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Impériumi, fasces, legiones, omnia, nunc se
80 Continet atque duas tantum res anxius optat,

Panem et Circenses." Perituros audio multos.'
« Nil dubium;" màgna 'est fornacula: pallidulus mî
Brutidius meus ad Martis fuit obvius aram.

Quam timeo, victus ne poenas exigat 'Ajax,
85 Ut male defensus! Curramus præcipites et, te

Dum jacet in ripa, calcemus Cæsaris hostem.
Sed videant servi, ne quis neget et pavidum in jus

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a considerable degree of influence, and had hitherto been permitted to retain. G. nominally gave, or rather sold, their FA. cf. Tac. An. i. 15. (LI.) R. suffrages, till the days of Julius Cæsar. • It has lost all interest.' The metaThat they were ripe for the slavery phor is taken from a person emptying a which awaited them, cannot be denied; vessel, by pouring out the liquor. M. for such was their corruption and rapa. Sen. de Íra ii. 35. in Epist. 11. Cic. ad city, that they only enquired which of Div. i. 9, 54. R. the candidates would bribe highest. 79. Omnia ; Sulp. 38. Phædr. IV. Cæsar, however, did not directly deprive xxiii. 5. (BU.) R. the people of their suffrages; he only 80. Note on iii. 223. PR. cf. Tac. A. took the nomination of the consuls upon i. 2. R. himself, and left the choice, or rather the 81. • Bread:' vii. 174 sq. PR. sale, of the inferior magistracies to them, • Many.' cf. Dio lviii. 7 sq. Suet. Tib. upon condition that he should have the 61. R. recommendation to one half! Suetonius 82. • It is a large little furnace,' LU. R. has preserved his congé d'élire, and a capable of holding many an image beside very curious one it is: Cæsar Dictator Sejanus's. M. 61. PR. Illi Tribui. Commendo vobis illum, et Looking palish.' illum, ut vestro suffragio suam dignitatem 83. Brulidius Niger, the rhetorician teneant; Cæs. 41. 19. Aug. 40. (CAS.) and historian, was an intimate friend of These recommendations were never over. Sejanus, and included in the sentence of looked: : preces erant, sed quibus contradici death. Tac. A. iii. 66. Sen. Suas. vii. non possit ; Tac. Augustus seems some- PR. what to have enlarged the power of the Of Mars the avenger,' SCH. in the people, which was again 'abridged by forum of Augustus. Suet. Aug. 29. R. l'iberius, or rather taken quite away; 84. Ajax (vii. 115. PR. xiv. 286. R.) neque, says the historian, with honest in- here means the emperor. Suet. Tib. 61 dignation, populus ademtum jus questus sq.

· Lest in a fit of disappointment, he est, nisi inani rumore. Caligula, in a fit should wreak dire vengeance on those, by of popularity, showed symptoms of re- whom he may consider that his honour establishing them in a part of their rights, had been but inadequately vindicated.' which however came to nothing : this PR. There is also an indirect reproach was the last effort their favour, and to the Romans for their submitting to from this period they gradually, and in- be butchered : R. like so many sheep; deed deservedly, sunk into insignificance Hor. II S. iii. 197. and contempt. It argues great courage 86. Αυτός ο όμιλος τρισίν όλαις ημεραίς in our author to reproach the Romans for έλυμήνατο, και μετά τούτο ες τον ποταμών their supineness; and must have been traßens. Dio lviii. SCH. cf. 66. R. highly offensive to their rulers. About This was a common method of insultthis, however, he appears to be little ing over the fallen. Hom. Il. N 618. solicitous ; nay, much of what he says Soph. El. Aj. Anacr. xlvi. 6. Arist. Eq. here is immediately levelled at Trajan, 596. R. quicumque amisit dignitatem priswho had, about this time, transferred to tinam, ignavis etiam jocus est in casu gravi; the Senate, or rather to himself, the very Phædr. 1. xxi. (Livy xxiii, 43, 3. ED.) trifling degree of power which the people 87. Servants often turned informers

