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Quæ peperit : timidus prægustet pocula pappas it was bi

Fingimus hæc, altum Satira sumente cothurnum 635 Scilicet

, et finem égressi Jegemque priorum
Grande Sophocleo carmen bacchamur hiatu,
Montibus ignotung,

Rutulis cæloque Latino.
Nos utinam vani ! sed clamat Pontia, “ Feci,

way of precaution, pr. ut custodirent Turnus. BRI. cf. iii. 84 sq. xii. 103. animas; 630.

105. R. The custom of having meats and drinks 638. Vuni, i. e. mendaces et infudi et tasted beforehand by an attendant was leriu inaniaque pro gravibus et veris ustiloriginally Persian, and was probably in- .tissime componentes ; Geil. xviii. 4. R. troduced into Rome by Augustus; Tac. The story of Pontia was well known at A. xii. 66. LI. (Ath. iv. 21. idézrpose Rome. Indeed, it so happens, that there Suid. Xen. Cyr. i. 3. R.) with other were two monsters of this name, and that oriental fashions : Hor. I. xxxviii. the history of either would have answered

633. • The step-mother who has chil- our author's purpose. (1) The first was dren of her own.' HG.

the daughter of Publius Petronius and Timidus ' in fear of his life.' LU. the wife of Vectius Bolanus, a man of Pappas is properly the child's word for high rank and estimation, who gave her • father :' and is here applied to the twin-children poison, in the time of pedagogue, who had the care of the boy. Nero. Her attempt failed, for the ProPA. It is natural that an orphan, hav- trepticon of Statius, written in the begining no father of his own, should apply ning of Domitian's reign, is addressed to this term of endearment to the person who one of them, who was still a mere youth. lived with him as his guardian, discipuli It would seem from this poem that the custos; vii. 218. R,

mother was put to death by the latter 634. He anticipates an objection which emperor : exegit panas, hominum cui cura might be started : VS.“ I pass the bound suorum, quo Pietas auctore redit terrasque of Satire and encroach on tragic revisit, quem timet omne nefas; V. S. ii. ground !" G.

90 sqq. (2) The other Pontia, to whom The high buskin :' see note on 506. Juvenal more particularly alludes, was R. sola Sophocleo tua carmina digna the wife of Drymis; whose family took cothurno ; Virg. E. viii. 10. PR.

care to perpetuate her crime by the fol-
635. · The end we proposed to our- lowing inscription on her tomb: PONTIA
selves,' quidquid agunt homines ; i. 85.

• Our predecessors,' viz. Lucilius, DVOBVS NATIS A ME VENENO CONSVMITIS
Horace, Persius, PR. who confined
themselves to real life. R.

636. • We rave as though inspired, TRANSIS SI PIVS ES QVAESO A ME OCVLOS
(Stat. I S. ii. 258.) in the deep-mouthed

It is not unprofitable to retones of the Athenian bard, (Mart. III. mark, that this wretched woman was XX. 7.) a theme of terrific grandeur.' driven to escape by self-murder from the FA. LU. PR. R.

reproaches of her own conscience. To The tragic masks were made of bollow one of these females, Martial addressed wood' with a wide mouth,' which gave a the following witty epigram : cum mittis depth to the voice of the actors: but turdumve mihi quadramve placentæ sive grande and hiatu may both allude to the femur leporis sive quid his simile ; buccelpompous diction of tragedy; as xaivuri las misisse tuas te, Pontia, dicis: has ego and oι υποκριται μίγα κεχηνότες Call. Η. nec mittum, Pontia, sed nec edam; VI. Apol. 24. Luc. Nigr. t. 1. p. 50. carmen Ixxv, G, PA. VS. HO. Id. II. xxxiv. 6. hiare ; Prop. II. xxxi. 6. (BK.) Pers. v. PR. 3. (K.) Prud. c. Sym. ii. 646. R. cf. iii. is the word used by a culprit in 175.

pleading guilty; as fecisse videtur are the 637. The Rutulians' were an ancient words of the prætor in finding a person people of Latium, and the subjects of guilty. Mart. IX. xvi. 2. R.






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Confiteor, puerisque meis aconita paravi, miller 640 Quæ deprensa patent: facinus tamen ipsa peregi.”

Tune duos una sævissima vipera cona ?

