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Ante pedes. Ideo conducta Paulus agebat Sardonyche atque ideo pluris quam Cossus agebat, 145 Quam Basilus. Rara in tenui facundia panno. Quando licet Basilo flentem producere matrem? Quis bene dicentem Basilum ferat? Accipiat te Why Gallia vel potius nutricula causidicorum Africa, si placuit mercedem ponere linguæ. Declamare doces? O ferrea pectora Vectî, Quum perimit sævos classis numerosa tyrannos! Nam quæcumque sedens modo legerat, hæc eadem stans Proferet atque eadem cantabit versibus îsdem. Occidit miseros crambe repetita magistros.

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He only hired the ring, being too poor to buy one.' M. cf. iii. 180 sqq. vi. 352 sqq. R. This hired ring seems to have answered even better than the warhorse of Æmilius; for Paulus, in process of time, obtained great practice, and, consequently, great riches. Martial had the misfortune to be under his patronage; which, like that of many other parvenus, was so burthensome, that the poet, in a fit of spleen, threatens to shake it off entirely: V. xxiii. This is one of the few occasions on which Martial speaks out; but he was not a man to carry his independent language into practice. G. Might not Emilius and Paulus be one and the same person?

Agebat; 122. 125. R. 144. 144. A sardonyx;' Pers. i. 16. (CAS.) PR. vi. 382. Mart. II. xxix. 2.

R.

147. However well he may speak.' LU.

148. In Gaul and Africa eloquence was still encouraged by the multiplicity of law-suits. SCH. cf. i. 44. xv. 111. Quint. x. 1. 3. PR.

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150. Ferrea quite steeled against the assaults of impatience or fatigue.' cf. i. 31, note. M. O dura messorum ilia! Hor. Ep. iii. 4.

Vectius Valens, an eminent professor of rhetoric: Plin. xxix. 1. PR.

This

151. "A school, Where boys, in long succession, rave and storm At tyranny, through many a crowded form." unfortunate race, besides having their heads distracted with these everlasting declamations, were sometimes liable to lose them altogether. Domitian actually put one of them (named Maternus) to death for a rhetorical flourish about tyranny, which was produced in his school. Dio. G. cf. i. 15-17, notes. M. vii. 160-170. Tac. D. de Or. 35. Sen. Contr. vii. Quint. Decl. et Instit. II. x. 4. Petr. i. R. note on 204. pueros magistri in classes distribuebant et iis ordinem dicendi secundum vires ingenii dabant; Quint. i. 2. PR.

152. What the class sit down and learn by reading over, that they stand up and repeat; the very same lines in the same tone and twang.' ACH. cantilenam eandem canentes; Ter. Phor. III. ii. 10. R. οἱ αὐτοὶ περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν τοῖς αὐτοῖς τὰ airá an author quoted by GR.

145. Basilus; x. 222. R. 'Rare' in the vulgar opinion, not in reality. sæpe est etiam sub palliolo sordido sapientia; Cæcil. Cic. T. Q. iii. 56. PR. cf. viii. 47 sqq. R.

146. Cf. Cic. Verr. 3. for Font. 17 &c. PR.

154. There was a Greek proverb: dis xgáμßn lávatos. V'S. • warmed-up cabbage.' M.

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155 Quis color et quod sit causæ genus atque ubi summa
Quæstio, quæ veniant diversæ forte sagittæ,
Nosse velint omnes, mercedem solvere nemo.

"Mercedem appellas? quid enim scio ?" Culpa docentis Scilicet arguitur, quod læva in parte mamillæ 160 Nil salit Arcadico juveni, cujus mihi sexta

Quaque die miserum dirus caput Hannibal implet;
Quidquid id est, de quo deliberat, an petat Urbem
A Cannis, an post nimbos et fulmina cautus
Circumagat madidas a tempestate cohortes.
165 "Quantum vis stipulare, et protenus accipe, quod do,
Ut toties illum pater audiat." Ast alii sex
Et plures uno conclamant ore Sophistæ

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155. Color; vi. 280. PR. or 'the ornaments of diction.' LU. Cic. Oг. III. 25.52. R.

Genus: either deliberative, or demonstrative, or judicial. LU. Quint. iii. 4. PR. Cic. Inv. i. 5. 15. R.

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The upshot of the matter,' 'the main jet of the question,' G. that on which the case hinges.' SCH. Quint. iii. 5 sq. Cic. Inv. i. 6. 8 sqq. R.

