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ovate, pointed, with alternate veins and ferrugineous on the under surface. The locality of the Sande he does not point out, but says that a third kind of milk tree, the juice of which is potable, grows in the same forest, where it is known by the name of Lyria. This he regarded as identical with the cow tree of Carraccus, of which Humboldt has given so graphic a description.

VARIETIES.

AGONIZING DEATH AT THE FALLS OF NIAGARA.

THE following telegraphic despatch appeared sometime ago in a Boston paper :-“Buffalo, July 19.—A boat, in which were three men asleep, got adrift last night, and floated into the current, where it was upset. Two of the men were carried immediately over the Falls of Niagara, and were dashed to pieces on the rocks below. The third, named Joseph Avery, caught at a stump in his passage, and clung to it. He was discovered almost on the brink of the Falls. Several boats were launched in order to rescue him, but they were swamped the moment they touched the Rapids. A life-boat has been sent for, and hopes are entertained that he will be rescued. Thousands of citizens are on the banks in full view of the unfortunate man, but at present without means to relieve him. A party on the bridge, however, have just succeeded in floating a boat of provisions to him.”

The Buffalo Commercial Advertiser has since published the following more circumstantial account of the conclusion of this horrible tragedy.

• Up to six o'clock last evening, the public were kept in a state of excitement by despatches received at intervals from the Falls, bringing information of the situation of poor Avery, each report fluctuating between hope and fear,—now expressing confidence in his eventual safety, and now almost despairing of his rescue. A large number of persons left this city for the scene of excitement by the trains, and swelled the thousands already around the spot.

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We have been furnished with an account of the proceedings, by an eye-witness; but we are under obligation to the operators upon Kissock's Canada line for the earliest intelligence of the wretched fate of the victim. Our informant tells us that the man was in a part of the Rapids where the rocks rise nearly to the surface of the water, A log of wood, apparently wedged tightly between the rocks, and crossed by another, still higher out of the water was his resting-place. Here he remained, half olinging to and half perching upon the log, from which he would occasionally slip down and walk on the rocks which were only a short distance under water. A few feet in advance was a small fall of about four or five feet, and here and on each side of him the waters rushed wildly on at a speed of about 40 miles an hour. A raft was constructed, formed of crossed timbers, strongly fastened in a square form, a hogshead being placed on the centre. The raft was strongly secured with ropes on each side, and was foated down to the rocks upon which Avery was stationed. As it approached the spot where he stood the rope got fast in the rocks, and the raft became immovable. Avery then appeared to muster strength and courage, and, descending from the log, walked over the rocks to the place where the rope had caught, and laboured long and hard to disengage it from the rocks. After some time he succeeded, and then with renewed energy, inspired by the hope of rescue, he pulled manfully at the rope until he succeeded in bringing the raft from the current towards his fearful resting-place. Avery now got on the raft, making himself fast thereto by means of ropes which had been placed there for that purpose, and those on the land commenced drawing it towards the shore. It had approached within 30 feet of one of the small islands, towards which its course was directed, when suddenly it became stationary in the midst of the Rapids, the ropes again caught in the rocks. All endeavours to move it were found to be in vain, and much fear was entertained that the strains upon the ropes might break them, and occasion the poor fellow's loss. Various sug.