Tune duos ? “ Septem, si septem forte fuissent."
Alex!"nie. Credamus tragicis, quidquid de Colchide torva vagi

Dicitur et Procne : nil contra conor. et illæ
645 Grandia monstra suis audebant temporibus; sed
Non propter numos.

Minor admiratio summis
Debetur monstris, quoties facit ira nocentem
Hunc sexum et rabie jecur incendente feruptur

Præcipites; ut saxa jugis abrupta, quibus mons
650 Subtrahitur, clivoque latus pendente recedit. i Milik

ego non tulerim, quæ computat et scelus ingens (ach. Sana facit. Spectant subeuntem fata mariti Alcestim et, similis si permutatio detur,

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639. Aconita ; see note on i. 158. 645. Grandia monstra, and summa

monstra, 646 sq. see nole on 286, R.
640. • Therefore it is bootless to deny 646. • Not for filthy lucre,' and, con-
the fact. With quæ understand parri- sequently, in cold blood.
cidiu LU. or facinora. R.

617. Aut amat aut odit femina, nil est
641. The female viper is said to destroy tertium; P. Syrus. LU. See note on
the male, and to be destroyed by her own 135. M. notum, furens quid femina possit ;
young. Plin. viii. SCH. Id. x. 62. Arist. Virg. Æ. v. 6. Cic. Off

. i. 8 extr. Sen.
H. A. v. ult. PR. “ Did you say all ? Med. 579 sqq. Hor. I Od. xvi. 5 sqq.
what, all ? oh, hell-kite! all? At one R.
fall swoop?” Shaksp. Macb. IV. iii. 648. Jecur; see note on i. 45. R.

642. l'une duos ? One of the lawyers 649. Furor iraque mentem præcipitant;
in the trial of the Regicides, after assail. Virg. Æ. ii. 316.
ing the prisoner at the bar with a volley 650. Cf. Hom. Il. N 137 sqq. Virg.
of invectives, adds bitterly “ For I thou Æ. xii. 684–689. (HY.) R. note on iii.
thee, thou traitor !"

Cf. Senec. 952 sqq. R.

651. · Who calculates.' permultum 643. Tragicis ; Sophocles, Euripides, interest utrum perturbatione aliqua animi, and Seneca. PR. A pollod. I. ix. 28.III. quæ plerumque brevis est et ad tempus; an xiv. 8. Virg. E. vi. 79. HY.

consulto et cogitato fiat injuria : leviora
* Medea,' the daughter of Æetes king enim sunt ea quæ repentino aliquo metu acci-
of Colchis and the wife of Jason, de- dunt, quam ea quæ meditata et præparata
stroyed her children when her husband inferuntur; Cic. Off. i. 27 ? . nemo ad
forsook her for Glauce. Just. xlii. Diodor. humanum sanguinem propter ipsum venit
v. 3. Eur. and Sen. Med. Ov. M. vii, I aut admodum pauci : plures computant,

quam oderunt : nudum latro transmittit ;
644. Procne, the daughter of Pandion Sen. Ep. 14. R.
king of Athens, and wife of Tereus king 652. In her right nind :' see note
of Thrace, slew ltys her son and served on ii. 18. R.
him up to his father's table, in revenge 653. When the oracle declared, that
for the violence offered by Tereus to her Admetus king of Thessaly wold not re-
sister Philomela, LU. Oy. Met. vi. 424 cover from a dangerous illness, unless

some one were found who would volun-
"I have nothing to say against the teer to die in his stead; no one else came
credibility of those stories, after what we forward, and therefore his wife Alcestis,
have witnessed in our own days.' daughter of Pelias king of Thessaly, de-

sqq. PR. R.

sqq. PR. R.

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Morte viri cupiant animam servare catellæ.
655 Occurrent multæ tibi Belfdes atque Eriphylæ

Mane: Clytæmnestram nullus non vicus habebit.
Học tantum refert, quod Tyndaris illa bipennem

Insulsam et fatuam dextra læyaque tenebat.

At nunc res agitur tenui pulmone rubétaé ; 660 Sed tamen et ferro, si prægustabit Atrides

Pontica ter victi cautus medicamina regis.

voted her own life for the preservation of turned from Troy. At the instigation of
her husband. Diod. v. SCH. A poll. I. ix. her paramour she slew her husband Aga-
15. R. Plat. D. de Am. Eurip. Alc. memnon in the bath-room with an axe.
Cic. 1. Q. v. 78. PR. cf. Hor. III Od. VS. PR.
ix. Il sq. 15 sq.

