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Scriptures; and both the writers of the Old and New Testament, as well as all true Christians, are called “ saints”;--see Luke i. 70; 2 Pet. i. 21; Heb. iii. 1; Rev. xviii. 20. In all these eases, and others, the Greek word rendered “holy” is the same as that elsewhere translated " saint"; and what is remarkable is, that here the attribute is prefixed, and is equivalent to saying St. Matthew, &c. But this word has been abused. As early as the beginning of the fourth century, false ideas respecting departed Christians began to prevail; and it was supposed that the most eminently holy Christians—and especially those who had suffered martyrdom—had power with God as intercessors; and hence they were impiously addressed in prayer; and for a long period the epithet “saint” was used principally of those who were considered mediators. In this sense, the word is highly objectionable and fearfully wicked; for there is but “One Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.”
Martyrdom was mournfully frequent in the early ages of Christianity. In Constantine's time (A.D. 335) Popish legends inform us, there were 5,000 saints for every day in the year, except New Year's day. This was a day of such rejoicing among the heathen that they did not then slaughter the Christians. In process of time, however, the title was not strictly confined to martyrs. Even Michael the Archangel was made a Romish saint. Real and imaginary persons were canonized; and lazy monks, fanatics, mad men, and even robbers, were numbered with the sainthood!
It should be remarked, that in the Greek, the word “ saint" is not prefixed to the name of any of the New Testament writers. The title is simply “The Gospel according to Matthew," "The Epistle of Paul to the Romans," &c. Propriety would therefore demand its rejection in these titles. Ought we, then, seeing the word has been abused, to abandon its use altogether? To answer this question it is necessary to reply to another. Has the abuse of the word obliterated its simple meaning, or so far darkened it as to make it generally misunderstood ? We think not. Few of the Protestant millions of our countrymen, attach any other meaning to it commonly than the original one ; and if they
speak of a “saint," they mean simply a “holy " person. In dealing with all such words or epithets, one rule should guide us: If they are improperly understood in general, or to any large extent, they should be abandoned, unless the sense attached to them be clearly defined; but if not, their use is righteously retained. Since, therefore, “saint" is a term which the multitudes do not misunderstand, it is not improper to employ it.
THE BETTER CHOICE. “I ENVY no quality of the mind or intellect in others, be it genius, power, wit, or fancy; but if I could choose what would be most delightful, and I believe, most useful to me, I should prefer a firm religious belief to every other blessing, for it makes me a disciple of goodness, creates new hopes when all earthly hopes vanish, and throws over the decay, the destruction of existence the most gorgeous of all lights; awakens life even in death; and corruption and decay call up beauty and divinity; makes an instrument of misfortune, and scales the ladder of ascent to Paradise; and far above all combinations of earthly hordes, calls up the most delightful visions of palms and amaranths, the garden of the blest, the security of everlasting joys where the sensualist and the sceptic view only gloom, decay, annihilation, and despair.”—Sir Humphrey Dary.
GOD IS EVERYWHERE.
What hiding place does earth afford ?
Or whither from Thy presence run ?
'Tis there Thou dwell'st enthroned in light;
There also hast Thou thine abode.
And fly beyond the western main ;
I still should find Thy guiding hand.
Great changes have taken place in Egypt and in England during the last two thousand years. Egypt has declined, but England has rapidly advanced in civilization, and in every thing that conduces to national greatness.
The river Nile, which runs through the land of Egypt, is a most majestic stream. Its length, by some writers, is said to be more than three thousand miles. The fertility of the land chiefly depends upon the overflowing of this mighty stream. Heavy torrents of long-continued rain annually fall upon the countries through which the upper part of the river flows. The torrents produced by the copious rain flow into the river, and for a time overflow its banks, depositing on the land the earth washed from the higher parts of the country. When the water subsides the agriculturist commences his labours on the land, which has thus been moistened and enriched by the waters and the alluvium deposited thereon. Means are used to convey the water from the river to tracts of land which would not otherwise be watered. Our engraving represents a wheel designed to raise water from the river, to flow into channels cut in the ground to water the land. As but little rain falls in Egypt, the water from the river Nile is of very great importance to the production of vegetables, required for the sustentation of animal life.
The ancient power and magnificence of Egypt is attested by the vastness and beauty of the architectural works which exist, and which have existed for thousands
Many splendid ancient edifices adorn the banks and islands of the river; many of the temples and tombs are of greater costliness and extent, than any which exist in our land.
Adjoining to Upper Egypt is Nubia, which extends on the banks of the river Nile about five hundred miles. Nubia anciently was subject to the kings of Egypt; and it affords proof of the greatness of the works which its former rulers and inhabitants were able to perform. Two of the most remarkable are the excavated temples or tombs of Isambel, which were cut out of a rocky
mountain near the bank of the Nile. The smaller temple is about twenty feet above the usual surface of the river, and is in a good state of preservation. In front of the entrance are six large statues, standing in narrow recesses. They are about thirty-five feet high. One of the large statues represents a young man with a beard, and a tiara, or turban, on his head. Two figures, about four feet high, stand one on each side of his legs. Another recess contains a female figure, with a child in her arms, and two small figures standing by her. In the third recess ! is the statue of a youth with his arms hanging down, and two small figures standing by him. The doorway is in the centre of the recesses; and a set of figures, similar to those already described, occupy the other three re
The spaces between the figures are covered with carved emblematical historical representations. Inside the doorway is the porch or vestibule, thirteen paces long and seven broad, in which there are six square pillars, three feet square. Further in is a narrow room or passage, with a room on each side. The adytum or secret apartment is seven feet square, and contains the remains of a statue ; the walls of the apartments are covered with figures.
The other cavern temple, or tomb, at Isambel, is of much larger dimensions. Belzoni, the celebrated explorer of Egyptian antiquities, discovered this wonderful excavation in the month of August, 1817. The entrance had become almost covered with earth; he and three other gentlemen succeeded in removing the earth, opening the entrance, and exploring the interior.
The exterior is magnificent; it is one hundred and seventeen feet wide, and eighty-six feet high ; the doorway is twenty feet high. There are in front four sitting gigantic figures, which are above fifty feet high ; they are twenty-five feet broad across the shoulders, their faces being seven feet long. Over the doorway is a figure, twenty feet high, with a hawk's head. On the top of the front is a cornice with a row of twenty-one sitting monkeys, eight feet high. Inside there is a hall, fifty