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“ Altior hic quare cincinnus ?" Taurea punit' Pole Heart Continuo flexi crimen faciņusque capilli. than

Quid Psecas admisit? Quænam est hic culpa puellæ,
495 Si tibi displicuit nasus tuus? Altera lævum

Extendit pectitque comas et volvit in orbem.
Est in consilio matrona admotaque lanis
Emerita quæ cessat acu: 'sententia prima

Hujus erit; post hanc ætate atque arte minores
500 Censebunt, tamquam famæ discrimen agatur

Aut animæ; tanta est quærendi cura decoris.
Tot prémit ordinibus, tot adhuc compagibus altum
Ædificat caput. Andromachen a fronte videbis:

Post minor est: "credas aliam. Cedo, si breve parvis.is 505 Sortita est lateris spatium breviorque videtur

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492. Unus de toto peccaverat orbe verticem struere; Hieron. to Demetr. comarum annulus, incerta non bene cxxx. 7. turritum tortis caput accumulare firus acu, hoc facinus, Lalage speculo, in altum crinibus ; Prud. Psych, 183. quo viderat, ulta est, et cecidit sectis Manil. v. 147. R. Tertull. de Cult. Fem. icta Plecusa comis. desine jam, Lalage, and M. Capell. de Nupt. iv. HN. Jutristes ornare capillos, tangat et in- venal's meaning is well illustrated by the sanum nulla puella caput; Mart. II. coins of Trajan and Hadrian, and hence lxvi. 1-6. PR.

this satire would seem to have been Taureathe thong of bull's bide.' written during one of those reigns. ACH. PR.

Such, for instance, is the head-dress of 495. Lavum' on the left;' Virg. Æ. Trajan's wife Plotina, of his sister Marii. 693. ix. 631. R. V. Flac. i. 156. ciana, of his niece Matidia, of Hadrian's HK.

wife Sabina, and of his daughter Matidia. 497. • An elderly dame is sitting in This preposterous fashion did not concouncil,' dum de singulis capillis in con- tinue at court above forty years, being silium itur; Sen. Br. Vit. 12. cf. iy. 72 exploded by Annia Galeria Faustina, the

wife of Antoninus Pius. VA. J. SA. Admota lanis, i. e. libraria ; 476. R. 503. Andromache; Eurip. And. R.

498. Emerita is a metaphor from a omnibus Andromache visa est spatiosior soldier who has earned his discharge, by @quo: unus, qui modicam diceret, Hector having served the time for wbich he en- erat : Ov. A. A. ii. 615 sq. M. In anlisted. BRI.

other place Ovid calls her longissima ; • From the crispin-pin ;' FA. or · from A. A. iii. 777. LU. the needle,' owing to the failure of her • Andromache before ; a dwarf beeyesight. LU.

hind.' G, si solum spectes hominis caput, Sententiam censebunt is a metaphor Hectora credas ; si stantem videas, Astytaken from the proceedings of the Senate. anacta putes: Mart. XIV. cxxii. R. SCII.

504-508. What, if Nature has 502.“ So high they build her head, given her but a short allowance of waist, such tiers on tiers With weary hands and if, without her high-heeled shoes, they pile." G. In women this toque was she is no taller than a Lilliputian miss, called xéqupßos, in men upúßunos, in boys so that she must spring lightly on tiptoe oxégrios. Schol. on Thui. B0. xiii. 165. in order to catch her sweetheart's kiss ?' celia procul aspice frontis honores suge cf. xiii. 210. But the sense is obscure. gestumque comæ; Stat. I S. i. 113 sq.tur- R. ritaque premens frontem matrona corona ; 505. Spatium ; cf. spatiosior in the Luc. ii. 358. alienis capillis turritum note on 503.

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thelio are herlein
Virgine Pygmæa, ñullis adjuta cothurnis,
Et levis erecta consurgit ad oscula planta ?

Damnorum : vivit tamquam vicina marito.
510 Hoc solo propior, quod amicos conjugis odit

Et servos, gravis est rationibus. Ecce furentis
Bellonæ matrisque Deum chorus intrat et ingens
Semivir, obscæno facies reverenda minori, imesi,
Mollia qui ruptâ secuit genitalia testa

515 Jam pridem, cui rauca cohors, cui tympana cedunt

Plebeia et Phrygia vestitur bucca tiara.

