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Quæ peperit : timidus prægustet pocula pappas it was bi
Fingimus hæc, altum Satira sumente cothurnum 635 Scilicet
, et finem égressi Jegemque priorum
Rutulis cæloque Latino.
way of precaution, pr. ut custodirent Turnus. BRI. cf. iii. 84 sq. xii. 103. animas; 630.
105. R. The custom of having meats and drinks 638. Vuni, i. e. mendaces et infudi et tasted beforehand by an attendant was leriu inaniaque pro gravibus et veris ustiloriginally Persian, and was probably in- .tissime componentes ; Geil. xviii. 4. R. troduced into Rome by Augustus; Tac. The story of Pontia was well known at A. xii. 66. LI. (Ath. iv. 21. idézrpose Rome. Indeed, it so happens, that there Suid. Xen. Cyr. i. 3. R.) with other were two monsters of this name, and that oriental fashions : Hor. I. xxxviii. the history of either would have answered
633. • The step-mother who has chil- our author's purpose. (1) The first was dren of her own.' HG.
the daughter of Publius Petronius and Timidus ' in fear of his life.' LU. the wife of Vectius Bolanus, a man of Pappas is properly the child's word for high rank and estimation, who gave her • father :' and is here applied to the twin-children poison, in the time of pedagogue, who had the care of the boy. Nero. Her attempt failed, for the ProPA. It is natural that an orphan, hav- trepticon of Statius, written in the begining no father of his own, should apply ning of Domitian's reign, is addressed to this term of endearment to the person who one of them, who was still a mere youth. lived with him as his guardian, discipuli It would seem from this poem that the custos; vii. 218. R,
mother was put to death by the latter 634. He anticipates an objection which emperor : exegit panas, hominum cui cura might be started : VS.“ I pass the bound suorum, quo Pietas auctore redit terrasque of Satire and encroach on tragic revisit, quem timet omne nefas; V. S. ii. ground !" G.
90 sqq. (2) The other Pontia, to whom The high buskin :' see note on 506. Juvenal more particularly alludes, was R. sola Sophocleo tua carmina digna the wife of Drymis; whose family took cothurno ; Virg. E. viii. 10. PR.
care to perpetuate her crime by the fol-
• Our predecessors,' viz. Lucilius, DVOBVS NATIS A ME VENENO CONSVMITIS
636. • We rave as though inspired, TRANSIS SI PIVS ES QVAESO A ME OCVLOS
It is not unprofitable to retones of the Athenian bard, (Mart. III. mark, that this wretched woman was XX. 7.) a theme of terrific grandeur.' driven to escape by self-murder from the FA. LU. PR. R.
reproaches of her own conscience. To The tragic masks were made of bollow one of these females, Martial addressed wood' with a wide mouth,' which gave a the following witty epigram : cum mittis depth to the voice of the actors: but turdumve mihi quadramve placentæ sive grande and hiatu may both allude to the femur leporis sive quid his simile ; buccelpompous diction of tragedy; as xaivuri las misisse tuas te, Pontia, dicis: has ego and oι υποκριται μίγα κεχηνότες Call. Η. nec mittum, Pontia, sed nec edam; VI. Apol. 24. Luc. Nigr. t. 1. p. 50. carmen Ixxv, G, PA. VS. HO. Id. II. xxxiv. 6. hiare ; Prop. II. xxxi. 6. (BK.) Pers. v. PR. 3. (K.) Prud. c. Sym. ii. 646. R. cf. iii. is the word used by a culprit in 175.
pleading guilty; as fecisse videtur are the 637. The Rutulians' were an ancient words of the prætor in finding a person people of Latium, and the subjects of guilty. Mart. IX. xvi. 2. R.
TITI PONTII FILIA HEIC SITA SVM QVAE
AVARITIAE OPVS MISERE MIHI MORTEM
Confiteor, puerisque meis aconita paravi, miller 640 Quæ deprensa patent: facinus tamen ipsa peregi.”
Tune duos una sævissima vipera cona ?
Tune duos ? “ Septem, si septem forte fuissent."
Dicitur et Procne : nil contra conor. et illæ
Minor admiratio summis
Præcipites; ut saxa jugis abrupta, quibus mons
ego non tulerim, quæ computat et scelus ingens (ach. Sana facit. Spectant subeuntem fata mariti Alcestim et, similis si permutatio detur,
639. Aconita ; see note on i. 158. 645. Grandia monstra, and summa
monstra, 646 sq. see nole on 286, R.
617. Aut amat aut odit femina, nil est
. i. 8 extr. Sen.
642. l'une duos ? One of the lawyers 649. Furor iraque mentem præcipitant;
651. · Who calculates.' permultum 643. Tragicis ; Sophocles, Euripides, interest utrum perturbatione aliqua animi, and Seneca. PR. A pollod. I. ix. 28.III. quæ plerumque brevis est et ad tempus; an xiv. 8. Virg. E. vi. 79. HY.
consulto et cogitato fiat injuria : leviora
quam oderunt : nudum latro transmittit ;
some one were found who would volun-
sqq. PR. R.
sqq. PR. R.
Mane: Clytæmnestram nullus non vicus habebit.
Insulsam et fatuam dextra læyaque tenebat.
At nunc res agitur tenui pulmone rubétaé ; 660 Sed tamen et ferro, si prægustabit Atrides
Pontica ter victi cautus medicamina regis.
voted her own life for the preservation of turned from Troy. At the instigation of
657. Securi divisit medium fortissima
bungling wives with a blunt axe hack'd
daris could handle a sword upon a pinch.'
xxix. 1. Gell. xvii. 16. Mart. V. lxxvii.