gestions were now volunteered, and several attempts were made to reach him. One man went out in a boat as far as he dared to venture, and asked him if he would fasten a rope round his body, and trust to being drawn in by that. The poor fellow, however shook his head despondingly, as though he felt that he had not strength enough remaining to make himself secure to a rope. At length a boat was got ready-a life-boat, which had arrived from Buffalo-and was launched. Seeing the preparations, Avery unloosed his fastenings, with the intention of being ready to spring into the boat. Borne on by the rushing waters, and amid the breathless suspense of the spectators, the boat approached the raft. A thrill ran through the crowd—the boat lived in the angry wave-it struck the raftma shout of joy rang forth from the shore, for it was believed that he was sa ved—when suddenly the hope that had been raised was again destroyed; a moment's confusion followed the collision, and in the next the victim was seen in the midst of the waters, separated from his frail support, and struggling for life. For a minute or two the poor fellow, striking out boldly, swam towards the island, and the cry echoed from shore to shore that he would yet be saved. But soon the fact became certain that he receded from the shore-his strength was evidently failing. Gradually he was borne back into the fiercest part of the current, slowly at first, then more rapidly. Swiftly and more swiftly he approached the brink of the fatal precipice, the waters had him at last their undisputed victim, and madly they whirled him on to death, as though enraged at his persevoring efforts to escape their fury. A sickening feeling came over the spectators when, just on the brink of the precipice, the doomed man sprang up from the waters, clear from the surface, raising himself upright as a statue, his arms flung wildly aloft, and with a piercing shriek, that rang loudly above the mocking roar of the cataract, fell back again into the foaming waves, and was hurled over the brow of the fatal precipice. We have no heart for comment upon the melancholy and awful event. The fate of poor Avery will add another to the many fearful local incidents already related by the guides to the Falls, and for years his critical situation, his hard struggles, his fearful death, will be the theme of many a harrowing tale. And visitors to the mighty cataract will seek the scene of the terrible catastrophe with a shuddering curiosity, and the timid and imaginative will fancy, in the dusk of the evening, that they still hear above the waters' roar the fearful shriek that preceded the fatal plan ge."

ORIGIN OF THE AUTOCRAT'S HEADSHIP OVER

THE RUSSIAN CHURCH. The reduction of the hierarchy was achieved by a much more summary blow. It was the custom in Russia on all great public occasions, that the Czar should proclaim his submission to the Head of the Church before his assembled subjects, by holding the stirrup of the great Archimandrite, when he mounted his horse to lead the procession. Peter shook off this degrading submission by a practical allegory, which had nearly proved as fatal to the life, as it did to the rights of the haughty prelate. He one day gave secret instructions, that the quiet palfrey of the priest should be replaced by the most vicious horse in his own stables. Taking, then, his own usual submissive position, when the Archimandrite was in the act of mounting, he privately applied the rowell of a spur to the animal's flank, who instantly reared, and threw the affrighted prelate to the ground. At this moment Peter vaulted into the vacant saddle, and, marching on in triumph, proclaimed himself the Head of the church ; a title which has never since been disputed.

WELLINGTON IN MARSHAL NEY'S CASE.

DURING Ney's trial, and when his counsel had appealed to the capitulation of Paris as protecting him, great efforts were made with foreign powers to save his life. Notes were addressed to all the foreign ambassadors then at Paris, and the intervention of the military chiefs, who concluded that convention, was in an especial manner

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invoked. Madame Ney applied for and obtained an interview with the Duke of Wellington on the subject, and in the most passionate manner invoked the protection of the 12th article. «Madame,' answered the Duke, “that capitulation was only intended to protect the inhabitants of Paris against the vengeance of the allied armies ; and it is not obligatory except on the Powers which have ratified it, which Louis XVIII. has not done.' 'My lord, replied Madame Ney, 'was not the taking possession of Paris in virtue of the capitulation, equivalent to a ratification ?' 'That,' rejoined the duke, 'regards the king of France ; apply to him.' Wellington expressed himself in the same terms to Marshal Ney, in answer to a letter addressed to him by the Marshal on the subject. The whole case rests on both sides on this brief dialogue : all the wit of man to the end of time can add nothing to their force. Strictly speaking, the Duke of Wellington was undoubtedly right; the capitulation bound him and had been observed by him; if the King of France violated it, that. was the affair of that monarch and his ministers ; and there was a peculiar delicacy in a victorious foreign general, in military possession of the capital, interfering with the administration of justice by the French government. In private, it is said, Wellington exerted himself much, though, unhappily, without effect, to save the life of his old antagonist in arms; but, in the face of the united opinion of the whole powers of Europe, he did not conceive himself at liberty to make any public demonstration in his favour. His situation was doubtless a delicate one, surrounded with difficulties on every side ; but there is an instinct in the human heart paramount to reason, there is a wisdom in generosity which is often superior to that of expediency. Time will show whether it would not have been wiser to have listened to its voice, than to that of unrelenting justice on this occasion;

and whether the throne of the Bourbons would not have been better inaugurated by a deed of generosity, which would have spoken to the heart of man through

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