of the workthe collection of the tools and the material. He may be called the gang boss. Another has charge of the setting of the machines, so that they will work most efficiently. He may be called the speed boss. Another has charge of the order in which the work is done. He is called the route boss. Another has charge of the instruction cards, another of the motions that the workers should use to do their work most quickly and easily, another of the discipline. Each has his own function.

This arrangement of functional foremanship is not new; it has long been applied to the coaching of football teams. In every large university there are coaches (foremen) for the end rushers,

coaches for the quarter-back, coaches for the center, and so on for each positionand even coaches for punting and drop kicking. Each of these coaches is selected because he knows more than any one else available concerning some particular feature of the game. Functional foremanship is new only in industry. We are much more scientific in our sports than in our serious work. Motion study had been long a commonplace in golf before it was applied to bricklaying; and functional foremanship has long been the rule in the coaching of football and baseball


Every worker has therefore at his service a specialist who knows more about certain elements of the task than the worker does himself-a coach, or, if you will, a teacher. This specialist or coach or teacher not only has special knowledgewhich, instead of being guesswork or hearsay or tradition, is, in fact, the product of scientific investigation—but also is concerned to put this knowledge to the worker's use, for he succeeds only in proportion as his subordinates succeed. In consequence, the worker, so far from regarding the boss as a taskmaster to evade and outwit, looks to the boss as an aid. In consequence, likewise, the officers higher in authority are relieved from de tail by the functional foremen, and are free to give their thought to the decision of special questions-such as those raised by emergencies. For example, a certain weaver at a loom finds that he is unable to do the work in accordance with his instructions. He at once calls upon the boss for an explanation. The boss comes, watches the operation, and sees that the weaver is making two unnecessary motions in each operation; does the work at the loom-as the professional golfer swings the club to show the duffer the proper form-and thus eliminates the trouble. Or, again, after watching the operation, the boss discovers that the worker is following instructions, but that the material is not what was intended for that particular piece of work. He immediately calls the attention of the proper authority to the fact. The planning department at once sends word to the vice-president that the concern from which the material was ordered has made

a mistake, and asks for a decision as to whether the work shall be continued with the necessary revision as to standards of work, or whether the work on that particular product shall be discontinued until the proper material is received. Here is an emergency. The fact that the management is based on scientific principles allows that emergency to be promptly recognized and promptly met. Thus every one in the organization is acting in accord with every one else. The high-priced man is doing high-priced work; the lowpriced man is doing low-priced work; and the low-priced man has every fair chance to become, through achievement, a high-priced man.

I cannot expect within the limits of such an article as this even to indicate all that is involved in scientific management. I hope, however, that I have made it clear that scientific management is not the adoption of certain devices—such as the bonus for special piece-work; that it is not mere systematization; but that it is the acceptance of certain fundamental principles. It requires a new attitude toward organized action, particularly in industry. It is a form of co-operation practically applied.


For that very reason it is at first opposed both by managers and by wage-earners. The opposition from wageearners is due to the fact that industry is now on a war basis, labor unions are war organizations, and anything that tends to individualize labor is regarded by wageearners as a weakening of their side. this the wage-earners are entirely right as long as the war basis is maintained. So long as wage-earners feel that the managers are representatives of rival claimants to a common fund, so long they will regard the individualization of the laborer as a device to cheat them out of their share. They must first be convinced that the war basis has been abandoned. In this they will act slowly. The opposition from managers is due likewise to this deep-seated acceptance of the war basis as permanent. It is also due to the fact that under scientific management the responsibility of the manager is greatly increased, and men are instinctively disinclined to accept greater responsibility. Scientific management, therefore, spreads slowly.

It is retarded, moreover, by certain misconceptions. Some men, whose attention is held by some device in use under scientific management, and recognizing it as familiar, jump to the conclusion that they have it already in their business, when, as a matter of fact, they do not even understand, much less accept, its principles. Others, ignoring the fact. that science is no respecter of industries, complacently declare that it will not work in their particular business. Others, recognizing the patent evils of ordinary piecework, object to it as "speeding up" workers, overlooking the fact that one of its prime objects is to relieve the worker of the strain and fatigue that arise from the attempt to secure speed by merely redoubling effort. Others object that it is mere theory, oblivious of the fact that it is in operation in a wide variety of industries. Others suspect it as a "panacea," while perfectly willing to recognize in another sphere, that of medicine and surgery, science to be the mortal enemy of all "panaceas." Others criticise it as a narrowing process, failing to realize. that a man is narrowed not by his field of labor but by drudgery in any field. Others oppose it on the ground that it kills initiative in men, forgetting that the application of science is everywhere a provocative of the true spirit of initiative.

Some of the advocates of scientific management have, in their enthusiasm, made the mistake that is often made on behalf of science-the mistake of imagining that science can tell all secrets. No science has revealed the secret of Beethoven's music, or Shakespeare's dramas, or the Cathedral at Rheims. No science can produce beautiful pictures, or instill into the minds of undergraduates the love of letters. No excess of zeal, however, on the part of any advocate should distract the minds of thinking people from the fact that, wherever men work together under direction, scientific management can increase their product, reduce needless effort, and make at least an approximation to a fair division of the fruits of their toil. In most cases it has multiplied the output by two or three, has supplanted a deficit with a good net income, and, in many instances, at the same time has

reduced the price of the product to the


There is no reason why scientific management should not be applied equally well to a private corporation, to a COoperative, profit-sharing concern, and to such a socialistic institution as the PostOffice. To the question whether the tool-users shall be the tool-owners or not, scientific management has nothing to say. As a matter of fact, with industrial conditions as they are at present, it has been proved that under scientific management it is better for all tools (small tools as well as machinery) in the same concern to be under one control, and that virtually means under one ownership. This might be the joint ownership of capitalist and workers. If the machinery belongs to a corporation or a firm, the small tools should not be left to the ownership of the workmen, but should be a part of the concern's equipment. If the machinery is collectively owned, so should be the small tools. The one thing essential, however, is that the management should have the authority to apply to the selection of the tools the same scientific process that they should apply to all other elements in the direction of the industry.