Cervice obstricta dominum trahat.” Hi sermones Etre

Tunc de Sejano, secreta hæc murmura vulgi. 90 Visne salutari, sicut Sejanus? habere

Tantumdem ? atque illi summas donare curules? u koja bine adinu

Illum exercitibus præponere? "tutor haberice,
Principis angusta Caprearum in rupe sedentis, see, et ea

Hal habiente
Cum grege Chaldæo? Vis certe pila, cohortes,
95 Egregios equites, et castra domestica ? Quidni

against their masters, VS. in cases of high Tiberius, who, at a former period, had treason, the only circumstances under driven the astrologers out of Italy, nay, which their evidence was admissible put some of them to death, should in the against them. Tac. A. ii. 28. cf. Dio decline of life, have secluded himself Ixviii. p. 769. decreta accusatoribus præ- from the world to enjoy their society cipua præmia, nonnumquam et testibus: without molestation; but his conduct may nemini delatorum fides abrogata: omne be accounted for, from the condition of crimen pro capitali receptum, etiam pauco. human nature. The multiplied cruelties rum simpliciumque verborum; Suei. Tib. that followed the fall of Sejanus, though 61. ήρκει γαρ μόνον προς κατηγορίαν τινός they could not appease the ferocity, had Gò Too Escavoü piawait ysvíobai i dočar yet alarmed the conscience, of this exeXiph. Tib. R.

crable monster : anguish and despair took 88. Those who were taken up and possession of all his thoughts, and if we dragged before the magistrates, had a could for a moment suppose the damned chain or halter fastened round their neck: permitted to make their“ eternal blazon as felons among us are brought to trial to ears of flesh and blood,”(Shaksp.Ham. with gyves or fetters on their legs. M. I. v.) we could not image terms of deeper

90. ' To have the same court paid to horror for them, than those with which you as to Sejanus ?' R.

he begins one of his letters to the senate: 91. Understand sellas: thus major Quid scribam vobis, P. C. ? aut quomodo curulis ; Stat. S. I. iv. 82. R. cf. Gell. scribam ? aut quid omnino non scribarn, iii. 18. Cic. Cat. iv. init. cui libet is hoc tempore ? Dii me Deæque pejus perfasces dabit eripietque curule cui volet dant, quam quotidie perire sentio, si scio. importunus ebur; Hor. 1 Ep. vi. 53 sq. Suet.67. In this state, afflicted at the past, PR.

dissatisfied with the present,and trembling 92. Tutor' regent' for Tiberius, LU. for the future, his enfeebled and disand also · his guardian and protector ;' tracted mind clung for relief to the as though the emperor were too childish wretched impostures of astrology, which to administer his own affairs, M. and it had formerly rejected ; and endeacompletely under the thumb of his voured to divert the evils of to-day, by favourite. R.

vague and senseless researches into the 93. Capreas se contulit, præcipue delec- destiny of to-morrow. The strange intatus insula, quod uno parvoque litore consistency of atheism has been else. adirctur, sepla undique præruptis im- where noticed; Tiberius is a striking mensæ altitudinis rupibus et profundo proof of it. G. maris; Suet. 40. Tac. A. iv. 67. PR. Pila may bere denote the lucrative He spent the last seven years of his life and honourable post of standardthere. R.

bearer, xiv. 197. which was held by the Sedentis, cf. Suet. 43. HE. Mart. V. centurion of the first century of the first lxxi. 3. sola and xafñolas are used in maniple of the Triarii or' veterans,' who speaking of an indolent and obscure life. were armed with the pilum or javelin.' Tyrt. p. 143. (KL.) R.

AD. Sil. iv. 550. R. 94. Cf. vi. 553. PR. 576. Suet. Tib. • Cohorts,' i. 58. R. 14. 69. LU. Τιβέριος έμπειρότατος διά 95. Egregios equites: cf. vii. 89. R. των άστρων μαντικής ήν Dioylvii. R. Castra domestica i. e. the command of

It may seem a little extraordinary that 'the prætorian bands.' VS. cf. viii. 43.