156. The shafts and shots of the adversary.' LU. By the same metaphor we have Martem forensem; Ov. Pont. IV. vi. 29. peroraturus, stricturum se lucubrationis suæ telum, minabatur; Suet. Cal. 53. See v. 173. R.

158. Those who have given the most trouble, are most likely to demur at paying.

159. Cur animalibus ceteris in medio pectore est, homini tantum infra laevam papillum; Plin. XI. 37 s 69. PR. Pers. ii. 53. cor aliis animus videtur; ex quo excordes, vecordes, concordes que dicuntur, et Nasica ille prudens Corculu um, et egregie cordatus homo catus Ælius Sextus: Empedocles animum esse censet, cordi suffusum sanguinem alii in cerebro dixerunt animi esse sedem et locum; Cic. T. Q. i. 9. R.

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160. There is no life or animation.' cor tibi rite salit; Pers. iii. 111. Sen. Thy. 756. R.

Arcadia was celebrated for its breed of asses; Pers. iii. 9. PR. Varr. R. R. II. i. 14. Plin. viii. 43 s 68. Plaut. Asin. II. ii. 67. but not for the wits of its natives:

Philostr. iii. whence the proverb 'Agnádiov
Bλάornua, an Arcadian sprig.' BRO.
SCO. R.

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161. Regularly once a week.' Suet. Tib. 32. (CAS.) R.

Sent by the wrath of heaven (dirus i.e. deorum ira) to be the dread of Rome (Hor. III Od. vi. 36. IV Od. iv. 42. R.) and the scourge of schoolmasters.'

Whose declamation in the person of Hannibal;' vi. 170. PR. x. 167. R.

162 sqq. According to Maharbal's advice. Liv. xxii. 51. xxvi. 7-11. Polyb. ix. 3 sqq. Sil. xii. 489—xiii. 93. LU. PR. R.

163. Cf. ii. 155. PR.

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165. Stipulate for,' opposed to spondebo. ER.

The schoolmaster offers to place any stake in the hands of a third person, to be paid the parent conditionally: • The father can have no conception of the task he has imposed on his son's preceptor. Let him just make the experiment. I am sure no sum of money would induce him to go on week after week hearing such a dull blockhead.' There were certain days, on which the parents came with their friends, to hear their sons recite speeches at school. Quint. ii. 7. x. 5. Pers. iii. 47. PR. M. R.

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167. The whole pack are giving tongue at the same time;' either as barristers, or in running down the intolerable hardships of a sophist's life. PR.

Sophista professors of rhetoric and the belles lettres.' Cic. Acad. iv. 23. Fin. ii. 1. R.

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Et veras agitant lites, raptore relicto;

Fusa venena silent, malus ingratusque maritus,
170,
0 Et quæ jam veteres sanant mortaria cæcos.
Ergo sibi dabit ipse rudem, si nostra movebunt
Consilia, et vitæ diversum iter ingredietur,
Ad pugnam qui rhetorica descendit ab umbra,
Summula ne pereat, qua vilis tessera venit
175 Frumenti: quippe hæc merces lautissima. Tenta,
Chrysogonus quanti doceat vel Pollio quanti
Lautorum pueros, artem scindens Theodori.
Balnea sexcentis et pluris porticus, in qua
Gestetur dominus, quoties pluit.

Anne serenum

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168. Abandoning fictitious disputations.' LU.

Raptor; e. g. Paris, who carried off Helen; Jason, who carried off Medea. LU. cf. Sen. Controv. Quint. Declam. PR.

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169. Poison, such as that mixed by Medea for Creusa, the youthful bride of Jason, her faithless and ungrateful hus band, (LU. Sen. Cont. ii. 5. PR.) is no longer heard of. R.

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170. The drugs which promised to restore to all the faculties of youth the blind and aged Pelias.' Ov. M. vii. 297-349. LU. Hygin. 24. Diodor. IV. 51 sq. R.

171. Cf. vi. 113. PR. Mart. III. xxxvi. 10. R.

The sophist indeed, if he followed my advice, would not rush into a Scylla (cf. 106-149.) to escape from a Charybdis; but would strike out into a quite different line of life.' R. cf, tenta, &c. 175 $q9:

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173. Cf. Sen. Contr. iii. præf. R. 174. The poorer citizens were furnished monthly, on the nones, by the magistrates with a small tablet' of lead or wood; which, on being presented to the keepers of the public granaries, entitled the bearers to a certain quantity of corn,' either gratis, or upon some small payment: Tac. A. xv. 39. These tallies, as appears from the text, were transferable: those who were not in want of corn disposed of them for a trifling sum.' LU. LI. Pers. v. 73 sq. (K.) PR. cf. Suet. Aug. 42. Cæs. 41. (CAS.) Dio xliii. 21. lx. 10. Or vilis frumenti of damaged corn.' K. R.