109 sqq. Dio xxxvii. 10 sqq. Seren.
This Satire was probably written in the early part of Domitian's reign.
It contains an animated account of the general discouragement under which literature laboured at Rome. Men of learning had, in fact, none
but the Emperor, to whom they could look for patronage. 1–37. Beginning with Poetry, 30 sqq. it proceeds with great regularity through
the various departments of History, 98 sqq. L a w, 106 sqq. Oratory, Rhetoric, 150 sqq. and Grammar: 215 sqq. interspersing many curious anecdotes, and enlivening each different head with such satirical,
humorous, and sentimental remarks, as naturally flow from the subject. G. As for Poetry; many of the rich nobles were poetasters themselves, and
rewarded a poem with a song : 38 sq. the utmost stretch of their munificence was to lend a tumble-down out-house, for the Poet to fit up for his own recitation. 39–49. But poetry and poverty can never
flourish in the same soil. 50–97. As for Law; the only artifice by which Lawyers could get into practice,
was by pretending to be above the want of it; even though such trickery
often ruined them outright. 106—149. But none were more to be pitied than the poor drudges who had to keep
school. 150 sqq. They, after wasting their time upon dunces, 159 sqq. and suffering the pranks of incorrigible boys, 213 sq. got nothing but blame that their pupils did not prove paragons of genius and gentility. 158 sq. The education of children seemed the only point in which parents were niggardly : 178-188. and even the little which they spent on this, they would not part with, till wrested from them by legal process. 228 sq. And the Grammarian, unless he were a thorough proficient in philology, history, mythology, &c. &c. would never have a single day-scholar, 229-243. R.
et ratio studiorum in Cæsare tantum :
Balneolum Gabiis, Romæ conducere furnos
Præcones fieri, quum, desertis Aganippes
1. Whatever hopes of reward or piety, IX. iv. Pallada prætereo : res molives for study literary men may have, agit illa tuas; 10. Suet. 15. Masare entirely owing to Cæsar.' Which of singer in his Roman Actor has several in. the Cæsars is here meant, is a matter of genious and truly classical allusions to controversy: (1) Nero. (2) Titus. (3) the reliance which the tyrant fondly Trajan ; who built the Ulpian library: placed on the partiality of this deity. Plin. Pan. 47. BRI. GR.' R. (4) Ha- A Pallas very generally accompanies drian: Spartian, 3. 16. R. (5) Nerva : Domitian on the reverse of his coins : Mart. VIII. lxx, IX. xxvii. XII. vi. but Beger. Numism. xxxii. 4. And we learn he, though a poet himself, was little dis- from a passage of Philostrates, that the posed to pationise poetry in others. (6) emperor publicly declared himself to be Domitian; VS. LU. SA. GRÆ. who, the son of Pallas, and required accordwhatever vices he had, was a patron of ingly that divine honours should be paid the Muses, FA. especially in the com. to him, Vit. Apoll. vii. 24. Plin. Pan. mencement of his reign. Suet. 9. quo nec xxxii. 4. This satire would appear to præsentius aliquid nec studiis magis have been written in the early part of propitium undien est ; Quint. Pr. IV. PR. Domilian's reign; and Juvenal, by giving Quintilian, Martial, Statius, Flaccus, the emperor “one honest line" of praise, and other learned men, tasted of his probably meant to stimulate him to extend bounty, M. and sang bis praises witb his patronage. He did not think very ill more gratitude, perhaps, than truth. of him at the time, while he augured This dutiful prince had once an idea of happily for the future. And, indeed, the contesting the empire with his father: bitter mortification he felt at finding his finding the armies, however, averse to predictions falsified, and his 'sole patron his designs, he retired froin all public of literature changed, in a few years, business, and with a specious appearance into a ferocious and bloody persecutor of of content, lived in a kind of solitude: all the arts, might have exasperated his pretending that poetry, and literary pur- resentment, and generated that intense suits in general, were his only passion. hatred with which he pursues his meThis mask he continued to wear during mory. G. CAR, L. ix. p. 215--217. the reigo of Titus; and whether it was 3. Respexit ; Virg. E. i. 28. 30. PR. that habit begot a kind of nature, or that 4. 'A small bagnio. M. The dimihe thought it dangerous to lay aside the nutive is used in aggravation. R. hypocrite too soou, he did certainly pa- 'At Gabii' of all places in the world! tronise the arts at bis accession. That See nii. 192. and vi. 56. PR. he afterwards changed his sentiments, Conducere, ini. 38 &c. and fell suddenly upon men of letters, is · Public ovens,' VS. so as not to starve equally certain : but this may be readily either with hunger or with cold. LU. accounted for, from his disposition, which qui frigus collegit, furnos et balnea was at once crafty and violent; as repre. laudat; Hor. 1 Ep. xi. 12 sq. GR. sented by Xiphilin, lxvii. init. Accord. 5. Tentarent; any thing, in short, to ing to the custom of the emperors in turn an honest penny. See the account selecting some favourite deity for their of Cleanthes, note on ii. 7. and D. Laert. worship, Domitian made choice of Mi. vii. PR.
His attachment to this goddess 6. The occupation of a public crier, is frequently noticed by Juvenal's con- though ungenteel, was lucrative: artes temporaries. Thus Martial, in that de- discere vult pecuniosas ? praeconem testable medley of fattery and im- facius vel architectum ; Mart. V. lvi. 8.