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ferrari Cike Hæc cupias? et, qui nolunt occidere quemquam,

is to sound with in lier the Ot rebus lætis pár sit mensura malorum?

Posse volunt. Sed quæ præclara et prospera tanti,

Hujus, qui trahitur, prætextam súmere mavis,
100 An Fidenarum Gabiorumque esse potestas

Et de mensura jus dicere, vasa minora
Frangére pannosus vacuis dilis Ulubris ?
Ergo quid optandum foret, ignorasse fateris

Sejanum: nam qui nimios optabat honores emissivad
105"Ét nimias poscebat opes, numerosa parabat in

Excelsæ turris tabulata, unde altior esset
Casus et impulsæ præceps immane ruinæ.

Quid Crassos, quid Pompeios evertit, et illum, dir's lede na lat

Ad sua qui domitos deduxit flagra Quirites?
110 Summus nempe locus nulla non arte petitus

Magnaque numinibus vota exaudita malignis.
Ad generum Cereris sine cæde et vulnere pauci

Tac. A. iv. 2. Suet. Tib. 37. Xiph. Dio. debted to Menander örev 89 7895 Teo's

ύψος ήρμίνον τινά, λαμπρώς τα πλούτω
98. Ut even though. R.

και γένει γαυρούμενον, οφρύν το μείζω της
100. Cf. ii. 192. vi. 56 sq. pr. Hor. Turns irnexóta coúrow razimy vinicio
I Ep. xi. 7 sqq. R.

ευθύς προσδόκα, επαίρεται γαρ μείζον, ίνα
Potestas; Cic. T. Q. i. 30. Suet. Cæs. usilov tion G.
17. CI. 23. R.

108. Ct. Sen. Ep. 94. M. Licinius
101. Pers. i. 130 sq. (CAS.) LU. Crassus and his son Publius fell, in the

102. iii. 162. PR. Juvenal delights Parthian war, sacrifices to their avarice
to make himself merry at the expense of rather than their ambition; App. H.
the plebeian ædiles. They were chosen, Parth. 22–65. Plut. Crass. PR. R. G.
as their name imports, out of the com- Cn. Pompeius Magnus and his two sons
mons, and had the care of weights and Cnæus and Sextus. PR. App. B. C. ii.
measures, of markets and provisions, the 81–86. 104 sqq. v. 142
determination of petty cases, the inspec- 109. C. Julius Cæsar, who fell in the
tion of the roads, the overseeing of the senate-house, pierced with bree and
theatres, &c. In little municipalities, twenty wounds. LU. In the times of
they were probably the only magistrates the republic, it was unlawful to scourge'
We have nothing precisely like them in a Roman citizen. FA. Acts xxii. 25 sqq.
this country; but in the Italian villages, 110. According to Cicero, Cæsar al-
they still subsist, as ragged and conse- ways had in his moutlı that saying of
quential as ever, G. under the ancient Euripides: si jus violandum, regnandi
Dame of Podestà. M.

gratia violundum est, cæteris rebus pieta-
Ulubris; Hor. I E. xi. 30. PR. tem colas. SCH.

106. Jam non ad culmina rerum injus- 111. Eo vota inimicitiora, quo cessere tos crevisse queror : tolluntur in altum, ut felicius: inde muligni dii, qui nos exlapsu graviore ruant : Claud. Ruf. i. 21 audierunt, ut, quum ad summa erecti, $79. PR. is Toroht di iTaipsodov es iv in profundum detruderent; Sen. Ep. αφ' υψηλοτέρου αλγεινότερον καταπεσού. 60. R. Compare Spectator No. 207. perves Luc. Cont. 14. K. celsæ graviore 112. Pluto's queen, Proserpine, was casu decidunt turres; Hor. II Od. x. 10 the daughter of 'Jupiter and Ceres. LU. sq. R. Horace himself was perbaps in M.

$99. R.

Descendunt reges et sicca morte tyranni.