506. Pygmy,' suyuaños,' half-a-yard semi mares et tympuna tundent; Ov. F.
high. sc. xiii. 167 sqq. Plin. vii. 2. iv. 183. R. grandes Galli; Pers. v.
Gell. ix. 4. Ath. ix. 11. PR.

186. G.
* Buskins' were boots with high A personage to be reverenced by his
cork-heels which tragedians wore ; SC. obscene inferior.' femineæ voces et mota
(as comedians wore the sock:) hence insania vino obscoe nique greges et
cothurnus is sometimes put for ' tragedy' inania tympana ; Ov. M. iii. 536 sq. viri
or a tragic style.' 634. vii. 72. xv. 29. Ř. molles, obscæni, et semiviri; Liv. xxxiji.

509. See 141. R. aurã ystwy Lon- 28. R. cf. 11. 9.
gus iii. p. 77, 20. p. 92, 67. BOI.

514. · Who has emasculated himself
510. · The only difference is this, that with a broken shell.' cf. ii. 116. xvi. 6.
she hates her husband's friends and ser- testa; Plin. xxxv. 12 s 46. xi. 49. ferro;
vants, and plagues him with her bills; Lactant. v. 9. saxo acuto; Ov. F. iv. 237
which his neighbour does not.' VS. LU. sqq. ucuto silice; Cat. Ixiii. 5. R.

511. The transition is very abrupt : 515. • Hoarse' either from continual
and we now come to the most curious singing and shouting, see note on i. 2.
part of the Satire, and one which the viii. 59. or from having a cracked voice.
author has laboured with uncommon Macr. vii. 10. FA, R.
care; por is there any portion of his • Drums' for drummers,' LU. by
works in which his genius is more con- metonymy. PR.
spicuous. G.

516. His cheek is covered with the
512. The frantic votaries of Cyhele lappets of a Phrygian turban.' VS. GR.
have been already spoken of; ii. 111. Tiura, verbum Græcum est, usu versum
LU. iv. 123 sqq. Lactant. i. 21. Those in Latinum ; de quo et Virgiliussacer-
of Bellona, sister of Mars and goddess of que tiaras" (A. vii. 247.) genus pileoli,
war, were not more sane. They ran up quo Persarum et Chaldæorum gens utitur;
and down, lancing their arms with sharp Hieron, on Dan. iii. quartum vestimenti
knives, (like the priests of Baal, 1 Kgs. genus est rotundum pileolum, quale pictum
xviii. 28.) on the 23d or 24th of March, in Ulyssæo conspicimus, quasi sphære
which was her festival, and, in allu. media sit divisa, et pars una ponatur
sion to those sanguinary rites, was called in capite. hoc Græci rápær, nonnulli
The day of blood. PR. MG. cf. Tib. galerum vocant. non habet acumen in
I. vi. 43 sqq. HY. nec turba cessat en- summo, nec totum usque ad comum caput
theata Bellonæ; Mart. XII. lvii. 11. tegit, sed tertiam partem à fronte inopertam

• Eoters the house :' the sudden tran. relinquit, atque ita in occipitio vitta consition seems as though the poet had strictum est, ut non fucile labutur ex capite. caught the contagion of their enihusiasm, est autem byssinum et sic fabrè operium and started off from his former subject linteolo, ut nullu acús vestigia extrinsecus unintentionally. R. See note on Her. i. appareant; Id. de

st. Sac. PR. viii. 55. and 174.

259. x. 265. Paris, cum semiviro comi. 513. “The lusty eunuch' who officiated tatu, Mæonia mentum mitra crinemque as their high priest. PR. 374. ibunt madentem subnixus; Virg. Æ. iv. 215 sqq.

die Grande sonat metuique jubet Septembris et Austri Adventum, nisi se centum lustraverit ovis

Et xerampelinas veteres donaverit ipsi,
520 Ut, quidquid subiti et magni discriminis instat,

In tunicas eat et totum semel expiet annum.
Hibernum fracta glacie descendet in amnem,
Ter matutino Tiberi mérgetur et ipsis
Vorticibus timidum caput abluet: inde Superbi


jurat indulgere choreis, et habent redi- 519. Xerampelinas • dresses' so called micula mitræ, Id. ix. 615 sq. (HY.) from being of the colour of a faded leaf.' V. Flac. vi. 700. (BU.) Claud. Ruf. i. VS. Engos sere' and äuishes a vine198. (GE.) R. See note on κυρβασίας: leaf.' ΡR. εν ταις εορταϊς και τους επιHer. v. 49.