657. Securi divisit medium fortissima
654. If they had a like option, they Tyndaridarum ; Hor. I S. i. 99 sq. M.
would sacrifice their husbands to save their "But here the difference lies; those
lap-dogs.' LU.

bungling wives with a blunt axe hack'd
655. Danaus and Ægyptus, the two out their husband's lives : While now,
sons of Belus, had each of them fifty the deed is done with dextrous art, And
children ; those of Danaus were all a drugg'd bowl performs the axe's part.
daughters and those of Ægyptus sons. Yet if the husband, prescient of his fate,
These cousins were all married in one Have fortified his breast with mithridate,
day; and the Danaides, that same night, She baffles him e'en there, and has re-
slew their husbands (excepting Hyper- course To the old weapon, for a last
mpestra who spared Lynceus) and were resource.G.
condemned, after death, to draw water 658. The epithets belong as much to
from the infernal streams in perforated the agent as to the instrument. R.
buckets. Ov. M. iv. 461 sq. LU. PR. 659. · The business is settled.' FA.
Hor. III Od. xi. 22 sqq. (MI.) M. Hyg. • A toad ;' see note on i. 70. PR.
f. 170. Ov. Her, xiv. Apoll. II. i. 4. and 660. · Not but what a Roman Tyn-
Tib. I. ij. 79. (HY.) R.

daris could handle a sword upon a pinch.'
Eriphyle, the daughter of Talaus and FA.
sister of Adrastus, was the wife of Am. • Her Atrides,' i. e. . her lord and
phiaraus; who, aware (from bis skill in master.' FA.
prophecy) that he should fall if he went 661. ' So wary as to fortify himself
to the Theban war, concealed himself. against the effects of poison with the
Eriphyle, however, discovered her hus- antidote of Mithridates,' king of Pontus;
band io Polynices for the bribe of a gold who was vanquished the first time by the
necklace : and, in the war of the Epigoni, good fortune of Sylla, the second time by
she in like manner (for the sake of a the valour of Lucullus, the third time by
handsome robe) betrayed her son Alc- the greatness of Pompey. Plin. xxiii. 24.
mæon to Thersander. concidit auguris FA. VS. Cic. pro L. Man. PR.
Argivi domus, ob lucrum demersa eritio; Pontus was famous for its poisonous
Hor: III Od. xvi. 11 sqq. (MI.) PR. drugs: Virg. E. viii. 95. PR.
LU. Ath. vi. 4. Apoll. Ill. vi. 2. vii. 2. 5. Drugs.' Plin. xxiii. 7-9. xxv. 2.
(HY.) R.

xxix. 1. Gell. xvii. 16. Mart. V. lxxvii.
656. Occurrent mane ; see v. 54. notes PR. cf. xiv. 252 sqq. App. B. Mith.
on vi. 572. and 601. R.

109 sqq. Dio xxxvii. 10 sqq. Seren.
Clytemnestra, the daughter of Tyn- Samm. 60. 62. Cels. v. 23. Galen de
darus and Leda, was living in adultery Antid. ii. I sq. R.
with Ægisthus, when the expedition re-



This Satire was probably written in the early part of Domitian's reign.

It contains an animated account of the general discouragement under which literature laboured at Rome. Men of learning had, in fact, none

but the Emperor, to whom they could look for patronage. 1–37. Beginning with Poetry, 30 sqq. it proceeds with great regularity through

the various departments of History, 98 sqq. L a w, 106 sqq. Oratory, Rhetoric, 150 sqq. and Grammar: 215 sqq. interspersing many curious anecdotes, and enlivening each different head with such satirical,

humorous, and sentimental remarks, as naturally flow from the subject. G. As for Poetry; many of the rich nobles were poetasters themselves, and

rewarded a poem with a song : 38 sq. the utmost stretch of their munificence was to lend a tumble-down out-house, for the Poet to fit up for his own recitation. 39–49. But poetry and poverty can never

flourish in the same soil. 50–97. As for Law; the only artifice by which Lawyers could get into practice,

was by pretending to be above the want of it; even though such trickery

often ruined them outright. 106—149. But none were more to be pitied than the poor drudges who had to keep

school. 150 sqq. They, after wasting their time upon dunces, 159 sqq. and suffering the pranks of incorrigible boys, 213 sq. got nothing but blame that their pupils did not prove paragons of genius and gentility. 158 sq. The education of children seemed the only point in which parents were niggardly : 178-188. and even the little which they spent on this, they would not part with, till wrested from them by legal process. 228 sq. And the Grammarian, unless he were a thorough proficient in philology, history, mythology, &c. &c. would never have a single day-scholar, 229-243. R.