Eloquium ac famam Demosthenis aut Ciceronis 115 Incipit optare et totis Quinquatribus optat,

Quisquis adhuc uno partam colit asse Minervam,
Quem sequitur custos angustæ vötnutá capsæ. 1. Latek 'neuro


he Eloquio sed uterque perît orator: utrumque

Largus et exundans leto dedit ingenií fons. 120 Ingenio manus est et cervix cæsa; nec umquam

afmaga Sanguine causidici maduerunt rostra pusilli. 6 O fortunatam natam me consule Romam !"


113. • By a bloodless (i.e. a natural) litter, he bade hiin take what he wanted. death.' VS. ut ferrum Marte cruentum, The ungrateful wretch cut off his head siccum pace, feras; Claud. L. Stil. ii. and his hands, and carried them to 15 sq. (K.) R.

Antony, who rewarded him for the 115. The quinquatria was a festival agreeable present with a civic crown! (instituted by Domitian, FA.) in honour and a large sum of money. The head of Minerva, Vs. as the patroness of arts was fixed on the Rostra, between the two and sciences. It began on March the 19th, hands, (where, as we find from Florus, and lasted, as the name imports, for five the people ran as eagerly to see his days, during which the schools were shut relics, as formerly to hear his eloquence,) up. G. M. Ov. F. ini. 809 sqq. vi. 651 sqq. a piece of impotent revenge, which, not (H.) Gell. ii. 21. Suet. Dom. 4. PR. long after, recoiled on the author of it. Hor. II Ep. ii. 197. R.

Speaking of Antonius (the grandfather of 116. ' The boy at the bottom of the the triumvir), who fell in the bloody school, who has not yet paid his annual proscription of Sylla, Cicero has an ob. compliment to the master more than servation of striking singularity: in his once.' M. R. This fee was called Mi- ipsis rostris in quibus ille rempublicam connerval, and was presented at the above stantissime consul defenderat, positum cafestival. Pallucu nunc pueri teneræque put illud fuit, a quo erant multorum ornate puellæ : qui bene placarit Pallada, civium capita servata! Never could it be doctus erit ; Ov. F. ii. 815 sq. PR. more truly said, mutato nomine, de te

117. This is a very natural image of fabula nurratur, Hor. I S. i. 69 sq. G. little master, going to schcol with a ser. 'LU. Plut. Ant. and Cic. Quint. Decl. vant lad (called capsur ius) to carry his cclxix. Sen. Suas. vii. R. satchel of books after him. M. PO. Suet. 121. Minus in parvos fortuna furit, Ner. 36. PR. The expressions vernula modicisque rebus longius ævum est. LU. and angustæ are to denote that this aspi- Naves Antiatium partim in navalia rant after eloquence was a mere child. Romæ subductæ ; partim incensa, rostrisR.

que earum suggestum in foro exstructum 118. Gell. xv, 28. PR.

adornari placuit; rostra que id templum 119. Cf. jii. 74. R.

appellatum; Liv. viii. 14. PR. This spot 120. Ingenio; the abstract for the con- was in front of the Curia Hostilia. . crete. R.

122. This is a verse of Cicero's on the Cicero was murdered by the second occasion of the discovery and suppression triumvirate. Antony, whom Juvenal sup- of Catiline's conspiracy. It is conposes to have been particularly irritated demned for its cacophony. Quint. IX. by the second Philippic, despatched a iv. 4. LU. XI. i. Sen. Decl. iii. de I. ii. band of assassins after him, who overtook 37. Diomed. ii. R. “ How fortunate him as he was proceeding to the sea-side. a natal day was thine, In that proud He made no resistance, but looking sternly consulate, O Rome, of mine !" . This on the leader, C. Popilius Lenas, whose line, or some one like it, was made the life he had formerly saved, and thrusting subject of ridicule during the author's his neck as forward as he could out of the life: he was not, however, ashamed of


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Antonî gladios potuit contemnere, si sic

Omnia dixisset. Ridenda poemata malo,

125 Quam te conspicuæ, divina Philippica, famæ, He ser tk Volveris a prima quæ proxima.

a prima quæ proxima. Sævus et illum aererei and og Exitus eripuit, quem mirabantur Atheninterna