νικίοις, και παρόντων τρίσβεων, ενιδύοντο 517. Grande somat ; cf. 485. ο δε μάγος χιτώνας και χλαμύδας ποικίλας, από χρυδάδα καιομένην έχων ουκ έτ' ήρεμαία τη σου και πορφύρας, και άλλως τως πολυτεφωνή, παμμέγεθες δε, ως οίός τε ήν, λείς εν δε ταϊς κοιναΐς συνίδους ξηραμανακρ αγών, Δαίμονας τε ομου πάντας πελίνας το χρώμα ας εκάλουν άτραβατικάς επιβοάτο και Ποινας και Ερινύας: Luc. από του χρώματος το γαρ μίλαν, άτρων Νεκνομ. 9. The Archigallus, consulted by καλούσιν" ή ότι μετά τραβαίας ταύταις the superstitious woman, now delivers an ειώθασι χρήσθαι τραβαλαι δε λέγονται αι oracle, big with menaced evils from the folutiaeis xhepudss: Suid. R. gods to guilty sinpers, and urges her to Veteres · casl-off,' modestly insinuating propitiate the wrath of heaven by offer. that they were of no further use to the ings and penances and expiatory rites. Tady. lo like manner the priestess of Bellona She gave him,' in order to be susutters her predictions in Tib. I. vi. 51 sqq. pended in the temple; PR. or for him see also the oracles delivered in Arist. Eq. and the other priests to wear. M. The 1010 sqq. Quum sistrum aliquis con- Galli in ancient sculptures are always cutiens ex imperio mentitur, quum aliquis represented in the female dress: and they secandi lacertos suos artifex brachia atque used to wear sad-coloured raiment, and humeros suspensa manu cruentat, quum Pliny interprets the colour xerampelinus aliqua genibus per viam repens ululat to be pullus. VO. (525) laurumque linteatus sener et medio 520 and 521. Cf. Herod. ii. 39. lucernam die præferens conclamat,

522. This kind of penance was one in iratum aliquem deorum ; concurritis et which much faith was put : Pers. ii. 15 auditis et divinum esse eum, invicem mu- sq. LU. Hor. II S. iii. 290 sqq. PR. tuum alentes stuporem, affirmatis ; Sen. 523. Ο μάγος μετά την επωδήν τρίς de V. B. 27. R.

αν μου προς το πρόσωπον αποστύσας, περί • He predicts that danger is to be μίσας νύκτας επί την Τίγρητα ποταμών apprehended from the sultry and damp αγαγών εκάθησέ τίμι και απόμαξε: Luc. blasts of autumn.' BRO. iv. 56 sqq. M.

Nỵ, 7.

Thrice :' the number three It needed no very sapient conjuror to and three times three were thought anticipaje such perils; but he exaggerated much of in all magical and superthem, no doubt, with all his art. R. stitious rites: Pers. Ov. M. vii. 261.

518. • Eggs' were commonly used in Virg. E. viii. 73 sqq. Æ. vi. 229. R. expiations, especially in those connected The manner in which toasts are received with the worship of Isis. BRO. cf. v. 85. at our public dinners is one vestige of this Ov. A. A. ii. 330. Hor. Ep. v. 19 sqq. very prevalent potion. See also Shaksp. Pers. v. 185. (K.) R. ix Tay xa.eda- Macbeth. Giãy wd were on no account to be eaten, Mane; Hor. and Pers. Prop. III. .. but to be thrown away out of doors. GR. 13. R. The priests undertook to see that this was 524. Vortex is the ancient form of done, and were indebted for many a good vertex, i. e. contorta in se aqua, vel quidomelet to this superstitious notion. ACH. quid aliud similiter vertiiur; Quint.