175. For this is the utmost return they have to expect.' R. lautissima, with reference to lautos just below, may be a sneer at the paltry pittance which noblemen devoted to the education of their sons: a right honourable remuneration truly!'

176. Chrysogonus, vi. 74. was a favourite singer, and Pollio, vi. 387. a favourite musician; both of them men of loose principles. Theodorus (according to Hesychius) was an infamous profligate. 'The wealthy nobles place their sons, at an enormous expense, under the tuition of this singing-master and this musicmaster, from whom they learn every thing that is bad.' ACH. See note on vi. 452. He says the Art' of Theodorus ; because Theodorus of Gadara, an eminent rhetorician in the reign of Tiberius, (Suet. 57. Quint. iii. 1. 11. i. 12. iv. 2. Strab. xiii. p. 625. xvi. p. 759. Lucian in Macrob.) wrote several works. PR. R.

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180 Exspectet spargatque luto jumenta recenti?

Hic potius: namque hic mundæ nitet ungula mulæ.

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Parte alia longis Numidarum fulta columnis
Surgat et algentem rapiat cœnatio solem.
Quanticumque domus, veniet, qui fercula docte
185 Componat; veniet, qui pulmentaria condat.
Hos inter sumtus sestertia Quintiliano,
Ut multum, duo sufficient. Res nulla minoris
Constabit patri, quam filius. "Unde igitur tot
Quintilianus habet saltus?" Exempla novorum
190 Fatorum transi: felix et pulcer et acer;
Felix et sapiens et nobilis et generosus
Appositam nigræ lunam subtexit alutæ :

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182. Columnas ultima recisas Africa; Hor. II Od. xviii. 4 sqq. LU. Plin. xxxvi. 6. PR. Id. v. 3. Stat. S. I. v. 36. (B.) R. Id. quoted in the note on iii. 258.

183. The rich had different dining parlours, according to the different seasons of the year. Varr. L. L. iv. cf. Suet. Aug. 72. Ner. 31. CAS. Col. i. 5 sq. Plin. Ep. I. xvii. 10 sqq. R. This saloon caught the cool sun; i. e. either the winter's sun by a southern aspect, or the early summer's sun by an eastern one. PR.

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184. "Cost these whatever sum, Cooks and confectioners are yet to come." G. Fercula; i. 94. docte componat; cf. v. 120 sqq. R.

moderate fortune. vi. 32. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the different circumstances of the two writers. What appeared immense to Juvenal, might be far from seeming so to such a wealthy man as Pliny. It is satisfactory, however, to know, that this amiable and virtuous character experienced none of the neglect and poverty which overwhelmed so many of his brethren. G. R. He taught rhetoric for twenty years; he was also the first who opened a public school at Rome; and he had an annual salary from the treasury, of more than £800. cf. Mart. II. xc. Cassiodor. LU. R. G.

189. Instances of unprecedented good fortune.' T.

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185. Pulmentaria' victuals' in general: so called from puls, which the Romans long used instead of bread. Pers. vi. 40. Cic. T. Q. v. 90. PR. xiv. 171. Plin. xviii. 8. R.

186. Little more than £16 per annum, to the first-rate rhetorician. vi. 280. R. and 75. G.

187. At the outside.' The whole of this passage, from v. 178. seems an imitation of Crates the Theban: ritu μα· γείρῳ μνᾶς δέκα, ἰατρῷ δραχμὴν κόλακι τάλαντα δίκα, συμβούλῳ καπνὸν πόρνη TúλuvTov, Qiλorópy giúßoλov Eph. in his Life by Laert. GR.

188. Filius the education of a son.'

Juvenal instances Quintilian as a rich man, while Pliny, in a letter which does equal honour to himself and his master, (for such Quintilian was,) talks of his

190. He is lucky; and luck is every thing: if a man has but luck, he has all goods, corporeal, intellectual, and external.' LU. cf. Hor. I Ep. i. 106 sqq. I S. iii. 121 sq. R.