Torrentem et pleni moderantem frena theatri. uuedes llac Cated "Dís ille adversis genitus fatoque sinistro,

130 Quem pater ardentis massæ fuligine lippus


the sentiment, for he repeats it in prose : at defiance the swords of Antony.' LU
0 Nonæ Decembres! que me consule contemsi Catilinæ gladios, non per-
fuistis, ego diem vere natalem hujus urbis, timescum tuos; Cic. Phil. ii. 46. PR. cf.
&c. Or. for Flac. In the second Phi. Tac. A. ii. 34, 6. Hor. Ep. iv. 16. R.
lippic, after severely retorting upon An. 125. Cicero called his fourteen orations
tony, he adds, nec vero tibi de versibus against Antony, not Antonians, but
respondebo; tantum dicam breviter neque Philippics, after those of Demosthenes
illos, neque ullus te omnino literas nosse. against Philip of Macedon. BRI. PR.
This is the reply churlish, when, in- Cic. Alt. ii. 1. M.
stead of answering an adversary, you dis- 126. Volveris, in allusion to the rolled
able his judgement:" what he subjoins, volumes of the ancients. xiv. 102. M.
however, is a noble apology for his A prima prorima ' the second.' LU. cf.
lighter studies. It may be doubted whe- alter ab undecimo annus ; Virg. E. viii. 39.
ther Cicero's poetry, generally speaking, 127. Exitus ; Lucr. iji. 1099. R.
deserves the epithet (ridenda) which On the approach of the Macedonian
Juvenal is pleased to affix to it: the army under Antipater one of Philip's
verse in question, indeed, has long been generals, Demosthenes Aed from Athens
the jest of small wits, and even the and sought asylum at a temple of Nep-

mousing Martial hawks at it;" but tune near Calabria in Thrace. Being
there are many vigorous and elegant pursued thither, he poisoned himself.
passages scattered amongst his works: FA. VS. Plut. PR.
after all, perhaps, it was the me consule, 128. Orations were often delivered to
and not the -natam natam, the vanity, and the people in the theatres : see Acts xix.
not the jingle, of the verse which pro- 29-31. FA. Agathocles veluti reipublicæ
voked the sneers of his contemporaries. statum formaturus, populum in thea-
When Juvenal wrote, however, pero trum ad concionem vocari jubet ; Just.
sonality and envy had long been extinct; xxii. PR. Tac. H. ii. 80. (LI.) C. Nep.
and he evidently diverts himself with the Tim. 4. (HAR.) ER, CI. Cic. qui Pan-
want of taste, which could permit so dionium movebat arte orator caveam tumulo
many similar sounds to be crowded into tuosus, seu luscum ruperetur in Philippum,
the compass of a single line. To confess causam seu Ctesiphontis, actilaret, vir sem-
the truth, there appears, in many parts of per popularitate crescens et juste residens
Cicero's works, a predilection for trifles of in arte fandi; Sidon. xxiii. 136 sqq. R.
this kind, derived, perhaps, from his long 129. Pers, iv, 27. Hor. II S. ii. 8.
acquaintance with the rhetoricians and 123. vii. 14. R.
grammarians of Greece. Middleton has 130. The father was a sword-cutler in
laboured to establish his poetical charac- large business, and kept two and twenty
ter : Plutarch, he says, reckons Cicero men in constant employ. VS. FA. x kein
among the most eminent of the Roman των καλών και αγαθών ανδρών ως ιστοριά
poets; but Plutarch's judgement, in this @sótoutos: is!xdarīto od fle le xurgo
matter, is of no great weight. Had he ποιος, εργαστήριον έχων μέγα και δούλους
not been the first of orators, no one would rixvíras TOŪTO ageTTONTUS. Plut.
have been unjust enough to style him the V. Max. iii. 4. est. 2. PR. cf. xii. 44 sq.
last of poets. G.

M. Sidon. ii. 23. 188. R.
123.* Had Cicero's oratory been no Opifices, per quorum manus sterile
better than his poetry, he might have set terræ genus et informe perpurgatur, multa

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