525 Totum regis agrum nuda ac tremebunda cruentis

Erepet genibus. Si candida jusserit Io,

VIII. ii. 7. R. In this and many other detestable, were long opposed, and still words the fuller and more ancient sound longer regarded with distrust and aversion. was softened down : and Ovid was the Of a truth, however, this was confined author who took the lead in this refine- to the men; the women seem to have ment of the language. WEI.

found something peculiarly fascinating in • Timid,' either from nature, M. or the worship of Isis, and to have been, timore deorum; Hor. II S. iii. 295. PR. from the first, her warmest devotees.

Ablutions' were performed to pacify Either because the envy of the priests of the celestials : ' respersions' to deprecate Cybele, and other exotic divinities, was the wrath of the infernal deities. MAR. excited by this marked predilection, or PR.

because the attendance on the rites of When the kings were expelled, the Isis was made (as it certainly was in land, between the city and the Tiber, aftertimes) a cloak for intrigue; in the belonging to Tarquin" the Proud,' was consulship of Piso and Gabinius, a furious consecrated by Brutus to Mars, and persecution was raised against her; and thenceforth called Campus Martius. VS. she was banished, with all her ridiculous Liv. ii. 5. PR.

mummery, from the territories of the 525. This superstitious rite is men- republic. Some years afterwards, how. tioned, Tib, I. ii. 85. R. Sen. quoted at ever, her worship was re-established, 517; PR. John Mabilius, in his Travels when Tiberius, on account of an impious in Italy, mentions having often seen wo- farce which was played in one of her men crawling on their knees not only to temples (Joseph. A. J. xviii.), rased it to • the Holy Stairs,' to which they seldom the ground, hanged or crucified the go up in any other way, but even, from priests, and Aung the statue of the godthe neighbouring houses, to St Mary the dess into the Tiber. Again the temple Greater, and to the Basilica which is was rebuilt, again destroyed by a decree called the Altar of Heaven;' p. 50. VL. of the senate, and again, and again, reSee also Oy, F. vi. 397-412. CAS. constructed, till the vigilance of the 526. Candida; Ov. 743. R.

government was finally remitted, or its * If the priest asserts that Isis so com- obstinacy overcome. It was then, that manded in his visions of the past night.' these fanes rose on all sides, and became cf. 530 sq. R.

(what too many of the Roman temples Io, the daughter of Inachus, was be- were) the favourite spots for forming loved by Jupiter; who endeavoured to assignations. Whenever Juvenal has conceal her, under the form of a 'white' occasion to mention these Egyptian divi. heifer, from Juno's jealousy. That god- nities, he does it with a contemptuous dess, however, contrived to obtain pos- sneer; but in this he is not singular, session of her rival, and committed her to since almost every ancient writer on the the custody of Argus, with whose hun- subject does the same. Lucan conveys dred eyes, after he was slain by Mercury, a bitter reproach to his countrymen for the queen of heaven adorned her pea- their partiality to them, in a pathetic and cock's tail. The Argive princess, after beautiful apostrophe to Egypt, on the many wanderings, reached Egypt; she murder of Pompey: nos in templa tuam was there restored to her human form, and Romanu accepimus Isin, semideosque canes was subsequently deified under the name et sistra jubentia luctus et quem tu planof Isis. VS. Ov. M. i. 588—750. LU. gens hominem testaris Osirim : tu nostros, Plut. on Is, and Osir. Diod. i. 2. PR.

Egypte, tenes in pulveremanes : The absurd and contemptible ceremonies quoque &c. viii. 831 sqq. But it would of the priests of Isis are described with be endless to quote all the indignant admirable spirit and humour. It is not ridicule that has been poured on these easy to say by what criterion the Romans brutal superstitions. With all this, howjudged of the admissibility of foreign ever, they continued in full vigour from divinities into their temples. Cybele, our author's time to that of Commodus, with all her train of wild and furious who, as Lampridius says, enrolled himself enthusiasts, found an easy admittance; among the priests of Isis, and condewhile Isis and Osiris, deities not more scended to carry her son (the dog-headed

Ibit ad Ægypti finem calidaque petitas
A Meroe portabit aquas, ut spargat in ædem

Isidis, antiquo quæ proxima surgit ovili.
530 Credit enim ipsius dominæ se voce moneri.