From what I have said I hope it is clear that scientific management involves the acceptance of the following four principles: First, the planning department, with its various functions assigned to different agents, should be in full control of every part of the organism, determining exactly, and ordering by means of drafted directions, not only what the product shall be, but how the processes shall be carried on. Second, to this end, the planning department must adhere to the laws of science (the science of the laboratory) in studying and deciding upon all

the elements in the common enterprise, including in these elements not only things and their properties but also men and their ways. Third, necessarily, therefore, the planning department must abandon the practice of classifying men according to the labels they wear, and instead must proceed scientifically in the selection of the workers and in the assignment of them to their tasks. Fourth, the planning department must adopt such a system of distributing responsibility and compensation as will make authority coincident with knowledge and apportion reward according to service rendered.' Whatever management is based on these four principles may fairly be called scientific. It is of minor consequence what devices or what system it adopts to make those principles effective.

As has been said, scientific management cannot be " bought and delivered in a box;" but when it is once installed, it will bring results that cannot be achieved by a merely born manager. If a man wants to practice medicine, it is well if he is a born doctor," but nowadays it is not sufficient; it is not even necessary. So it will some day be with the manager. It is my conviction that Humpty Dumpty will have a great fall.

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I have here set down these principles in the order in which I have developed them in the course of the discussion. Mr. F. W. Taylor, the acknowledged chief authority on the subject of scientific management, puts them in a different order and in different terms, as follows:

"Ist. The development of a science in place of 'rule of thumb' for each element of the work.

"2d. The scientific selection and training of the workman.

trained workman together, through the co-operation "3d. The bringing of science and the scientifically

of the management with the man.

"4th. An almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen, the management taking over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work, and the greater part of the responsibility, were thrown upon the workmen."



ONG before I ever heard of Christ or saw a white man I had learned

from an untutored woman the essence of morality. With the help of dear Nature herself, she taught me things simple but of mighty import. I knew God. I perceived what goodness is. I saw and loved what is really beautiful. Civilization has not taught me anything better.

As a child I understood how to give; I have forgotten that grace since I became civilized. I lived the natural life, whereas I now live the artificial. Any pretty pebble was valuable to me then, every growing tree an object of reverence. Now I worship with the white man before a painted landscape whose value is estimated in dollars. Thus the Indian is reconstructed, as the natural rocks are ground to powder and made into artificial blocks which may be built into the walls of modern society.

The first American mingled with his pride a singular humility. Spiritual arrogance was foreign to his nature and teaching. He has never claimed that the power of articulate speech was proof of superiority over the dumb creation; on the other hand, it is to him a perilous gift. He believes profoundly in silence— the sign of a perfect equilibrium. Silence is the absolute poise or balance of body, mind, and spirit. The man who preserves his selfhood ever calm and unshaken by the storms of existence-not a leaf, as it were, astir on the tree, not a ripple upon the shining pool-his, in the mind of the savage sage, is the ideal attitude and conduct of life.

If you ask him, "What is silence?" he will answer, "It is the Great Mystery. The holy silence is His voice." If you ask, "What are the fruits of silence?" he will say, "They are self-control, true courage or endurance, patience, dignity, and reverence. Silence is the cornerstone of character."

Guard your tongue in youth," said the

As many of our readers know, Dr. Eastman is a Sioux Indian; his tribal name is Ohiyesa.-THE EDITORS.

old chief Wabashaw, "and in age you may mature a thought which will be of service to your people."

The moment that man conceived of a perfect body, supple, symmetrical, graceful, and enduring, in that moment he had laid the foundation of a moral life. No man can hope to maintain such a temple of the spirit beyond the period of adolescence unless he is able to curb his indulgence in the pleasures of the senses. Upon this truth the Indian built a rigid system of physical training, a social and moral code that was the law of his life.

There was aroused in him as a child a high ideal of manly strength and beauty, the attainment of which must depend upon strict temperance in eating and in the sexual relation, together with severe and persistent exercise. He desired to be a worthy link in the generations, and that he might not destroy by his weakness that vigor and purity of blood which had been achieved at the cost of much self-denial by a long line of ancestors.

He was required to fast from time to time for short periods, and to work off his superfluous energy by means of hard running, swimming, and the vapor bath.

Personal modesty was early cultivated as a safeguard, together with a strong self-respect and pride of family and race. This was accomplished in part by keeping the child ever before the public eye, from his birth onward. His entrance into the world, especially in the case of the firstborn, was often publicly announced by the herald, accompanied by a distribution of presents to the old and needy. The same thing occurred when he took his first step, when his ears were pierced, and when he shot his first game, so that his childish exploits and progress were known to the whole clan as to a larger family, and he grew into manhood with the saving sense of a reputation to sustain.

The youth was encouraged to enlist early in the public service, and to develop a wholesome ambition for the honors of a leader and feast-maker, which can never be his unless he is truthful and generous, as well as brave, and ever mindful of his

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