192. Senators had black shoes of tanned leather; the form was somewhat like a short boot, reaching nearly to the middle of the leg, as they are sometimes seen in statues and bas-reliefs; with a crescent, or the letter C, in front of them ; because the original number of senators was one hundred. VS. FA. G. Plut. Q. R. PR. This moon was a silver or ivory buckle worn above the

instep: τὸ σύμβολον τῆς εὐγενείας περιηρσημένος τῷ ὑποδήματι τοῦτο δὲ ἐστιν ἐπισφύριον ἐλεφάντινον μηνοειδές· Philostr. V. Her. ii. 8. p. 55. (OL.) Marcellus derives the origin of this ornament from

Felix, orator quoque maximus et jaculator; Etsi perfrixit, cantat bene. Distat enim, quæ 195 Sidera te excipiant modo primos incipientem Edere vagitus et adhuc a matre rubentem. Si Fortuna volet, fies de rhetore consul: Si volet hæc eadem, fies de consule rhetor. Ventidius quid enim? quid Tullius? anne aliud, quam

the Tuscans (cf. SV, on Virg. Æ. viii. 458.), and from Mercury, who, in rescuing Eneas from the Greeks, placed ἀστερόεντα περὶ σφυρὰ πέδιλα, τὰ λέγουσι xai Equáwra Cogñvar à dì of wegì morì σαωτὴς παμφανόων ἐνέκειτο σεληναίης κύxãos alyans v. 23 sqq. in Br. At. t. ii. p. 302 sq. non hesterna sedet lunata lingula planta; Mart. II. xxix. 7. Of new nobles, the saying was: où rhv suyivuaviv Tais dσrgayáλais xus. J. Ov. Her. ix. 60. (H.) R.

Nigris medium impediit crus pellibus, et latum demisit pectore clavum Hor. I S. vi. 27 sq. PR. Yet Martial has coccina cingit aluta pedem; II. xxix. 8. and Ovid, speaking of a lady, nivea aluta; A. A. iii. 271. (H). cf. also Vopisc. Aur.

49. Plin. ix. 17. FE. R.

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198. Valerius Licinianus, LU. a most eloquent speaker, was expelled the senate, about this time, on suspicion of an incestuous intrigue with the vestal Cornelia, (ii. 29, note) and banished into Sicily, where he set up a school; erul de senatore, rhetor de oratore factus. His opening speech is very like the above distich:

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Quos tibi, Fortuna, ludos facis? Facis enim ex professoribus senatores, ex senatoribus professores!" Plin. Ep. iv. 11. PR. G. cf. eund. vii. 42 sqq. R. Our times afford more extraordinary instances of the sport of Fortune. ACH. The present king of the French, Louis-Philippe, once kept a school.

199. P. Ventidius Bassus was born at Asculum in the Picenian territory, and led in triumph, with his mother, among the captives taken in the Social War by Cn. Pomp. Strabo, father of Pompey the Great. He became an errand-boy, next a wagoner, then a muleteer, a soldier, centurion, and (by the influence of Cæsar and the two Antonii) tribune of the people, prætor, and, in the same year, pontiff and consul. He obtained a splendid triumph (201.) over the Parthians, and, finally, was honoured with a public funeral. His elevation to the consulship was considered, at the time, as an extraordinary event, and gave rise to many sarcastic effusions. One of these is come down to us: concurrite omnes augures, aruspices! portentum inusitatum conflatum est recens; nam mulos qui fricabat consul factus est. Time, however, which does justice to merit, established his claims and silenced, perhaps shamed, his enemies. V. Max. vi. 9 sq. Cic. Ep. Fam. 10. Gell. xv. 4. Plin. vii. 43. Plut. V. Ant. t. i. p. 931. Dio xlviii sq. App. B. C. i. 47. (SW.) iii. 66. 80. iv. 2. v. 31–35. 50. 65. B. P. 71-74. VS. LU. PR. R. G.

195. The stars which preside over the natal hour make all the difference.' LU. vi. 553, note; sqq. R. 570, notes. Pers. v. 45 sqq. PR. ix. 32 sqq. M. Some, according to the proverb, are "born with a gold spoon in their mouth."

196. A new-born infant looks red, owing to its thin and tender skin. PR. BRO.

197. Natura, fatum, fortuna, casus, unius et ejusdem Dei nomina sunt; Sen. LU. cf. iii. 39 sq. R.

Quintilianus, consularia per Clementem ornamenta sortitus, honestamenta nominis potius videtur quam insignia potestatis habuisse; Aus. Gr. Act. p. 712. Frontonem Antonini Augusti magistrum consulatus ornavit; ibid. PR. Suet. de Ill. Rh. 1. Ausonius himself was advanced to the consulship (in a succeeding age) by his pupil Gratian, A.D. 379. ibid. G.

Servius Tullius, who was born of a female slave, succeeded Tarquin the Elder, LU. and was the sixth and the last

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