et ratio studiorum in Cæsare tantum :
Solus enim tristes hac tempestate Camenas
Respexit, quum jam celebres notique poetæ

Balneolum Gabiis, Romæ conducere furnos
5 Tentarent, nec fædum alii nec turpe putarent

Præcones fieri, quum, desertis Aganippes


1. Whatever hopes of reward or piety, IX. iv. Pallada prætereo : res molives for study literary men may have, agit illa tuas; 10. Suet. 15. Masare entirely owing to Cæsar.' Which of singer in his Roman Actor has several in. the Cæsars is here meant, is a matter of genious and truly classical allusions to controversy: (1) Nero. (2) Titus. (3) the reliance which the tyrant fondly Trajan ; who built the Ulpian library: placed on the partiality of this deity. Plin. Pan. 47. BRI. GR.' R. (4) Ha- A Pallas very generally accompanies drian: Spartian, 3. 16. R. (5) Nerva : Domitian on the reverse of his coins : Mart. VIII. lxx, IX. xxvii. XII. vi. but Beger. Numism. xxxii. 4. And we learn he, though a poet himself, was little dis- from a passage of Philostrates, that the posed to pationise poetry in others. (6) emperor publicly declared himself to be Domitian; VS. LU. SA. GRÆ. who, the son of Pallas, and required accordwhatever vices he had, was a patron of ingly that divine honours should be paid the Muses, FA. especially in the com. to him, Vit. Apoll. vii. 24. Plin. Pan. mencement of his reign. Suet. 9. quo nec xxxii. 4. This satire would appear to præsentius aliquid nec studiis magis have been written in the early part of propitium undien est ; Quint. Pr. IV. PR. Domilian's reign; and Juvenal, by giving Quintilian, Martial, Statius, Flaccus, the emperor “one honest line" of praise, and other learned men, tasted of his probably meant to stimulate him to extend bounty, M. and sang bis praises witb his patronage. He did not think very ill more gratitude, perhaps, than truth. of him at the time, while he augured This dutiful prince had once an idea of happily for the future. And, indeed, the contesting the empire with his father: bitter mortification he felt at finding his finding the armies, however, averse to predictions falsified, and his 'sole patron his designs, he retired froin all public of literature changed, in a few years, business, and with a specious appearance into a ferocious and bloody persecutor of of content, lived in a kind of solitude: all the arts, might have exasperated his pretending that poetry, and literary pur- resentment, and generated that intense suits in general, were his only passion. hatred with which he pursues his meThis mask he continued to wear during mory. G. CAR, L. ix. p. 215--217. the reigo of Titus; and whether it was 3. Respexit ; Virg. E. i. 28. 30. PR. that habit begot a kind of nature, or that 4. 'A small bagnio. M. The dimihe thought it dangerous to lay aside the nutive is used in aggravation. R. hypocrite too soou, he did certainly pa- 'At Gabii' of all places in the world! tronise the arts at bis accession. That See nii. 192. and vi. 56. PR. he afterwards changed his sentiments, Conducere, ini. 38 &c. and fell suddenly upon men of letters, is · Public ovens,' VS. so as not to starve equally certain : but this may be readily either with hunger or with cold. LU. accounted for, from his disposition, which qui frigus collegit, furnos et balnea was at once crafty and violent; as repre. laudat; Hor. 1 Ep. xi. 12 sq. GR. sented by Xiphilin, lxvii. init. Accord. 5. Tentarent; any thing, in short, to ing to the custom of the emperors in turn an honest penny. See the account selecting some favourite deity for their of Cleanthes, note on ii. 7. and D. Laert. worship, Domitian made choice of Mi. vii. PR.

His attachment to this goddess 6. The occupation of a public crier, is frequently noticed by Juvenal's con- though ungenteel, was lucrative: artes temporaries. Thus Martial, in that de- discere vult pecuniosas ? praeconem testable medley of fattery and im- facius vel architectum ; Mart. V. lvi. 8.


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