En animam et mentem, cum qua Dî nocte loquantur !
Ergo hic præcipuum summumque meretur honorem,
Qui grege linigero circumdatus et grege calvo
Plangentis populi currit derisor Anubis.

Tutuia ra
Anubis) upon his shoulders. Constantine with which templum et simulacrum dea
abolished ihem, with the other heathen (Junonis) prospersum est; Tac. An. av.
rites : they were again revived, and for 44. R.
the last time, by that frivolous pedant 529. • The ancient sheepfold ;' the
Julian (so liberally dubbed a philosopher spot where Romulus and his shepherds
by our Christian historians) who laboured penned their flocks ;' or the palace of
to enforce the observance of them in Romulus.' VS. Some take it to mean
some of his epistles. But however se. the boarded partitions within which the
vere the satirisis may have been on these people were shut when they went to vote.
follies, they fall infinitely short of the septa; Mart. II. xiv. 5. lvii

. 2. X.Ixxx. 4. prophets. See Isaiah xliv. 14 sqq. xlvi. FA. Liv. xxvi. 22. PR. Luc.ij.197. These 6 sq. These passages prove the great were afterwards built of fine marble with antiquity of such idolatrous and mendi- elegant porticoes. A. Others again sup. cant processions. In conclusion it may pose that the sheepfold of the Tarquins be observed, that they are sneered at by stood there. BRI. R. Menander with an arch and elegant sim- • Rises' is more expressive than‘is.' vii. plicity, only to be found in the writers of 183. R. Ov. M. ii. 264. BU. Liv. xxv. his school : cüdois re åpíors Tipitatwr 21. DR. see note on xuitar Her. vii. 18. άξω θεός μετά γραός ουδ' εις οικίας παρεισίων 530. She is so credulous as to believe επί του σανιδίου τον δίκαιον δεί διον οίκοι that the goddess herself speaks by the pánsiv culonta Tous idpupívous. Aurig. G. mouth of her priest.' VS. cf. Cic. Div. j. 58. Suet. Dom. 1. R. The gods and goddesses were styled

527. · She will go on a pilgrimage domini and dominæ ; dsorórar and diotorafoot to the further end of Egypt, to vai in Greek. GR. Ov, A. A. i. 148. fetch the waters of the Nile: as though Virg. Æ. iii. 113. 438. Prop. III. iii. the priests used none but the genuine 31. R. see note on Her. i. 212. waters of the Nile to sprinkle in that Monere' to reveal their will :' R. cf. fane. GR. Virg. Æ. iv. 512. cf. Her. Ov. M. xiii. 216. H. Tib. I. vi. 50. BK. i. 188. R.

V. Flac. i. 29. 231. Ov. M. ii. 639. Calida "scorched beneath a vertical BU. sun.' BRO. xv. 28. Thus Nilus tepens ; 531, Anima, qua vivimus ; mens, qua x. 149. Prop. II. xxxiii. 3. tepidus ; Luc. cogitamus; Lactant. M. ii. 199, Claud. B. G. 476. R.

532. The preceding line is parenthe528. Meroe, in Ethiopia, is the largest tical : ergo refers to 530. island formed by the Nile, with a city of 533. The inferior priests were all clad the same name, which was the capital in linen, in imitation of Isis, who appears of a kingdom. Strab. i. 75. Herod. ii. 29. to have been a queen of Egypt, and to Diod. i. p. 38. Ptol. iv. 8. Plin. ii. 75. have first taught her subjects the use of v. 9. vi. 29. 35. Heliod. x. Though in- linen, liniger i fugiunt calvi sistrasulated during the rainy season, it is attaque turba ; Mart. XII. xxix. 19. R. other times only a peninsula; its modern Tib. I. iii. 30. BK. Ov. A. A. i. 77. H. name is · Atbar,' and it comprises the Those who were going to celebrate the greatest part of the kingdom of Sennaar rites of Isis had their heads shaved. J. and the smaller portion of Abyssinia. Lampr. Comm. 9. CAS. FE. IIEE. R. PR.

534. Bos in Ægypto numinis vice coli• To sprinkle.' Thus we read of water tur: Apim vocant. non est fas eum certos being fetched from the neighbouring sea, vita excedere annos ; mersumque in sacer

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